SEARCH TERMS
Suggested Terms

Want to better focus your search?
Upgrade to a account to unlock 5 additional filters (including Entity Type), search inside of entities, and more!
Which are the top organizations worldwide?
Top organizations by Linknovate score
Brookhaven National Laboratory
391.1 score | records 79
Air Liquide
269.5 score | records 38
Yonsei University
238.9 score | records 40
Korea Institute of Energy Research
203.7 score | records 44
Where are the main hubs located?
What are the most relevant records?
Top records by Linknovate score

Patent
Toyota Motor Corporation | Date: 2017-04-26

The present invention provides a deterioration diagnosis apparatus for an exhaust gas purification apparatus, including a first sensor that measures the oxygen concentration of the exhaust gas flowing into the exhaust gas purification apparatus, a second sensor that measures the oxygen concentration of the exhaust gas flowing out of the exhaust gas purification apparatus, and diagnosing means for diagnosing deterioration of the exhaust gas purification apparatus on the basis of a difference that appears between a measurement value of the first sensor and a measurement value of the second sensor when the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas flowing into the exhaust gas purification apparatus is switched from a lean air-fuel ratio to a rich air-fuel ratio, wherein, when the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas is switched from a lean air-fuel ratio to a rich air-fuel ratio, a water-gas shift reaction is generated upstream of the first sensor.

...

A method for producing a purified carbon dioxide product suitable for EOR and surplus electricity uses a vaporous hydrocarbon feed and a SOFC system. A SOFC system includes a condensate removal system, an acid gas removal system, a hydrodesulfurization system, a sorption bed system, a pre-reformer, a solid oxide fuel cell, a CO2 separations system and a CO2 dehydration system operable to form the purified carbon dioxide product, where the SOFC system is operable to produce surplus electricity from the electricity produced by the solid oxide fuel cell. A method of operating the pre-reformer to maximize the internal reforming capacity of a downstream solid oxide fuel cell uses a pre-reformer fluidly coupled on the upstream side of a solid oxide fuel cell. A method of enhancing hydrocarbon fluid recovery from a hydrocarbon-bearing formation using a SOFC system.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for producing a purified carbon dioxide product suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and surplus electricity from a vaporous hydrocarbon feed, the SOFC system comprising: a condensate removal system that is operable to receive the vaporous hydrocarbon feed and to separate higher-carbon compounds from the vaporous hydrocarbon feed to form a dry sour gas; an acid gas removal system that fluidly couples to the condensate removal system and is operable to extract hydrogen sulfide from the dry sour gas to form a dry sweet gas; a hydrodesulfurization system that fluidly couples to the acid gas removal system and is operable to convert heterorganic compounds in the dry sweet gas using hydrogen in the presence of a hydrotreating catalyst into compounds that absorb onto a sorption bed material to form a treated process gas; a sorption bed system that fluidly couples to the hydrodesulfurization system and is operable to extract compounds that absorb onto the sorption bed material from the treated process gas to form a desulfurized process gas; a pre-reformer that fluidly couples to the sorption bed system and is operable to convert non-methane alkanes in the desulfurized process gas using steam in the presence of an active pre-reforming catalyst into methane and carbon oxides to form a reformed process gas; a solid oxide fuel cell that fluidly couples to the pre-reformer and is operable to convert methane in the reformed process gas using oxygen in the presence of a reforming catalyst and an electrochemical conversion catalyst into carbon dioxide and water to form an anode off-gas and producing electricity; a CO2 separations system that fluidly couples to the solid oxide fuel cell and is operable to extract carbon dioxide from the anode off-gas to form a carbon dioxide-rich gas; and a CO2 dehydration system that fluidly couples to the CO2 separations system and is operable to extract water from the carbon dioxide-rich gas to form the purified carbon dioxide product; where the SOFC system is operable to produce surplus electricity from the electricity produced by the solid oxide fuel cell.

2. The SOFC system of claim 1 further comprising a water-gas shift reactor system that fluidly couples to the solid oxide fuel cell on the downstream side and is operable to convert carbon monoxide in the anode off-gas using water in the presence of a water-gas shift catalyst into carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form a shifted anode off-gas, where the CO2 separations system fluidly couples to the water-gas shift reactor system instead of the solid oxide fuel cell and is operable to extract carbon dioxide from the shifted anode-off gas of the water-gas shift reactor system instead of the anode-off gas of the solid oxide fuel cell to form the carbon dioxide-rich gas.

3. The SOFC system of claim 1 where the acid gas removal system additionally is operable to extract carbon dioxide from the dry sour gas to form a carbon dioxide-rich gas and where the CO2 dehydration system additionally fluidly couples to the acid gas removal system and is operable to extract carbon dioxide from the carbon dioxide-rich gas from the acid gas removal system.

4. The SOFC system of claim 1 where the CO2 separations system additionally is operable to form a hydrogen-rich gas, and where the hydrodesulfurization system additionally fluidly couples to the CO2 separations system and is operable to use hydrogen-rich gas from the CO2 separation system as a source of hydrogen.

7. The SOFC system of claim 1 where the acid gas removal system utilizes a reactive liquid to extract hydrogen sulfide.

12. The SOFC system of claim 1 where the vaporous hydrocarbon feed is an associated gas.

13. A method of enhancing hydrocarbon fluid recovery from a hydrocarbon-bearing formation using the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system of claim 1 comprising the steps of: producing a hydrocarbon fluid from the hydrocarbon-bearing formation; separating associated gas from the produced hydrocarbon fluid; introducing the associated gas into the SOFC system; operating the SOFC system to produce the purified carbon dioxide product for enhanced oil recovery and surplus electricity; and introducing into the hydrocarbon-bearing formation the purified carbon dioxide product using an injection well; where the hydrocarbon-bearing formation contains the hydrocarbon fluid, where the SOFC system is operable to receive associated gas and to produce the purified carbon dioxide product suitable for enhanced oil recovery and surplus electricity, and where a portion of the hydrocarbon fluid comprises the associated gas.

14. A method of operating a pre-reformer to maximize internal reforming capacity of a downstream solid oxide fuel cell comprising the steps of: introducing a desulfurized process gas into the pre-reformer, the desulfurized process gas having a temperature in a range of from about 200 C. to about 450 C. and comprising methane in a range of from about 51 to about 66 mole percent of the composition and non-methane alkanes in a range of from about 33 to about 45 mole percent of the composition, each on a dry basis of the desulfurized process gas; introducing a superheated steam into the pre-reformer, the superheated steam having a temperature in the range of from about 250 C. to about 500 C. and a pressure in a range of from about 8 bars to about 12 bars, such that a steam-to-carbon ratio (SCR) of the introduced superheated steam to the introduced desulfurized process gas is in a range of from about 0.5 to about 1.5; and operating the pre-reformer such that a reformed process gas forms from the desulfurized process gas and the superheated steam, the reformed process gas comprising methane in a range of from about 78 to about 88 mole percent of the composition, carbon oxides in a range of from about 9 to about 12 mole percent of the composition, and hydrogen in a range of from about 0.5 to about 10 mole percent of the composition, each on a dry basis of the reformed process gas; where that the reformed process gas has a methane selectivity in a range of from about 0.90 to about 0.99, and where the pre-reformer fluidly couples to an upstream side of a solid oxide fuel cell and is operable to both receive the desulfurized process gas and convert the non-methane alkanes using steam in the presence of an active metal pre-reforming catalyst into methane and carbon oxides.

16. The method of claim 14 where the temperature of the produced reformed process gas is in a range of from about 55 C. to about 80 C. lower than the temperature of the introduced desulfurized process gas.

17. The method of claim 14 where a mole percent ratio of methane to non-methane alkanes in the desulfurized process gas is in a range of from about 1.0 to about 2.0.

18. The method of claim 14 where the reformed process gas comprises carbon dioxide of at least about 10 mole percent of the composition on a dry basis.

19. The method of claim 14 where the reformed process gas is substantially free of non-methane alkanes on a mole basis.

20. The method of claim 14 where the reformed process gas is substantially free of sulfur and sulfur-bearing compounds on a mole basis.

...
Linknovate helps you find your next partner or supplier
"Linknovate brought us in just 2 weeks a supplier we searched for 3 months"
Thomas Lackner, Director of Open Innovation
Upload content to Linknovate to showcase your work
Join hundreds of start-ups, universities, research labs and corporations that use Linknovate to market their capabilities and connect with new clients and partners.
How does the expertise of two organizations compare?
Organizations compared on records for related keywords
What’s the commercial readiness level of this field?
Evolution of record type per year
What kind of sources are most common?
Weight of records per source
Name Score Publications Conferences Grants Patents Trademarks News Webs
391.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
269.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
238.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
203.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
196.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
186.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
183.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
167.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
151.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
151.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
146.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
141.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
137.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
136.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
135.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
134.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
134.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
133.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
132.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
132.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
118.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
115.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
108.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
107.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
106.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
104.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
101.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
100.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
98.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
97.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
97.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
96.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
94.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
92.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
91.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
91.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
89.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
87.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
86.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
86.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
81.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
81.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
80.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
79.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
79.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
76.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
76.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
74.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
73.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
72.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
72.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
72.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
70.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
70.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
70.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
70.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
68.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
68.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
66.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
66.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
66.4 15 1 - 10 10 10 10
Queen's University of Belfast
66.1 13 1 1 10 10 10 10
Lehigh University
65.6 12 1 1 10 10 10 10
U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory
64.2 19 6 - 10 10 10 10
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
64.1 15 1 - 10 10 10 10
SK Innovation Co.
63.1 - - - 10 10 10 10
University of Patras
62.9 14 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Wyoming
62.4 12 2 - 10 10 10 10
CIEMAT
61.6 12 2 - 10 10 10 10
University of Pennsylvania
61.5 15 - - 10 10 10 10
Polytechnic University of Turin
61.4 12 1 - 10 10 10 10
Bulgarian Academy of Science
61.0 18 2 - 10 10 10 10
Air Products and Chemicals Inc
61.0 3 3 1 10 10 10 10
Arizona State University
60.4 14 2 2 10 10 10 10
Jülich Research Center
59.6 13 2 1 10 10 10 10
Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, Singapore
59.2 16 - - 10 10 10 10
Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
57.8 9 3 2 10 10 10 10
ENEA
57.7 22 3 - 10 10 10 10
University of Ulm
57.6 7 - - 10 10 10 10
Waseda University
57.2 12 1 - 10 10 10 10
RWTH Aachen
57.1 14 3 1 10 10 10 10
Chevron
57.1 2 - - 10 10 10 10
South China University of Technology
56.1 11 - - 10 10 10 10
University of the Basque Country
55.9 17 1 - 10 10 10 10
Southwest Research Institute
55.3 3 1 - 10 10 10 10
Northwestern University
52.8 12 2 - 10 10 10 10
University of Leeds
52.7 12 - 2 10 10 10 10
Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
52.7 16 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Connecticut
52.2 5 5 1 10 10 10 10
National Cheng Kung University
52.2 13 2 - 10 10 10 10
University of Twente
52.0 6 2 1 10 10 10 10
University of Toronto
50.6 12 - - 10 10 10 10
Inner Mongolia University of Technology
50.2 8 6 - 10 10 10 10
University of Barcelona
49.3 13 - - 10 10 10 10
Vienna University of Technology
49.1 17 - - 10 10 10 10
Central University of Venezuela
48.4 21 - - 10 10 10 10
TU Munich
47.7 9 2 - 10 10 10 10
University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
47.4 4 6 1 10 10 10 10
ETH Zurich
46.7 17 1 - 10 10 10 10
Sungkyunkwan University
46.1 15 - - 10 10 10 10

Patent
Toyota Motor Corporation | Date: 2017-04-26

The present invention provides a deterioration diagnosis apparatus for an exhaust gas purification apparatus, including a first sensor that measures the oxygen concentration of the exhaust gas flowing into the exhaust gas purification apparatus, a second sensor that measures the oxygen concentration of the exhaust gas flowing out of the exhaust gas purification apparatus, and diagnosing means for diagnosing deterioration of the exhaust gas purification apparatus on the basis of a difference that appears between a measurement value of the first sensor and a measurement value of the second sensor when the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas flowing into the exhaust gas purification apparatus is switched from a lean air-fuel ratio to a rich air-fuel ratio, wherein, when the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas is switched from a lean air-fuel ratio to a rich air-fuel ratio, a water-gas shift reaction is generated upstream of the first sensor.


A method for producing a purified carbon dioxide product suitable for EOR and surplus electricity uses a vaporous hydrocarbon feed and a SOFC system. A SOFC system includes a condensate removal system, an acid gas removal system, a hydrodesulfurization system, a sorption bed system, a pre-reformer, a solid oxide fuel cell, a CO2 separations system and a CO2 dehydration system operable to form the purified carbon dioxide product, where the SOFC system is operable to produce surplus electricity from the electricity produced by the solid oxide fuel cell. A method of operating the pre-reformer to maximize the internal reforming capacity of a downstream solid oxide fuel cell uses a pre-reformer fluidly coupled on the upstream side of a solid oxide fuel cell. A method of enhancing hydrocarbon fluid recovery from a hydrocarbon-bearing formation using a SOFC system.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for producing a purified carbon dioxide product suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and surplus electricity from a vaporous hydrocarbon feed, the SOFC system comprising: a condensate removal system that is operable to receive the vaporous hydrocarbon feed and to separate higher-carbon compounds from the vaporous hydrocarbon feed to form a dry sour gas; an acid gas removal system that fluidly couples to the condensate removal system and is operable to extract hydrogen sulfide from the dry sour gas to form a dry sweet gas; a hydrodesulfurization system that fluidly couples to the acid gas removal system and is operable to convert heterorganic compounds in the dry sweet gas using hydrogen in the presence of a hydrotreating catalyst into compounds that absorb onto a sorption bed material to form a treated process gas; a sorption bed system that fluidly couples to the hydrodesulfurization system and is operable to extract compounds that absorb onto the sorption bed material from the treated process gas to form a desulfurized process gas; a pre-reformer that fluidly couples to the sorption bed system and is operable to convert non-methane alkanes in the desulfurized process gas using steam in the presence of an active pre-reforming catalyst into methane and carbon oxides to form a reformed process gas; a solid oxide fuel cell that fluidly couples to the pre-reformer and is operable to convert methane in the reformed process gas using oxygen in the presence of a reforming catalyst and an electrochemical conversion catalyst into carbon dioxide and water to form an anode off-gas and producing electricity; a CO2 separations system that fluidly couples to the solid oxide fuel cell and is operable to extract carbon dioxide from the anode off-gas to form a carbon dioxide-rich gas; and a CO2 dehydration system that fluidly couples to the CO2 separations system and is operable to extract water from the carbon dioxide-rich gas to form the purified carbon dioxide product; where the SOFC system is operable to produce surplus electricity from the electricity produced by the solid oxide fuel cell.

2. The SOFC system of claim 1 further comprising a water-gas shift reactor system that fluidly couples to the solid oxide fuel cell on the downstream side and is operable to convert carbon monoxide in the anode off-gas using water in the presence of a water-gas shift catalyst into carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form a shifted anode off-gas, where the CO2 separations system fluidly couples to the water-gas shift reactor system instead of the solid oxide fuel cell and is operable to extract carbon dioxide from the shifted anode-off gas of the water-gas shift reactor system instead of the anode-off gas of the solid oxide fuel cell to form the carbon dioxide-rich gas.

3. The SOFC system of claim 1 where the acid gas removal system additionally is operable to extract carbon dioxide from the dry sour gas to form a carbon dioxide-rich gas and where the CO2 dehydration system additionally fluidly couples to the acid gas removal system and is operable to extract carbon dioxide from the carbon dioxide-rich gas from the acid gas removal system.

4. The SOFC system of claim 1 where the CO2 separations system additionally is operable to form a hydrogen-rich gas, and where the hydrodesulfurization system additionally fluidly couples to the CO2 separations system and is operable to use hydrogen-rich gas from the CO2 separation system as a source of hydrogen.

7. The SOFC system of claim 1 where the acid gas removal system utilizes a reactive liquid to extract hydrogen sulfide.

12. The SOFC system of claim 1 where the vaporous hydrocarbon feed is an associated gas.

13. A method of enhancing hydrocarbon fluid recovery from a hydrocarbon-bearing formation using the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system of claim 1 comprising the steps of: producing a hydrocarbon fluid from the hydrocarbon-bearing formation; separating associated gas from the produced hydrocarbon fluid; introducing the associated gas into the SOFC system; operating the SOFC system to produce the purified carbon dioxide product for enhanced oil recovery and surplus electricity; and introducing into the hydrocarbon-bearing formation the purified carbon dioxide product using an injection well; where the hydrocarbon-bearing formation contains the hydrocarbon fluid, where the SOFC system is operable to receive associated gas and to produce the purified carbon dioxide product suitable for enhanced oil recovery and surplus electricity, and where a portion of the hydrocarbon fluid comprises the associated gas.

14. A method of operating a pre-reformer to maximize internal reforming capacity of a downstream solid oxide fuel cell comprising the steps of: introducing a desulfurized process gas into the pre-reformer, the desulfurized process gas having a temperature in a range of from about 200 C. to about 450 C. and comprising methane in a range of from about 51 to about 66 mole percent of the composition and non-methane alkanes in a range of from about 33 to about 45 mole percent of the composition, each on a dry basis of the desulfurized process gas; introducing a superheated steam into the pre-reformer, the superheated steam having a temperature in the range of from about 250 C. to about 500 C. and a pressure in a range of from about 8 bars to about 12 bars, such that a steam-to-carbon ratio (SCR) of the introduced superheated steam to the introduced desulfurized process gas is in a range of from about 0.5 to about 1.5; and operating the pre-reformer such that a reformed process gas forms from the desulfurized process gas and the superheated steam, the reformed process gas comprising methane in a range of from about 78 to about 88 mole percent of the composition, carbon oxides in a range of from about 9 to about 12 mole percent of the composition, and hydrogen in a range of from about 0.5 to about 10 mole percent of the composition, each on a dry basis of the reformed process gas; where that the reformed process gas has a methane selectivity in a range of from about 0.90 to about 0.99, and where the pre-reformer fluidly couples to an upstream side of a solid oxide fuel cell and is operable to both receive the desulfurized process gas and convert the non-methane alkanes using steam in the presence of an active metal pre-reforming catalyst into methane and carbon oxides.

16. The method of claim 14 where the temperature of the produced reformed process gas is in a range of from about 55 C. to about 80 C. lower than the temperature of the introduced desulfurized process gas.

17. The method of claim 14 where a mole percent ratio of methane to non-methane alkanes in the desulfurized process gas is in a range of from about 1.0 to about 2.0.

18. The method of claim 14 where the reformed process gas comprises carbon dioxide of at least about 10 mole percent of the composition on a dry basis.

19. The method of claim 14 where the reformed process gas is substantially free of non-methane alkanes on a mole basis.

20. The method of claim 14 where the reformed process gas is substantially free of sulfur and sulfur-bearing compounds on a mole basis.


The present invention provides a method and apparatus for producing liquid hydrocarbonaceous product (1) such as biofuel from solid biomass (2), the method comprising: gasifying solid biomass (2) in a gasifier (6) to produce raw synthesis gas (3); conditioning of the raw synthesis gas (3) to purify the raw synthesis gas (3) to obtain purified synthesis gas (4) having a molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide between 2.5 to 1 and 0.5 to 1, preferably between 2.1 to 1 and 1.8 to 1, more preferably about 2 to 1, the conditioning comprising removing sulfur species from the raw synthesis gas (3) using a guard bed reactor (25); and subjecting the purified synthesis gas (4) to a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a Fischer- Tropsch reactor (5) to produce liquid hydrocarbonaceous product (1); wherein the solid biomass (2) is fed to the gasifier (6) using a lock hopper (10).

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method for producing liquid hydrocarbonaceous product (1) such as biofuel from solid biomass (2), the method comprising:feeding solid biomass (2) to a gasifier (6) using a lock hopper (10);gasifying the solid biomass (2) in the gasifier (6) to produce raw synthesis gas (3);conditioning the raw synthesis gas (3) to purify the raw synthesis gas (3) to obtain purified synthesis gas (4) having a molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide between 2.5 to 1 and 0.5 to 1, preferably between 2.1 to 1 and 1.8 to 1, more preferably about 2 to 1, the conditioning comprising removing sulfur species from the synthesis gas using a guard bed reactor (25); andsubjecting the purified synthesis gas (4) to a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a Fischer-Tropsch reactor (5) to produce liquid hydrocarbonaceous product (1).

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the gasification step includes gasifying of solid biomass (2) in a gasifier (6) comprising a fluidized bed reactor, wherein oxygen (7) and steam (8) are used as fluidizing media in the fluidized bed reactor, and wherein tail gas (9) from the Fischer-Tropsch reactor (5) is preferably also used as a gasification and fluidizing medium in the fluidized bed reactor.

3. A method according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterized by feeding the raw synthesis gas (3) into a first particle separator (16) to separate particles such as ash, char and bed material from the raw synthesis gas (3),

4. A method according to claim 3, characterized by feeding the raw synthesis gas (3) from the first particle separator (16) to a second particle separator (17) for performing a dust separation step which lowers the dust content of the raw synthesis gas (3).

5. A method according to any of claims 1 to 4, characterized by the conditioning of the raw synthesis gas (3) including one or more of the following:catalytic treatment of the raw synthesis gas (3) in a reformer (18) for converting tar and methane present in the raw synthesis gas (3) into carbon monoxide and hydrogen;lowering the temperature of the raw synthesis gas (3) to about 250C in a cooler (19);filtering the raw synthesis gas (3) in a filter (20) to remove particles such as ash, entrained bed material and soot from the raw synthesis gas (3);subjecting the raw synthesis gas (3) to a water-gas-shift reaction in a water-to-gas shift reactor (20) to adjust the molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide to between 2.5 to 1 and 0.5 to 1, preferably between 2.1 to 1 and 1.8 to 1, more preferably about 2 to 1;scrubbing the raw synthesis gas (3) to remove solids and tar components from the raw synthesis gas (3); andan ultra-purification step for removing sulfur components, CO_(2) (carbon dioxide), H_(2)O (water), HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH_(3)Cl (methyl chloride), carbonyls, Cl (chloride) and NO_(x) (nitrogen oxide) from the raw synthesis gas (3).

8. An apparatus for producing liquid hydrocarbonaceous product (1) such as biofuel from solid biomass (2), the apparatus comprising:a gasifier (6) for gasifying solid biomass (2) to produce raw synthesis gas (3);a lock hopper (10) for feeding the solid biomass (2) to the gasifier (6);means for conditioning the raw synthesis gas (3) to obtain purified synthesis gas (4) having a molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide between 2.5 to 1 and 0.5 to 1, preferably between 2.1 to 1 and 1.8 to 1, more preferably about 2 to 1, the conditioning means comprising a guard bed reactor (25) for removing sulfur species from the synthesis gas; anda Fischer-Tropsch reactor (5) for subjecting the purified synthesis gas (4) to a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to produce liquid hydrocarbonaceous product (1).

9. An apparatus according to claim 8, characterized in that the gasifier (6) includes a fluidized bed reactor and means for feeding oxygen (7) and steam (8) into the gasifier (6) for use as fluidizing media in the fluidized bed reactor, and the apparatus preferably includes means for feeding tail gas from the Fischer-Tropsch reactor (5) into the gasifier (6) for use as a fluidizing medium in the fluidized bed reactor.

11. An apparatus according to any of claims 8 to 10, characterized by comprising a first particle separator (16) for separating particles such as ash, char and bed material particles from the raw synthesis gas (3).

12. An apparatus according to claim 11, characterized by comprising a second particle separator (17) downstream of the first particle separator (16) for separating dust from the raw synthesis gas (3).

13. An apparatus according to any of claims 8 to 11, characterized by comprising one or more of the following:a reformer (18) for catalytic treatment of the raw synthesis gas (3) to convert tar and methane present in the raw synthesis gas (3) into carbon monoxide and hydrogen;a cooler (19) for lowering the temperature of the raw synthesis gas (3) to about 250C.a filter (20) for removing ash, entrained bed material and/or soot from the raw synthesis gas (3);a water-gas-shift reactor (21) for adjusting the molar ratio of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the raw synthesis gas (3) to between 2.5 to 1 and 0.5 to 1, preferably between 2.1 to 1 and 1.8 to 1, more preferably about 2 to 1;a scrubber (22) for removing solids and tar components from the raw synthesis gas (3); andultra-purification means (23) for removing sulfur components, CO_(2) (carbon dioxide), H_(2)O (water), HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH_(3)Cl (methyl chloride), carbonyls, Cl (chloride) and NO_(x) (nitrogen oxide) from the raw synthesis gas (3).

14. An apparatus according to claim 13, characterized by comprising ultra-purification means (23) and a compressor (24) for raising the pressure of the raw synthesis gas (3) to about 30 to 40 bar pressure before leading the raw synthesis gas (3) into the ultra-purification means (23).


Patent
Auxilium Green LLC | Date: 2015-12-04

A method of increasing hydrogen content of a synthesis gas via a water-gas shift reaction includes providing a catalyst composition comprising cesium, molybdenum and sulfur on an inert support. A reactant gas mixture including synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and steam, when flowed into contact with the catalyst composition, may form a hydrogen enriched shifted gas mixture.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method of increasing hydrogen content of a synthesis gas via a water-gas shift reaction comprising: providing a stable catalyst composition comprising cesium and molybdenum sulfide on an inert support, wherein:during catalyst formation sulfidation of molybdenum oxide occurs prior to impregnation of the cesium, andthe molybdenum sulfide of the stable catalyst composition does not loose sulfur during a water-gas shift reaction; flowing a reactant gas mixture into contact with the catalyst composition, wherein the reactant gas mixture comprises synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and steam; and forming a hydrogen enriched shifted gas mixture.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the water gas shift reaction is carried out at a temperature of about 350 C. to 450 C.

5. The method of claim 1, further comprising activating the catalyst composition before flowing the reactant gas mixture into contact with the catalyst composition, wherein activating the catalyst composition comprises heating the catalyst composition to about 350 C. under a stream of hydrogen and nitrogen mixture.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein the water gas shift reaction is carried out at a pressure of at least 2.5 atm.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the reactant gas mixture is flowed at a gas hourly space velocity of from about 2400 L/kg catalyst/hr to 5000 L/kg catalyst/hr.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the water gas shift reaction is a sour feed reaction.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein the water gas shift reaction is a sweet feed reaction.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein carbon monoxide dry slip % in the hydrogen enriched shifted gas mixture is from about 5% to 15%.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein the synthesis gas comprises a hydrogen to carbon monoxide volume ratio in the range of from 1 to 3.

14. The method of claim 1, wherein the reaction gas mixture comprises a steam to carbon monoxide volume ratio in the range of from 3 to 4.


Patent
Royal Dutch Shell | Date: 2017-05-10

The present invention provides a process for producing liquid hydrocarbon products from a solid biomass feedstock, said process comprising the steps of: a) providing in a first hydropyrolysis reactor vessel a first hydropyrolysis catalyst composition, said composition comprising one or more active metals selected from cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten, ruthenium, platinum, palladium, iridium and iron on an oxide support, wherein the one or more active metals are present in an oxidic state; b) contacting the solid biomass feedstock with said first hydropyrolysis catalyst composition and molecular hydrogen in said first hydropyrolysis reactor vessel at a temperature in the range of from 350 to 600C and a pressure in the range of from 0.50 to 7.50MPa, to produce a product stream comprising partially deoxygenated hydropyrolysis product, H2O, H2, CO2, CO, C1 - C3 gases, char and catalyst fines; c) removing said char and catalyst fines from said product stream; d) hydroconverting said partially deoxygenated hydropyrolysis product in a hydroconversion reactor vessel in the presence of one or more hydroconversion catalyst and of the H2O, CO2, CO, H2, and C1 - C3 gas generated in step a), to produce a vapour phase product 25 comprising substantially fully deoxygenated hydrocarbon product, H2O, CO, CO2, and C1 C3 gases.

Claims which contain your search:

8. A process according to claim 7, wherein the gas phase product comprising H2, CO, C02, and Ci - C3 gases are subjected to a reforming and water-gas shift process in order to produce hydrogen .

1. A process for producing liquid hydrocarbon products from a solid biomass feedstock, said process comprising the steps of: a) providing in a first hydropyrolysis reactor vessel a first hydropyrolysis catalyst composition, said composition comprising one or more active metals selected from cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten, ruthenium, platinum, palladium, iridium and iron on an oxide support, wherein the one or more active metals are present in an oxidic state; b) contacting the solid biomass feedstock with said first hydropyrolysis catalyst composition and molecular hydrogen in said first hydropyrolysis reactor vessel at a temperature in the range of from 350 to 600C and a pressure in the range of from 0.50 to 7.50MPa, to produce a product stream comprising partially deoxygenated hydropyrolysis product, H20, H2, C02, CO, Ci - C3 gases, char and catalyst fines; c) removing said char and catalyst fines from said product stream; d) hydroconverting said partially deoxygenated hydropyrolysis product in a hydroconversion reactor vessel in the presence of one or more hydroconversion catalyst and of the H20, C02, CO, H2, and Ci - C3 gas generated in step a) , to produce a vapour phase product comprising substantially fully deoxygenated hydrocarbon product, H20, CO, C02, hydrogen and Ci - C3 gases.

9. A process according to claim 8, wherein the gas phase product is first purified to remove any H2S, organic sulfur compounds and NH3 present before being subjected to the reforming and water-gas shift process. 10. A process according to claim 8 or claim 9, wherein the hydrogen produced in the reforming and water-gas shift process is used as at least a portion of the molecular hydrogen in at least one of steps a) and c) .

7. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 6, further comprising condensing the vapour phase product of step d) to provide a liquid phase product comprising substantially fully deoxygenated C4+ hydrocarbon liquid and aqueous material and separating said liquid phase product from a gas phase product comprising H2, CO, C02, and Ci - C3 gases .


Patent
Johnson Matthey | Date: 2014-04-22

A process for increasing the hydrogen content of a synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon oxides and having a carbon monoxide content 45 mole % on a dry-gas basis, including the steps of:

Claims which contain your search:

1. A process for increasing the hydrogen content of a synthesis gas derived from the gasification of coal, petroleum coke or biomass, said synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides and having a carbon monoxide content 45 mole % on a dry-gas basis, comprising the steps of: (i) combining the synthesis gas with steam to form a steam-enriched feed gas mixture (ii) supplying the feed gas mixture at an inlet temperature in the range 220-370 C. to a shift vessel comprising a bed of water-gas shift catalyst and passing the feed gas mixture adiabatically over the water-gas shift catalyst disposed in the shift vessel to form a hydrogen-enriched shifted gas mixture containing steam at an outlet temperature, the hydrogen-enriched shifted gas mixture containing steam having a carbon monoxide content 10 mole % on a dry gas basis, and (iii) recovering the hydrogen-enriched shifted gas mixture containing steam leaving the bed of water-gas shift catalyst from the shift vessel at an exit temperature 475 C., wherein 20 to 80% by volume, of the hydrogen-enriched shifted gas mixture containing steam leaving the bed of water-gas shift catalyst is recycled to the feed gas mixture to control the temperature rise across the water-gas shift catalyst, wherein the hydrogen-enriched shifted gas mixture containing steam that is not recycled is subjected to one or more further shift stages in one or more separate shift vessels.

2. A process according to claim 1 wherein the carbon monoxide content of the synthesis gas is 55 mole % on a dry-gas basis.

3. A process according to claim 1 wherein the carbon monoxide content of the synthesis gas is 60 mole % on a dry-gas basis.

4. A process according to claim 1 wherein the total steam: synthesis gas volume ratio in the steam-enriched feed gas mixture, including the recycle stream, is in the range 0.5:1 to 4:1.

6. A process according claim 1 wherein the water gas shift catalyst is the one or more iron oxides stabilised with chromia and/or alumina.

7. A process according to claim 6 wherein the water gas shift catalyst is a chromia-promoted magnetite catalyst containing acicular iron oxide particles.

8. A process according to claim 1 wherein the water gas shift catalyst is cobalt and molybdenum in oxidic or sulphided form on the oxidic support composition.

9. A process according to claim 8 wherein the water gas shift catalyst comprises 1-5% wt cobalt and 5-15% molybdenum, magnesia and an alumina support.

10. A process according to claim 1 wherein 30 to 45% by volume of the hydrogen-enriched shifted gas mixture containing steam is recycled to the feed gas mixture.

12. A process according to claim 1 wherein the total steam: synthesis gas volume ratio in the steam-enriched feed gas mixture, including the recycle stream, is in the range 1:1 to 2.5:1.

15. A process according claim 1 wherein the water gas shift catalyst comprises one or more iron oxides stabilised with chromia and/or alumina and also contains zinc oxide and one or more copper compounds.

16. A process according to claim 1 wherein the shift vessel comprises a single bed of the water-gas shift catalyst.

17. A process according to claim 1 wherein the shift vessel is a radial-flow shift converter.

18. A process according to claim 1 wherein the shift catalyst is a high temperature shift catalyst and the one or more further shift stages comprises a medium temperature shift stage and/or a low-temperature shift stage over one or more copper catalysts in separate vessels.

19. A process according to claim 1 wherein the shift catalyst is a sour shift catalyst and the one or more further shift stages comprises one or more further sour shift vessels containing a sour shift catalyst.


Rodriguez J.A.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Catalysis Today | Year: 2011

The water-gas shift (WGS, CO + H2O → H2 + CO2) reaction was studied on a series of gold/oxide catalysts. The results of in situ measurements with X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that the active phase of Au-ceria and Au-titania catalysts under the reaction conditions of the water-gas shift consists of metallic nanoparticles of gold on a partially reduced oxide support. In spite of the lack of catalytic activity of Au (1 1 1) and other gold surfaces for the water-gas shift process, gold nanoparticles dispersed on oxide surfaces are excellent catalysts for this reaction. Results of density-functional calculations point to a very high barrier for the dissociation of H2O on Au (1 1 1) or isolated Au nanoparticles, which leads to negligible activity for the WGS process. In the gold-oxide systems, one has a bifunctional catalyst: the adsorption and dissociation of water takes place on the oxide, CO adsorbs on the gold nanoparticles, and all subsequent reaction steps occur at oxide-metal interfaces. The nature of the support plays a key role in the activation of the gold nanoparticles. Although zinc oxide is frequently used in industrial WGS catalysts, the Au/ZnO (0001̄) system displays low WGS activity when compared to Au/CeO2 (1 1 1), Au/TiO2 (1 1 0) or Au/CeOx/TiO2 (1 1 0). The ceria and titania supports contain a substantial number of metal cations that are not fully oxidized under WGS reaction conditions and may participate directly in the dissociation of water and other important steps of the catalytic process. The results for Au/CeOx/TiO2 (1 1 0) illustrate the tremendous impact that an optimization of the chemical properties of gold and the oxide phase can have on the activity of a WGS catalyst. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): water absorption, water gas shifts, gases, water, water gas shift, water gas shift reactions, gas producers.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Chemical Catalysis | Award Amount: 230.00K | Year: 2016

Some of the major objectives of chemical catalysis are to lower the energy input required to effect important chemical transformations and reduce the amount of materials needed (solvents, reagents, etc.) to generate the desired end product. In this project funded by the Chemical Catalysis Program of the Chemistry Division, Professor Scott E. Denmark is conducting research to improve an industrially relevant chemical process, the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR). The reaction is used to form of carbon-carbon bonds in a variety of fundamental chemical reactions. The goal of this research project is to replace metal-containing reagents that generate large amounts of waste products with less polluting reagents. The WGSR is used on an enormous scale to generate hydrogen for high volume chemical processes. The reaction is generally done by combining carbon monoxide and water over a solid catalyst to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The research seeks to form new carbon-carbon bonds with fewer by-products and solvents. Professor Denmarks students identify the most efficient catalysts to enable the desired chemical reaction under mild reaction conditions. The project is designed to reduce waste in fine chemical manufacturing.

The landmark report Sustainability in the Chemical Industry published by the National Research Council in 2005, identified eight Grand Challenges the first of which is Green and Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering. The report called for research to Identify appropriate solvents, control thermal conditions, and purify, recover, and formulate products that prevent waste and that are environmentally benign, economically viable, and generally support a better societal quality of life. Despite all of the research into improving the efficiency of the WGSR, the process is exclusively used for generation of hydrogen using heterogeneous catalysis. However, outside of hydroformylation, no other carbon-carbon bond forming reactions have been developed that harness the reducing potential of the WGSR. This project identifies important carbon-carbon bond forming reactions that require stoichiometric amounts of a reducing agent and replaces that agent with the combination of water and carbon monoxide in the presence of a suitable catalyst or catalyst combination. This research is an good platform for training new scientists to think creatively.


Gorte R.J.,University of Pennsylvania
AIChE Journal | Year: 2010

Ceria is a crucial component of automotive catalysts, where its ability to be reduced and re-oxidized provides oxygen storage capacity. Because of these redox properties, ceria can greatly enhance catalytic activities for a number of important reactions when it is used as a support for transition metals. For reactions that use steam as an oxidant (e.g., the water-gas-shift reaction and steam reforming of hydrocarbons), rates for ceria-supported metals can be several orders of magnitude higher than that for ceria or the transition metal alone. Because the redox properties of ceria are strongly dependent on treatment history and the presence of additives, there are significant opportunities for modifying catalysts based on ceria to further improve their performance. This article will review some of the contributions from my laboratory on understanding and using ceria in these applications. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Document Keywords (matching the query): water gas shift reaction, water gas shift reactions.


A chromium-free water-gas shift catalyst. In contrast to industry standard water-gas catalysts including chromium, a chromium-free water-gas shift catalyst is prepared using iron, boron, copper, aluminum and mixtures thereof. The improved catalyst provides enhanced thermal stability and avoidance of potentially dangerous chromium.

Claims which contain your search:

17. A chromium-free water-gas shift catalyst, comprising: iron; boron; aluminum; and copper.