SEARCH TERMS
Suggested Terms

Want to better focus your search?
Upgrade to a account to unlock 5 additional filters (including Entity Type), search inside of entities, and more!
Which are the top organizations worldwide?
Top organizations by Linknovate score
South China University of Technology
63.1 score | records 114
Tsinghua University
59.7 score | records 249
University of Leeds
53.3 score | records 66
Where are the main hubs located?
What are the most relevant records?
Top records by Linknovate score

Patent
Szczepanik, Szeler and Musialek | Date: 2017-07-05

A method for anonymizing image data in medical images, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: retrieving (101) the image data from the medical image; processing (102) the image data; analyzing (103) the 2D and 3D image data to automatically detect regions to be anonymized; generating (108) anonymized data on the basis of the regions to be anonymized; and storing (110) the anonymized 2D images, by storing changed image data in a file compliant with a selected standard.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method for anonymizing image data in medical images, characterized in that it comprises the following steps:- retrieving (101) the image data from the medical image;- processing (102) the image data;- analyzing (103) the 2D and 3D image data to automatically detect regions to be anonym ized;- generating (108) anonymized data on the basis of the regions to be anonymized; and- storing (110) the anonymized 2D images, by storing changed image data in a file compliant with a selected standard.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that processing the image data comprises segmenting the image to generate an image of tissues.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized by performing the segmentation as a two-stage process, wherein the first stage of the segmentation (211) comprises separating a bone tissue from the image data and wherein the second stage of the segmentation comprises separating classes associated with a soft tissue and separating a skin tissue from a brain tissue and from the other tissues within the patients body.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized by receiving (106) information on whether the anonymization process is to be reversible or irreversible.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized by enabling the process of a de-anonymization, to allow recovering an initial state of the image data prior to the anonymization, wherein the data can be de-anonymized by subjecting it to the reversible anonymization based on data identifying the type of an encryption algorithm and an encryption key.

14. A system for anonymizing image data in medical images, characterized in that it comprises:- a server (410) comprising an image segmentation module (411) configured to perform processing (102) the image data and analyzing (103) the 2D and 3D image data to automatically detect regions to be anonymized on the basis of the image data retrieved from an external source (401);- an anonymization (412) module configured to perform generating (108) anonymized data on the basis of the regions to be anonymized and to share a rendered image (415) via the server (410) to an external client (420);- wherein the client (420) is configured to send data, needed for a de-anonymization of the image, and the anonymized images to the server (410);- a de-anonymization module configured to receive the data needed for the de-anonymization of the image and to receive the anonymized images and configured to de-anonymize in case when the image data was subjected to the reversible anonymization and when the module receives the correct data comprising the type of an encryption algorithm and an encryption key; and- a memory module (414) for storing the de-anonymized images.

...

A process for converting levulinic acid to gammavalerolactone with increased selectivity is provided. The process is based on the recognition of the reaction intermediate, 4-hydroxyvaleric acid, and improved conversion thereof.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A process for producing gammavalerolactone in a two-stage process, comprising at the first stage, converting levulinic acid with catalytic hydrogenation into 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid and gammavalerolactone, and at the second stage, reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone under conditions preventing further hydrogenation.

2. The process of claim 1, wherein the reaction conditions for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone comprise a temperature of at least 100 C.

3. The process of claim 1 or 2 wherein the temperature for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone is from 130 to 200 C and more preferably from 150 to 170 C.

4. The process of claim 1 or 2 wherein conditions for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone comprise an acidic catalyst.

5. The process of claim 4 wherein the temperature for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone is from 100 to 150 C and more preferably from 100 to 120 C.

6. The process of one of the preceding claims, wherein the reaction conditions at the first stage, for said catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid comprise at least one of the following temperature from 60 to 120 C, preferably from 80 to 110 C catalyst selected from metals of the Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements or a combination thereof.

7. The process of claim 6 wherein the catalyst for said catalytic hydrogenation is selected from Co, Ni, Ru, Pd, Pt, or a combination thereof.

8. The process of one of claims 1-7, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by running the levulinic acid conversion in a first reactor and 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid conversion in a second reactor.

9. The process of one of claims 1-8, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by lowering the hydrogen pressure after the levulinic acid conversion.

10. The process of one of claims 1-9, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by running the levulinic acid conversion at hydrogen atmosphere and 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid conversion at an inert gas atmosphere.

...
Linknovate helps you find your next partner or supplier
"Linknovate brought us in just 2 weeks a supplier we searched for 3 months"
Thomas Lackner, Director of Open Innovation
Upload content to Linknovate to showcase your work
Join hundreds of start-ups, universities, research labs and corporations that use Linknovate to market their capabilities and connect with new clients and partners.
How does the expertise of two organizations compare?
Organizations compared on records for related keywords
What’s the commercial readiness level of this field?
Evolution of record type per year
What kind of sources are most common?
Weight of records per source
Name Score Publications Conferences Grants Patents Trademarks News Webs
63.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
59.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
56.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
53.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
49.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
49.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
48.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
48.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
48.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
45.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
44.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
42.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
42.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
40.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
40.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
39.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
37.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
36.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
36.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
35.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
35.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
35.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
33.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
IBM
33.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
33.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
32.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
31.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
31.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
31.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
31.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
31.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
30.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
30.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
30.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
29.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
29.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
28.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
27.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
27.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
26.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
26.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
26.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
25.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
25.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
24.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
24.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
24.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
23.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
23.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
23.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
23.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
23.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
23.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
22.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
22.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
22.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
22.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
22.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
22.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
22.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Sichuan University
22.0 29 2 - 10 10 10 10
National Chiao Tung University
21.8 36 18 - 10 10 10 10
Aalto University
21.7 29 10 - 10 10 10 10
Stanford University
21.6 52 11 3 10 10 10 10
Pohang University of Science and Technology
21.4 29 5 - 10 10 10 10
Nankai University
21.4 23 4 - 10 10 10 10
Xi'an Jiaotong University
21.1 89 22 - 10 10 10 10
China University of Mining and Technology
21.0 89 5 - 10 10 10 10
Georgia Institute of Technology
21.0 44 20 2 10 10 10 10
Fujitsu Limited
21.0 2 2 - 10 10 10 10
Myongji University
20.0 13 - - 10 10 10 10
Procter and Gamble
20.0 3 - 1 10 10 10 10
National Taiwan University
19.9 51 21 - 10 10 10 10
Uppsala University
19.9 30 1 1 10 10 10 10
University College Cork
19.9 21 2 - 10 10 10 10
Fudan University
19.9 59 16 - 10 10 10 10
National Tsing Hua University
19.8 30 10 - 10 10 10 10
Petronas University of Technology
19.7 12 3 - 10 10 10 10
Neste Oil
19.7 - - - 10 10 10 10
U.S. Department of Agriculture
19.7 49 3 - 10 10 10 10
Abu Dhabi Polymers Co. BOROUGE
19.6 - - - 10 10 10 10
University of Nottingham
19.6 47 6 3 10 10 10 10
University of Minnesota
19.4 45 7 1 10 10 10 10
University of León
19.3 8 1 - 10 10 10 10
Beijing Institute of Technology
19.0 64 28 - 10 10 10 10
ETH Zurich
19.0 61 14 - 10 10 10 10
University of Queensland
18.8 52 6 - 10 10 10 10
China University of Petroleum - Beijing
18.8 42 9 - 10 10 10 10
French Institute of Petroleum
18.7 4 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Patras
18.6 23 6 - 10 10 10 10
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
18.6 89 19 - 10 10 10 10
Dankook University
18.5 10 - - 10 10 10 10
Genifuel Corporation
18.4 - - - 10 10 10 10
Beihang University
17.9 76 25 - 10 10 10 10
University of Melbourne
17.7 44 2 - 10 10 10 10
University of Texas at Austin
17.4 40 19 1 10 10 10 10
Peking University
17.3 64 12 - 10 10 10 10
ExxonMobil
17.2 2 2 - 10 10 10 10
Beijing University of Technology
17.2 46 13 - 10 10 10 10
ENEA
17.2 12 3 - 10 10 10 10

Patent
Szczepanik, Szeler and Musialek | Date: 2017-07-05

A method for anonymizing image data in medical images, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: retrieving (101) the image data from the medical image; processing (102) the image data; analyzing (103) the 2D and 3D image data to automatically detect regions to be anonymized; generating (108) anonymized data on the basis of the regions to be anonymized; and storing (110) the anonymized 2D images, by storing changed image data in a file compliant with a selected standard.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method for anonymizing image data in medical images, characterized in that it comprises the following steps:- retrieving (101) the image data from the medical image;- processing (102) the image data;- analyzing (103) the 2D and 3D image data to automatically detect regions to be anonym ized;- generating (108) anonymized data on the basis of the regions to be anonymized; and- storing (110) the anonymized 2D images, by storing changed image data in a file compliant with a selected standard.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that processing the image data comprises segmenting the image to generate an image of tissues.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized by performing the segmentation as a two-stage process, wherein the first stage of the segmentation (211) comprises separating a bone tissue from the image data and wherein the second stage of the segmentation comprises separating classes associated with a soft tissue and separating a skin tissue from a brain tissue and from the other tissues within the patients body.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized by receiving (106) information on whether the anonymization process is to be reversible or irreversible.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized by enabling the process of a de-anonymization, to allow recovering an initial state of the image data prior to the anonymization, wherein the data can be de-anonymized by subjecting it to the reversible anonymization based on data identifying the type of an encryption algorithm and an encryption key.

14. A system for anonymizing image data in medical images, characterized in that it comprises:- a server (410) comprising an image segmentation module (411) configured to perform processing (102) the image data and analyzing (103) the 2D and 3D image data to automatically detect regions to be anonymized on the basis of the image data retrieved from an external source (401);- an anonymization (412) module configured to perform generating (108) anonymized data on the basis of the regions to be anonymized and to share a rendered image (415) via the server (410) to an external client (420);- wherein the client (420) is configured to send data, needed for a de-anonymization of the image, and the anonymized images to the server (410);- a de-anonymization module configured to receive the data needed for the de-anonymization of the image and to receive the anonymized images and configured to de-anonymize in case when the image data was subjected to the reversible anonymization and when the module receives the correct data comprising the type of an encryption algorithm and an encryption key; and- a memory module (414) for storing the de-anonymized images.


A process for converting levulinic acid to gammavalerolactone with increased selectivity is provided. The process is based on the recognition of the reaction intermediate, 4-hydroxyvaleric acid, and improved conversion thereof.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A process for producing gammavalerolactone in a two-stage process, comprising at the first stage, converting levulinic acid with catalytic hydrogenation into 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid and gammavalerolactone, and at the second stage, reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone under conditions preventing further hydrogenation.

2. The process of claim 1, wherein the reaction conditions for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone comprise a temperature of at least 100 C.

3. The process of claim 1 or 2 wherein the temperature for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone is from 130 to 200 C and more preferably from 150 to 170 C.

4. The process of claim 1 or 2 wherein conditions for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone comprise an acidic catalyst.

5. The process of claim 4 wherein the temperature for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone is from 100 to 150 C and more preferably from 100 to 120 C.

6. The process of one of the preceding claims, wherein the reaction conditions at the first stage, for said catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid comprise at least one of the following temperature from 60 to 120 C, preferably from 80 to 110 C catalyst selected from metals of the Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements or a combination thereof.

7. The process of claim 6 wherein the catalyst for said catalytic hydrogenation is selected from Co, Ni, Ru, Pd, Pt, or a combination thereof.

8. The process of one of claims 1-7, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by running the levulinic acid conversion in a first reactor and 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid conversion in a second reactor.

9. The process of one of claims 1-8, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by lowering the hydrogen pressure after the levulinic acid conversion.

10. The process of one of claims 1-9, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by running the levulinic acid conversion at hydrogen atmosphere and 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid conversion at an inert gas atmosphere.


Patent
Fujitsu Limited | Date: 2017-01-18

A content delivery method employing opportunistic D2D links among UEs, in a two-stage process. In a first stage, content is delivered from a content delivery node (40) to a first tier of target UEs (10, 12, 14, 16) through the core network (30) and conventional cellular communication via a base station or access point (20). In the second stage, the target UEs act as relays for other, 2nd tier UEs (11, 13, 15) which wish to receive the content, by delivering the content over opportunistic D2D links. The process is controlled by a service anchor (50) of an operator providing the content delivery service.


Patent
Valspar Sourcing Inc. | Date: 2016-10-17

Water-based compositions that are resistant to dirt pickup are described. The water-based composition includes a latex or water-dispersible polymer and a non-VOC UV-VIS (preferably, ultraviolet) absorber as a dirt pickup resistance additive. Methods of making water-based compositions including a non-VOC UV-VIS absorber as a dirt pickup resistance additive are also described.

Claims which contain your search:

17. The method of claim 1, wherein the water-dispersible polymer is derived by polymerization of an emulsion in a single stage process, the emulsion comprising: about 30 to 45 percent by weight of methyl methacrylate; about 5 to 20 percent by weight of 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate; about 30 to 50 percent by weight of butyl acrylate; about 1 to 5 percent by weight of methacrylic acid; and optionally, about 1 to 5 percent by weight of acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein the water-dispersible polymer is derived by polymerization of an emulsion in a two-stage process, the emulsion comprising: a first monomer composition including10 to 30 percent by weight of butyl acrylate;1 to 4 percent by weight acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate;50 to 90 percent by weight of methyl methacrylate; and1 to 5 percent by weight of (meth)acrylic acid; and a second monomer composition including40 to 60 percent by weight of butyl acrylate;1 to 4 percent by weight of acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate;20 to 50 percent by weight of methyl methacrylate; and1 to 5 percent by weight of (meth)acrylic acid.

19. The method of claim 1, wherein the water-dispersible polymer is derived by polymerization of an emulsion in a two-stage process, the emulsion comprising: a first monomer composition including1 to 5 percent by weight of acrylic acid;1 to 5 percent by weight of methyl methacrylate;1 to 5 percent by weight of diacetone acrylamide;50 to 80 percent by weight of butyl methacrylate; and30 to 50 percent by weight of methyl methacrylate; and a second monomer composition including1 to 5 percent by weight of acrylic acid;1 to 10 percent by weight of diacetone acrylamide;1 to 10 percent by weight of butyl acrylate; and75 to 90 percent by weight methyl methacrylate.

12. The method of claim 2, wherein the polymerization of the emulsion of one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers is a single stage process.

13. The method of claim 2, wherein the polymerization of the emulsion of one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers is a two-stage process.


Provided is a two-stages neutralization process for forming detergent granules comprising a linear alkyl benzene sulphonate anionic surfactant with improved flowability and simplified processing requirements.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A process for preparing detergent granules, comprising the steps of: (a) mixing a liquid acid precursor of an anionic surfactant and a first neutralizing agent, wherein said first neutralizing agent is provided in an amount sufficient for neutralizing from 5% to 20% by weight of said liquid acid precursor of the anionic surfactant to form a partially neutralized mixture; and (b) subsequently, mixing the partially neutralized mixture with a second neutralizing agent, wherein said second neutralizing agent is provided in an amount sufficient for substantially neutralizing the remaining liquid acid precursor of the anionic surfactant in the partially neutralized mixture to form detergent granules.

2. The process of claim 1, wherein in step (a), the first neutralizing agent is provided in an amount sufficient for neutralizing from 10% to 18%, preferably from 15% to 17%, by weight of said liquid acid precursor of the anionic surfactant.

3. The process of claim 1, wherein in step (a), the first neutralizing agent is in a liquid form and preferably comprises an aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide, and wherein said alkali metal hydroxide is preferably sodium hydroxide.

4. The process of claim 1, wherein in step (a), the first neutralizing agent is in a liquid form and preferably comprises a slurry of alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate particles dispersed in a liquid carrier, and wherein said alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate is preferably sodium carbonate.

5. The process of claim 1, wherein the liquid acid precursor of the anionic surfactant comprises a C10-C20 linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid, which is preferably provided in a substantially pure form.

6. The process of claim 1, wherein step (a) is carried out using one or more in-line mixers selected from the group consisting of static in-line mixers, dynamic in-line mixers, and combinations thereof.

7. The process of claim 1, wherein in step (b), the second neutralizing agent is in a solid form and preferably comprises an alkali metal carbonate or alkali metal bicarbonate, which is preferably sodium carbonate.

8. The process of claim 7, wherein the second neutralizing agent is provided in a stoichiometrically excessive amount in relation to the remaining liquid acid precursor of the anionic surfactant in the partially neutralized mixture.

9. The process of claim 8, wherein the second neutralizing agent is provided in an amount sufficient for forming detergent granules that comprises from 5% to 70%, preferably from 20% to 65%, more preferably from 35% to 62%, and most preferably from 45% to 60% of said second neutralizing agent by total weight of said detergent granules.

10. The process of claim 1, wherein step (b) is carried out using one or more batch mixers selected from the group consisting of paddle mixers, extruder mixers, ribbon blenders, ploughshare mixers, pin mixers, drum mixers, and combinations thereof.

11. The process of claim 1, wherein a dryer is used to remove free moisture from the detergent granules, said dried detergent granules comprising less than 2%, preferably less than 1.6%, more preferably less than 1.2% of free moisture by total weight of said dried detergent granules.

12. The process of claim 1, further comprising the step of: (c) collecting over-sized particles having a mean particle size of more than 1400 um, preferably more than 1200 um, from the detergent granules after step (b); (d) grinding said over-sized particles to reduce their particle size; and (e) recycling the grinded over- sized particles.

13. The process of claim 12, further comprising the steps of: (f) collecting fine particles having a mean particle size of less than 250 um, preferably less than 200 um, from the detergent granules after step (b) preferably by using a fluid bed; and (g) recycling said fine particles.

14. The process of claim 1, wherein the liquid acid precursor of the anionic surfactant is provided in an amount sufficient for forming detergent granules that comprises more than 30%, preferably more than 35% and more preferably more than 40%, of said anionic surfactant by total weight of said detergent granules.

15. The process of claim 1, wherein in step (b), the partially neutralized mixture is further mixed with one or more structurants selected from the group consisting of silica, zeolite, bentonite, cellulose or derivatives thereof, phosphates, acetates, polyacrylates, acrylate-maleate copolymers, magnesium sulfate, and mixtures thereof in an amount sufficient for forming detergent granules comprising from 0.5% to 25% of said one or more structurants by total weight of the detergent granules.

16. The process of claim 1, further comprising the step of mixing one or more structurants selected from the group consisting of silica, zeolite, bentonite, cellulose or derivatives thereof, phosphates, acetates, polyacrylates, acrylate-maleate copolymers, magnesium sulfate, and mixtures thereof with the detergent granules after step (b), thereby forming a coating of structurant(s) over the detergent granules, and wherein said coating of structurant(s) is provided in an amount ranging from 0.2% to 5% by total weight of the coated detergent granules.

17. A process for preparing detergent granules, comprising the steps of: (a) mixing a substantially pure C10-C20 linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid, or a solution thereof containing at least 90 wt% of such C10-C20 linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid, with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide or a slurry of sodium carbonate dispersed in water in an in-line static mixer, wherein the sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate is provided in an amount sufficient for neutralizing from 15% to 17% by weight of the C10-C20 linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid to form a partially neutralized mixture; and (b) subsequently, mixing the partially neutralized mixture with solid sodium carbonate powder, wherein the solid sodium carbonate powder is provided in an amount sufficient for substantially neutralizing the remaining C10-C20 linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid in the partially neutralized mixture to form detergent granules that contain .


A process is disclosed for converting levulinic acid to gammavalerolactone with increased selectivity. The process is based on the recognition of the reaction intermediate, 4-hydroxyvaleric acid, and improved conversion thereof.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A process for producing gammavalerolactone in a two-stage process, the process comprising: at a first stage, converting levulinic acid with catalytic hydrogenation into 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid and gammavalerolactone; and at a second stage, reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone under conditions preventing further hydrogenation.

2. The process of claim 1, wherein reaction conditions for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone include a temperature of at least 100 C.

3. The process of claim 1, wherein a temperature for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone is from 130 to 200 C.

4. The process of claim 1, wherein conditions for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone include an acidic catalyst.

5. The process of claim 4, wherein the temperature for reacting said 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid into gammavalerolactone is from 100 to 150 C.

6. The process of claim 1, wherein the reaction conditions at the first stage, for said catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid comprise at least one of the following: temperature from 60 to 120 C.; and catalyst selected from metals of Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements or a combination thereof.

7. The process of claim 6 wherein the catalyst for said catalytic hydrogenation is selected from Co, Ni, Ru, Pd, Pt, or a combination thereof.

8. The process of claim 1, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by running the levulinic acid conversion in a first reactor and 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid conversion in a second reactor.

9. The process of claim 1, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by lowering the hydrogen pressure after the levulinic acid conversion.

10. The process of claim 1, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by running the levulinic acid conversion at hydrogen atmosphere and 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid conversion at an inert gas atmosphere.

11. The process of claim 3, wherein the reaction conditions at the first stage, for said catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid comprise at least one of the following: temperature from 80 to 110 C.; and catalyst selected from metals of Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements or a combination thereof.

12. The process of claim 5, wherein the reaction conditions at the first stage, for said catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid comprise at least one of the following: temperature from 80 to 110 C.; and catalyst selected from metals of Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements or a combination thereof.

13. The process of claim 2, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by running the levulinic acid conversion in a first reactor and 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid conversion in a second reactor.

14. The process of claim 2, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by lowering the hydrogen pressure after the levulinic acid conversion.

15. The process of claim 2, wherein the conditions preventing further hydrogenation at the second stage are provided by running the levulinic acid conversion at hydrogen atmosphere and 4-hydroxy pentanoic acid conversion at an inert gas atmosphere.


A two-stage reactor/process is disclosed for the conversion of solid particulate biomass material and includes: a first stage, in which solid particulate biomass material is pyrolyzed to primary reaction products, and a second stage in which the primary reaction products are catalytically converted in a second stage which is operated at a temperature higher than that of the first stage.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A two-stage reactor for the conversion of a solid particulate biomass material, the two-stage reactor comprising: (i) a first stage reactor operated at a temperature T1 in which at least part of said solid particulate biomass material is subjected to a pyrolysis reaction, thereby forming primary reaction products; and (ii) a second stage reactor operated at a temperature T2, which is higher than T1, in which at least part of said primary reaction products are subjected to a catalytic conversion reaction, thereby forming secondary reaction products, wherein said second stage reactor is in fluid communication with said first stage reactor.

2. The two-stage reactor according to claim 1 wherein a part of said solid particulate biomass material passes from said first stage reactor to said second stage reactor and is subjected to a pyrolysis reaction in said second stage reactor to form products which become a part of said primary reaction products.

3. The two-stage reactor according to claim 1 wherein said first stage reactor and said second stage reactor each have an internal diameter, and wherein the internal diameter of the second stage reactor is less than the internal diameter of said first stage reactor.

5. The two-stage reactor according to claim 1 further comprising a solids transfer system for recycling catalyst particles back to said first stage reactor, or said second stage reactor, or both said first and second stage reactors of said two-stage reactor.

7. The two-stage reactor according to claim 6 wherein at least a portion of said regenerated catalyst particles are recycled back to said second stage reactor of said two-stage reactor.

8. The two-stage reactor according to claim 7 wherein at least a portion of said regenerated catalyst particles are recycled back to said first stage reactor of said two-stage reactor.

9. The two-stage reactor according to claim 6 wherein said solids transfer system comprises a conduit for injecting regenerated catalyst particles into said second stage reactor.

11. The two-stage reactor according to claim 1 wherein the average residence time of the combination of said solid particulate biomass material and said primary reaction products in said first stage reactor is in the range of from about 3 seconds to about 120 seconds.

12. The two-stage reactor according to claim 1 wherein the overall WHSV of said primary reaction products in said second stage reactor is in the range of from about 2.5 hr ^(1 )to about 80 hr ^(1).

14. A two-stage process for the conversion of solid particulate biomass material, the process comprising: (i) a first stage comprising the step of subjecting at least part of said solid particulate biomass material to a pyrolysis reaction in a first zone operated at a temperature T1 to produce primary reaction products; and (ii) a second stage comprising the step of subjecting at least part of said primary reaction products to a catalytic conversion reaction in a second zone operated at a temperature T2, which is higher than T1, and in the presence of a catalyst, to produce secondary reaction products, wherein said first and second zones are in fluid communication.

15. The two-stage process according to claim 14 wherein a part of said solid particulate biomass material passes from said first stage to said second stage and is subjected to a pyrolysis reaction in said second stage to form products which become a part of said primary reaction products.

16. The two-stage process according to claim 14 wherein said first and second zones each have an internal diameter and wherein said internal diameter of said second zone is less than said internal diameter of said first zone.

17. The two-stage process according to claim 14 further comprising removing solid particles from said secondary reaction products, wherein said solid particles comprise deactivated catalyst particles.

18. The two-stage process according to claim 17 further comprising stripping volatile materials from said deactivated catalyst particles, thereby forming stripped catalyst particles.

19. The two-stage process according to claim 18 further comprising regenerating at least part of said stripped catalyst particles, thereby forming regenerated catalyst particles.

20. The two-stage process according to claim 14 further comprising recycling catalyst particles back to said first zone, or said second zone, or both said first and second zones.

21. The two-stage process according to claim 19 further comprising recycling at least a portion of said regenerated catalyst particles back to said first zone, or said second zone, or both said first and second zones.

22. The two-stage process according to claim 21 wherein at least a portion of said regenerated catalyst particles are recycled back to said second zone.

23. The two-stage process according to claim 22 wherein at least a portion of said regenerated catalyst particles are recycled back to said first zone.

24. The two-stage process according to claim 14 wherein T 1 is in the range of from about 400 C. to about 550 C., and wherein T 2 is in the range of from about 500 C. to about 650 C.

25. The two-stage process according to claim 14 wherein the average residence time of the combination of said solid particulate biomass material and said primary reaction products in said first zone is in the range of from about 3 to about 120 seconds.

26. The two-stage process according to claim 14 wherein the overall WHSV of said primary reaction products in said second zone is in the range of from about 2.5 to about 80 hr ^(1).

27. The two-stage process according to claim 14 wherein a liquid bio-oil is condensed and separated from said secondary reaction products, and wherein the wt % yield of said liquid bio-oil is higher than the wt % yield of a bio-oil produced from said two-stage process wherein the temperature T 2 is equal to or less than the temperature T 1.

28. A process for converting solid particulate biomass material, the process comprising: (i) charging said solid particulate biomass material to a circulating fluidized reactor; (ii) pyrolyzing at least a portion of said solid particulate biomass material to form primary reaction products within a lower zone of said circulating fluidized reactor operated at a temperature T1; and (iii) catalytically converting at least a portion of said primary reaction products into secondary reaction products in the presence of a catalyst within an upper zone of said circulating fluidized reactor operated at a temperature T2, which is higher than T1.

29. The process according to claim 28 wherein a part of said solid particulate biomass material passes from said lower zone to said upper zone and is subjected to a pyrolysis reaction in said upper zone to form products which become a part of said primary reaction products.

30. The process according to claim 28, wherein said lower and upper zones each have an internal diameter and wherein said internal diameter of said upper zone is less than said internal diameter of said lower zone.

31. The process according to claim 28 further comprising: removing solid particles from said secondary reaction products, wherein said solid particles comprise deactivated catalyst particles; stripping volatile materials from said deactivated catalyst particles, thereby forming stripped catalyst particles; and regenerating at least part of said stripped catalyst particles from said stripper, thereby forming regenerated catalyst particles.

32. The process according to claim 28 further comprising recycling catalyst particles back to said lower zone, or said upper zone, or both said lower and upper zones of said circulating fluidized reactor.

33. The process according to claim 31 further comprising recycling regenerated catalyst particles back to said circulating fluidized reactor.

34. The process according to claim 33 wherein at least a portion of said regenerated catalyst particles are recycled back to said upper zone of said circulating fluidized reactor.

35. The process according to claim 34 wherein at least a portion of said regenerated catalyst particles are recycled back to said lower zone of said circulating fluidized reactor.

36. The process according to claim 28 wherein T 1 is in the range of from about 400 C. to about 550 C., and wherein T 2 is in the range of from about 500 C. to about 650 C.

37. The process according to claim 28 wherein the average residence time of the combination of said solid particulate biomass material and said primary reaction products in said lower zone of said circulating fluidized reactor is in the range of from about 3 to about 120 seconds.

38. The process according to claim 28 wherein the overall WHSV of said primary reaction products in said upper zone of said circulating fluidized reactor is in the range of from about 2.5 to about 80 hr ^(1 )

39. The process according to claim 28 wherein a liquid bio-oil is condensed and separated from said secondary reaction products, and wherein the wt % yield of said liquid bio-oil is higher than the wt % yield of a bio-oil produced from said process wherein the temperature T 2 is equal to or less than the temperature T 1.


A two-stage reactor is disclosed for the conversion of solid particulate biomass material. The reactor is designed to maximize conversion of the solid biomass material, while limiting excess cracking of primary reaction products. The two-stage reactor comprises a first stage rector, in which solid biomass material is thermally pyrolyzed to primary reaction products. The primary reaction products are catalytically converted in a second stage reactor.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A two-stage reactor for the conversion of a solid particulate biomass material, the two-stage reactor comprising: (i) a first stage reactor in which at least part of the particulate solid biomass material is subjected to a pyrolysis reaction, thereby to form primary reaction products; and (ii) a second stage reactor in which at least part of the primary reaction products are subjected to a catalytic conversion reaction, thereby to form secondary reaction products, wherein said second stage reactor is in fluid communication with said first stage reactor.

2. The two-stage reactor according to claim 1 wherein the first stage reactor and the second stage reactor each have an internal diameter, and wherein the internal diameter of the second stage reactor is substantially less than the internal diameter of the first stage reactor.

4. The two-stage reactor of claim 1 wherein the first stage reactor is a circulating fluidized bed reactor, an ebullated bed reactor or an entrained fluid bed reactor.

5. The two stage reactor of claim 1 wherein the second stage reactor is an entrained fluid bed reactor.

6. The two-stage reactor of claim 1 wherein the second stage reactor is provided with an injector for injecting a particulate solid catalyst.

7. The two-stage reactor of claim 1 wherein the first stage reactor has an internal diameter d _(1), the second stage reactor has an internal diameter d _(2), and wherein the ratio d _(1):d _(2 )is in the range of from 1.3:1 to 15:1.

8. A two-stage process for the conversion of solid particulate biomass material, the process comprising: (i) a first stage comprising the step of subjecting the solid particulate biomass material to a pyrolysis reaction in a first zone of a reactor to produce primary reaction products; and (ii) a second stage comprising the step of subjecting at least part of the primary reaction products to a catalytic conversion reaction in a second zone of the reactor, in the presence of a catalyst, to produce secondary reaction products, wherein the first and second zones of the reactor are in fluid communication.

9. The two-stage process according to claim 8 wherein the first and second zones each have an internal diameter and wherein the internal diameter of the second zone is less than the internal diameter of the first zone.

10. The two-stage process according to claim 8 further comprising removing solid particles from the secondary reaction products, wherein the solid particles comprise deactivated catalyst particles.

11. The two-stage process according to claim 10 further comprising regenerating at least part of the deactivated catalyst particles, forming regenerated catalyst particles.

12. The two-stage process according to claim 11 further comprising stripping volatile materials from the deactivated catalyst particles prior to regenerating.

13. The two-stage process according to claim 8 further comprising recycling catalyst particles back to the first zone, or the second zone, or both the first and second zones of the reactor.

14. The two-stage process according to claim 11 further comprising recycling at least a portion of the regenerated catalyst particles back to the reactor.

15. The two-stage process according to claim 14 wherein at least a portion of the regenerated catalyst particles are recycled back to the second zone of the reactor.

16. The two-stage process according to claim 8 wherein the reactor temperature in the second zone is higher than the reactor temperature in the first zone.

17. The two-stage process according to claim 16 wherein the reactor temperature in the first zone is in the range of from about 350 C. to about 600 C.

18. The two-stage process according to claim 16 wherein the reactor temperature in the first zone is in the range of from 400 C. to 550 C.

19. A process for converting solid particulate biomass material, the process comprising: (i) providing the solid particulate biomass material in a circulating fluidized reactor; (ii) pyrolyzing at least a portion of the solid particulate biomass material to form primary reaction products within a lower zone of the reactor; and (iii) catalytically converting at least a portion of the primary reaction products into secondary reaction products in the presence of a catalyst within an upper zone of the reactor.

20. The process according to claim 19, wherein the lower and upper zones each have an internal diameter and wherein the internal diameter of the upper zone is less than the internal diameter of the lower zone.

21. The process according to claim 19 further comprising removing solid particles from the secondary reaction products, wherein the solid particles comprise deactivated catalyst particles.

22. The process according to claim 19 further comprising recycling catalyst particles back to the lower zone, or the upper zone, or both the lower and upper zones of the reactor.

23. The process according to claim 21 further comprising stripping volatile materials from the deactivated catalyst particles.

24. The process according to claim 23 further comprising regenerating at least part of the deactivated catalyst particles from the stripper, forming regenerated catalyst particles.

25. The process according to claim 24 further comprising recycling regenerated catalyst particles back to the reactor.

26. The process according to claim 25 wherein at least a portion of the regenerated catalyst particles are is recycled back to the upper zone of the reactor.

27. The process according to claim 19 wherein the reactor temperature in the upper zone is higher than the reactor temperature in the lower zone.


Patent
Borealis and Abu Dhabi Polymers Company Ltd Borouge | Date: 2014-10-29

A process for polymerizing propylene in the presence of a polymerization catalyst by copolymerizing propylene with a comonomer selected from the group of ethylene and C4-C10 alpha-olefins in two polymerization stages. The first polymerization stage is conducted in a loop reactor and the second polymerization stage in a gas phase reactor. The polymer produced in first polymerization stage has a higher melt flow rate and a lower content of comonomer units than the final polymer mixture. The process can be operated with a high throughput and catalyst productivity.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A process for polymerizing propylene in the presence of a polymerization catalyst comprising (I) a solid catalyst component comprising a magnesium halide, a titanium halide and an internal electron donor; and (II) a cocatalyst comprising an aluminium alkyl and optionally an external electron donor, said process comprising the steps of:(A) continuously copolymerizing propylene by introducing streams of propylene, a comonomer selected from the group of ethylene and C4-C10 alpha-olefins, hydrogen and said polymerization catalyst into a loop reactor at a temperature of from 65 to 100 C and a pressure of from 25 to 100 bar to produce slurry of particles of a first copolymer of propylene having a melt flow rate MFR_(2) of from 0.3 to 5.0 g/10 min and a content of comonomer units of from 0.1 to 6 mol-% in a first reaction mixture;(B) withdrawing a slurry stream from said loop reactor, said slurry stream comprising said particles of the first copolymer of propylene, said particles further comprising said polymerization catalyst, and passing the slurry stream into a gas phase reactor;(C) continuously copolymerizing propylene by introducing streams of propylene, a comonomer selected from the group of ethylene and C4-C10 alpha-olefins and optionally hydrogen into said gas phase reactor at a temperature of from 65 to 100 C and a pressure of from 10 to 40 bar to produce particles comprising a copolymer mixture of said first copolymer of propylene and a second copolymer of propylene, said copolymer mixture having a content of comonomer units from 2 to 12 mol-% and a melt flow rate MFR_(2) of 0.05 to 0.7 g/10 min; wherein said copolymer mixture comprises from 30 to 60 % by weight of said first copolymer and from 40 to 70 % by weight of said second copolymer, and wherein the melt flow rate MFR_(2) of said copolymer mixture is lower than the melt flow rate MFR_(2) of said first copolymer and the content of comonomer units in said copolymer mixture is higher than the content of comonomer units in said first copolymer;(D) withdrawing a stream comprising said copolymer mixture from said gas phase reactor;(E) removing hydrocarbons from said stream to produce a polymer stream with reduced content of hydrocarbons and optionally introducing additives to the copolymer mixture;(F) extruding said copolymer mixture into pellets.

2. The process according to claim 1 wherein the loop reactor is operated at a temperature within the range of from 70 to 95 C.

3. The process according to claim 1 or claim 2 wherein the melt flow rate MFR_(2) of the first copolymer of propylene is 0.3 to 3.0 g/10 min, preferably from 0.35 to 2.0 g/10 min.

4. The process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the content of comonomer units in the first copolymer of propylene is from 0.5 to 5.0 % by mole and the content of propylene units is from 95.0 to 99.5 % by mole.

5. The process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the gas phase reactor is operated at a temperature within the range of from 75 to 95 C.

6. The process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the melt flow rate MFR_(2) of the copolymer mixture is from 0.07 to 0.5 g/10 min, preferably from 0.1 to 0.4 g/10 min.

7. The process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the content of comonomer units in the copolymer mixture is from 4 to 10 % by mole and the content of propylene units is from 90 to 96 % by mole.

8. The process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the content of polymer soluble in xylene at 25 C is from 1 to 10 % by weight in the first copolymer and from 2 to 15 % in the copolymer mixture where the content of polymer soluble in xylene has been determined according to ISO 16152 as described in the specification.

9. The process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the solid component of the polymerization catalyst comprises a transition metal component comprising magnesium, titanium and halogen, and a polymeric component comprising a polymer of vinyl cyclohexane or 3-methyl-1-butene.

10. The process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the ratio of the melt index MFR_(2) of the copolymer mixture to the melt index MFR_(2) of the first copolymer is not higher than 0.8.

11. The process according to claim 10 wherein the ratio of the melt index MFR_(2) of the copolymer mixture to the melt index MFR_(2) of the first copolymer is not higher than 0.6.

12. The process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the ratio of the comonomer content of the first copolymer to the comonomer content of the copolymer mixture is not higher than 0.95.

13. The process according to claim 12 wherein the ratio of the comonomer content of the first copolymer to the comonomer content of the copolymer mixture is not higher than 0.9.

14. The process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the comonomer present in the second polymerization stage is the same as the comonomer present in the first polymerization stage, and wherein the comonomer is preferably ethylene.

15. A process for producing a pipe comprising the steps of:(1) producing a propylene polymer composition according to any one of the preceding claims;(2) extruding said propylene polymer composition into a pipe.


Patent
ABU DHABI POLYMERS Co. BOROUGE L.L.C. and Borealis | Date: 2014-04-22

A process for polymerizing propylene in the presence of a polymerization catalyst by copolymerizing propylene with a comonomer selected from the group of ethylene and C4-C10 alpha-olefins in two polymerization stages. The first polymerization stage is conducted in a loop reactor and the second polymerization stage in a gas phase reactor. The polymer produced in first polymerization stage has a higher melt flow rate and a lower content of comonomer units than the final polymer mixture. The process can be operated with a high throughput and catalyst productivity.

Claims which contain your search:

16. A process for polymerizing propylene in the presence of a polymerization catalyst comprising (I) a solid catalyst component comprising a magnesium halide, a titanium halide and an internal electron donor; and (II) a cocatalyst comprising an aluminium alkyl and optionally an external electron donor, said process comprising the steps of: (A) continuously copolymerizing propylene by introducing streams of propylene, a comonomer selected from the group of ethylene and C4-C10 alpha-olefins, hydrogen and said polymerization catalyst into a loop reactor at a temperature of from 65 to 100 C. and a pressure of from 25 to 100 bar to produce slurry of particles of a first copolymer of propylene having a melt flow rate MFR_(2 )of from 0.3 to 5.0 g/10 min and a content of comonomer units of from 0.1 to 6 mol-% in a first reaction mixture; (B) withdrawing a slurry stream from said loop reactor, said slurry stream comprising said particles of the first copolymer of propylene, said particles further comprising said polymerization catalyst, and passing the slurry stream into a gas phase reactor; (C) continuously copolymerizing propylene by introducing streams of propylene, a comonomer selected from the group of ethylene and C4-C10 alpha-olefins and optionally hydrogen into said gas phase reactor at a temperature of from 65 to 100 C. and a pressure of from 10 to 40 bar to produce particles comprising a copolymer mixture of said first copolymer of propylene and a second copolymer of propylene, said copolymer mixture having a content of comonomer units from 2 to 12 mol-% and a melt flow rate MFR_(2 )of 0.05 to 0.7 g/10 min; wherein said copolymer mixture comprises from 30 to 60% by weight of said first copolymer and from 40 to 70% by weight of said second copolymer, and wherein the melt flow rate MFR_(2 )of said copolymer mixture is lower than the melt flow rate MFR_(2 )of said first copolymer and the content of comonomer units in said copolymer mixture is higher than the content of comonomer units in said first copolymer; (D) withdrawing a stream comprising said copolymer mixture from said gas phase reactor; (E) removing hydrocarbons from said stream to produce a polymer stream with reduced content of hydrocarbons and optionally introducing additives to the copolymer mixture; (F) extruding said copolymer mixture into pellets.

17. The process according to claim 16 wherein the loop reactor is operated at a temperature within the range of from 70 to 95 C.

18. The process according to claim 16 wherein the melt flow rate MFR _(2 )of the first copolymer of propylene is 0.3 to 3.0 g/10 min, preferably from 0.35 to 2.0 g/10 min.

19. The process according to claim 16 wherein the content of comonomer units in the first copolymer of propylene is from 0.5 to 5.0% by mole and the content of propylene units is from 95.0 to 99.5% by mole.

20. The process according to claim 16 wherein the gas phase reactor is operated at a temperature within the range of from 75 to 95 C.

21. The process according to claim 16 wherein the melt flow rate MFR _(2 )of the copolymer mixture is from 0.07 to 0.5 g/10 min, preferably from 0.1 to 0.4 g/10 min.

22. The process according to claim 16 wherein the content of comonomer units in the copolymer mixture is from 4 to 10% by mole and the content of propylene units is from 90 to 96% by mole.

23. The process according to claim 16 wherein the content of polymer soluble in xylene at 25 C. is from 1 to 10% by weight in the first copolymer and from 2 to 15% in the copolymer mixture where the content of polymer soluble in xylene has been determined according to ISO 16152 as described in the specification.

24. The process according to claim 16 wherein the solid component of the polymerization catalyst comprises a transition metal component comprising magnesium, titanium and halogen, and a polymeric component comprising a polymer of vinyl cyclohexane or 3-methyl-1-butene.

25. The process according to claim 16 wherein the ratio of the melt index MFR _(2 )of the copolymer mixture to the melt index MFR _(2 )of the first copolymer is not higher than 0.8.

26. The process according to claim 25 wherein the ratio of the melt index MFR _(2 )of the copolymer mixture to the melt index MFR _(2 )of the first copolymer is not higher than 0.6.

27. The process according to claim 16 wherein the ratio of the comonomer content of the first copolymer to the comonomer content of the copolymer mixture is not higher than 0.95.

28. The process according to claim 27 wherein the ratio of the comonomer content of the first copolymer to the comonomer content of the copolymer mixture is not higher than 0.9.

29. The process according to claim 16 wherein the comonomer present in the second polymerization stage is the same as the comonomer present in the first polymerization stage, and wherein the comonomer is preferably ethylene.

30. A process for producing a pipe comprising the steps of: (1) producing a propylene polymer composition according to claim 16; (2) extruding said propylene polymer composition into a pipe.