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Patent
Engineuity | Date: 2017-04-12

Processes and units are provided, which carry out cyclic steps of zinc oxidation and reduction of zinc oxide to combine an exothermic heat delivering step with an endothermic syngas production step, respectively. Both steps use zinc as the pivotal element that enables the process to be carried out cyclically. Heat is delivered from the exothermic step to the endothermic syngas via heat storage elements of various types which are arranged according to the reactions conditions and characteristic temperatures. Thus, energy efficient syngas production methods and units are provided.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method comprising: storing heat produced by oxidation of zinc; using the stored heat to react the produced zinc oxide with methane to form syngas; and re -using zinc reduced by the reaction with methane for the oxidation, wherein the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of the zinc oxide carried out cyclically, to yield syngas continuously.

5. The method of any one of claims 1-4, further comprising regenerating the reduced zinc during cooling of the syngas.

7. The method of claim 5, further comprising repeatedly alternating roles of a first chamber and a second chamber between (a) zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction and (b) zinc regeneration and syngas cooling, wherein consequent zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction is carried out in the chamber in which the zinc regeneration was carried out last.

14. The method of any one of claims 1-13, wherein the heat storing is carried out in evaporating zinc fluoride or zinc, and further comprising cooling the syngas and residual zinc vapors to re-use the residual zinc.

15. The method of claim 14, further comprising carrying out the oxidation of zinc and the reaction of the produced zinc oxide with methane in a lower section of a single chamber and carrying out the cooling of the syngas in an upper section of the single chamber, and configuring an intermediate section of the single chamber to withstand thermal and pressure gradients between the lower and upper chamber sections.

21. A syngas production unit comprising: a single chamber comprising: a first section arranged for oxidizing zinc, a second section arranged for reducing the produced zinc oxide with methane, and an intermediate section comprising a plurality of heat storage pipes configured to receive zinc oxidation heat from the first section and to provide the received heat for the zinc oxide reduction in the second section, wherein the oxidation and reduction are carried out simultaneously in the respective sections.

22. The syngas production unit of claim 21, further comprising a control unit configured to regulate flows of air or oxygen into the first section, nitrogen out of the first section, methane into the second section and syngas out of the second section.

23. The syngas production unit of claim 22, further comprising at least one particle removal device configured to remove zinc oxide particles from the nitrogen flow and deliver the particles into the second section.

24. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 21-23, wherein the plurality of heat storage pipes contains at least one fluoride.

25. A syngas production unit comprising at least one reaction chamber associated with at least one heat storage element, wherein: at least one first reaction chamber is configured to enable zinc oxidation by introduced oxygen and zinc oxide reduction by introduced methane, within the at least one first reaction chamber, the at least one heat storage element is configured to store heat produced by the oxidation of zinc in the at least one first reaction chamber and supply the stored heat to the zinc oxide reduction with methane, at least one second reaction chamber is configured to enable cooling of syngas produced by the zinc oxide reduction by introduced methane and zinc regeneration from the zinc oxide reduction, the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of the zinc oxide are carried out cyclically, to yield syngas continuously, and the syngas production unit further comprises a control unit arranged to introduce oxygen into the at least one first reaction chamber to react with zinc therewithin, introduce methane into the at least one first reaction chamber to react with zinc oxide therewithin, and regulate the syngas cooling and the zinc regeneration with respect to the zinc oxidation and the zinc oxide reduction processes.

26. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the at least one second reaction chamber is the at least one first reaction chamber and the syngas production unit is configured to perform the syngas cooling and the zinc regeneration within the at least one first reaction chamber.

27. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the at least one second reaction chamber is separate from the at least one first reaction chamber and the control unit is further arranged to introduce the regenerated zinc into the at least one first reaction chamber.

28. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the at least one first reaction chamber and the at least one second reaction chamber are arranged to enable both (a) zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction and (b) zinc regeneration and syngas cooling, and wherein the control unit is arranged to repeatedly alternate roles of the at least one first and second chambers to carry out consequent zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction in the at least one chamber in which the zinc regeneration was carried out last.

29. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-28, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises at least one of: at least one first material selected to change phase upon the heat storing; at least one second material selected to heat up upon the heat storing; and at least one third material selected to undergo a specified reversible chemical reaction upon the heat storing.

30. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-28, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises at least one of: copper, copper alloys, silicon, silicon alloys, silicon carbide, silicon carbide foam, zinc, zinc fluoride, fluorides salts of magnesium, fluoride salts of alkali metals, fluorides salts of alkaline earth metals and mixtures thereof.

31. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-28, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises at least one of: walls of the at least one first reaction chamber and pipework containing heat storage material.

32. The syngas production unit of claim 31 , wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises vertical pipes containing heat storage material.

33. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-32, wherein the at least one first reaction chamber is configured to enable zinc oxidation by supplying pre -heated air and is further configured to remove heated nitrogen via a heat exchanger to pre-heat at least one of the supplied air and the introduced methane.

34. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-33, wherein the oxidation of zinc is carried out by pure oxygen.

35. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the oxidation of zinc and the reaction of the produced zinc oxide with methane are carried out simultaneously in a single reaction chamber.

36. The syngas production unit of claim 35, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises a foam configured to spatially separate the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of the zinc oxide to enable carrying them out simultaneously in the single reaction chamber.

37. The syngas production unit of claim 35, wherein the single chamber comprises: a first section for the oxidation of zinc, a second section for the reaction of the produced zinc oxide with methane, and an intermediate section configured to withstand thermal and pressure gradients between the first and the second chamber sections.

38. The syngas production unit of claim 37, wherein the intermediate section comprises the at least one heat storage element.

39. The syngas production unit of claim 38, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises a plurality of vertical metal pipes containing at least one fluoride.

40. A vertical chamber comprising: a lower reaction chamber in which zinc oxidation is carried out by introduced oxygen and zinc oxide reduction is carried out by introduced methane to produce syngas, wherein heat from the zinc oxidation is stored and released to drive the zinc oxide reduction, an upper cooling chamber in which the produced syngas is cooled and from which residual zinc is returned to the lower reaction chamber, and an intermediate section configured to connect the lower and upper chambers and withstand thermal and pressure gradients therebetween.

...

Patent
Korea Electric Power Corporation and Korea Western Power Co. | Date: 2015-06-30

Provided are a composition and a manufacturing method of a solid CO_(2 )sorbent having excellent physical properties and chemical reaction characteristics, particularly having an excellent mid-temperature range activity for a fluidized bed process, for use in collecting a CO_(2 )source (pre-combustion or pre-utilization) in syngas application fields such as integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and synthetic liquid fuel (CTL).

...
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Name Score Publications Conferences Grants Patents Trademarks News Webs
36.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
11.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
9.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
8.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
8.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
4.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
4.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
4.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
3.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
3.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
3.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
3.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
3.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
3.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
3.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
3.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
2.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Hanyang University
1.5 1 1 - 10 10 10 10
Pontifical Bolivarian University
1.5 1 - - 10 10 10 10
East China University of Science and Technology
1.5 3 1 - 10 10 10 10
French National Center for Scientific Research
1.5 - - 1 10 10 10 10
Okayama University
1.5 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Tokyo Institute of Technology
1.4 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Anhui University of Science and Technology
1.4 2 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Newcastle
1.4 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
1.3 5 - - 10 10 10 10
CAS Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics
1.3 1 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Campinas
1.3 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Hefei University of Technology
1.3 1 1 - 10 10 10 10
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
1.3 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology
1.3 1 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Sydney
1.3 3 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1.2 1 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Sainte-Anne
1.2 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Peking University
1.2 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Amec Foster Wheeler
1.2 1 - - 10 10 10 10
University of California at Irvine
1.2 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
1.1 1 1 - 10 10 10 10
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
1.1 1 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Indonesia
1.1 1 - - 10 10 10 10
National Autonomous University of Mexico
1.1 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
1.1 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Korea University
1.1 3 - - 10 10 10 10
Community Energy
1.1 - - - 10 10 10 10
University of Warsaw
1.1 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Chalmers University of Technology
1.1 1 - - 10 10 10 10
China Agricultural University
1.1 2 - - 10 10 10 10
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
1.0 2 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
1.0 6 2 - 10 10 10 10
University of Technology Malaysia
1.0 3 - - 10 10 10 10
University of Florida
1.0 3 - - 10 10 10 10
National Research Council Canada
1.0 2 - - 10 10 10 10
Korea Institute of Science and Technology
1.0 2 - - 10 10 10 10
École Centrale Lille
1.0 1 - - 10 10 10 10
University of South Florida
0.9 2 - - 10 10 10 10
Idaho National Laboratory
0.9 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Institute of Nuclear Energy Research of Taiwan
0.9 2 - - 10 10 10 10

Patent
Engineuity | Date: 2017-04-12

Processes and units are provided, which carry out cyclic steps of zinc oxidation and reduction of zinc oxide to combine an exothermic heat delivering step with an endothermic syngas production step, respectively. Both steps use zinc as the pivotal element that enables the process to be carried out cyclically. Heat is delivered from the exothermic step to the endothermic syngas via heat storage elements of various types which are arranged according to the reactions conditions and characteristic temperatures. Thus, energy efficient syngas production methods and units are provided.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method comprising: storing heat produced by oxidation of zinc; using the stored heat to react the produced zinc oxide with methane to form syngas; and re -using zinc reduced by the reaction with methane for the oxidation, wherein the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of the zinc oxide carried out cyclically, to yield syngas continuously.

5. The method of any one of claims 1-4, further comprising regenerating the reduced zinc during cooling of the syngas.

7. The method of claim 5, further comprising repeatedly alternating roles of a first chamber and a second chamber between (a) zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction and (b) zinc regeneration and syngas cooling, wherein consequent zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction is carried out in the chamber in which the zinc regeneration was carried out last.

14. The method of any one of claims 1-13, wherein the heat storing is carried out in evaporating zinc fluoride or zinc, and further comprising cooling the syngas and residual zinc vapors to re-use the residual zinc.

15. The method of claim 14, further comprising carrying out the oxidation of zinc and the reaction of the produced zinc oxide with methane in a lower section of a single chamber and carrying out the cooling of the syngas in an upper section of the single chamber, and configuring an intermediate section of the single chamber to withstand thermal and pressure gradients between the lower and upper chamber sections.

21. A syngas production unit comprising: a single chamber comprising: a first section arranged for oxidizing zinc, a second section arranged for reducing the produced zinc oxide with methane, and an intermediate section comprising a plurality of heat storage pipes configured to receive zinc oxidation heat from the first section and to provide the received heat for the zinc oxide reduction in the second section, wherein the oxidation and reduction are carried out simultaneously in the respective sections.

22. The syngas production unit of claim 21, further comprising a control unit configured to regulate flows of air or oxygen into the first section, nitrogen out of the first section, methane into the second section and syngas out of the second section.

23. The syngas production unit of claim 22, further comprising at least one particle removal device configured to remove zinc oxide particles from the nitrogen flow and deliver the particles into the second section.

24. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 21-23, wherein the plurality of heat storage pipes contains at least one fluoride.

25. A syngas production unit comprising at least one reaction chamber associated with at least one heat storage element, wherein: at least one first reaction chamber is configured to enable zinc oxidation by introduced oxygen and zinc oxide reduction by introduced methane, within the at least one first reaction chamber, the at least one heat storage element is configured to store heat produced by the oxidation of zinc in the at least one first reaction chamber and supply the stored heat to the zinc oxide reduction with methane, at least one second reaction chamber is configured to enable cooling of syngas produced by the zinc oxide reduction by introduced methane and zinc regeneration from the zinc oxide reduction, the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of the zinc oxide are carried out cyclically, to yield syngas continuously, and the syngas production unit further comprises a control unit arranged to introduce oxygen into the at least one first reaction chamber to react with zinc therewithin, introduce methane into the at least one first reaction chamber to react with zinc oxide therewithin, and regulate the syngas cooling and the zinc regeneration with respect to the zinc oxidation and the zinc oxide reduction processes.

26. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the at least one second reaction chamber is the at least one first reaction chamber and the syngas production unit is configured to perform the syngas cooling and the zinc regeneration within the at least one first reaction chamber.

27. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the at least one second reaction chamber is separate from the at least one first reaction chamber and the control unit is further arranged to introduce the regenerated zinc into the at least one first reaction chamber.

28. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the at least one first reaction chamber and the at least one second reaction chamber are arranged to enable both (a) zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction and (b) zinc regeneration and syngas cooling, and wherein the control unit is arranged to repeatedly alternate roles of the at least one first and second chambers to carry out consequent zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction in the at least one chamber in which the zinc regeneration was carried out last.

29. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-28, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises at least one of: at least one first material selected to change phase upon the heat storing; at least one second material selected to heat up upon the heat storing; and at least one third material selected to undergo a specified reversible chemical reaction upon the heat storing.

30. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-28, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises at least one of: copper, copper alloys, silicon, silicon alloys, silicon carbide, silicon carbide foam, zinc, zinc fluoride, fluorides salts of magnesium, fluoride salts of alkali metals, fluorides salts of alkaline earth metals and mixtures thereof.

31. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-28, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises at least one of: walls of the at least one first reaction chamber and pipework containing heat storage material.

32. The syngas production unit of claim 31 , wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises vertical pipes containing heat storage material.

33. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-32, wherein the at least one first reaction chamber is configured to enable zinc oxidation by supplying pre -heated air and is further configured to remove heated nitrogen via a heat exchanger to pre-heat at least one of the supplied air and the introduced methane.

34. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25-33, wherein the oxidation of zinc is carried out by pure oxygen.

35. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the oxidation of zinc and the reaction of the produced zinc oxide with methane are carried out simultaneously in a single reaction chamber.

36. The syngas production unit of claim 35, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises a foam configured to spatially separate the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of the zinc oxide to enable carrying them out simultaneously in the single reaction chamber.

37. The syngas production unit of claim 35, wherein the single chamber comprises: a first section for the oxidation of zinc, a second section for the reaction of the produced zinc oxide with methane, and an intermediate section configured to withstand thermal and pressure gradients between the first and the second chamber sections.

38. The syngas production unit of claim 37, wherein the intermediate section comprises the at least one heat storage element.

39. The syngas production unit of claim 38, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises a plurality of vertical metal pipes containing at least one fluoride.

40. A vertical chamber comprising: a lower reaction chamber in which zinc oxidation is carried out by introduced oxygen and zinc oxide reduction is carried out by introduced methane to produce syngas, wherein heat from the zinc oxidation is stored and released to drive the zinc oxide reduction, an upper cooling chamber in which the produced syngas is cooled and from which residual zinc is returned to the lower reaction chamber, and an intermediate section configured to connect the lower and upper chambers and withstand thermal and pressure gradients therebetween.


Patent
Korea Electric Power Corporation and Korea Western Power Co. | Date: 2015-06-30

Provided are a composition and a manufacturing method of a solid CO_(2 )sorbent having excellent physical properties and chemical reaction characteristics, particularly having an excellent mid-temperature range activity for a fluidized bed process, for use in collecting a CO_(2 )source (pre-combustion or pre-utilization) in syngas application fields such as integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and synthetic liquid fuel (CTL).


Patent
Engineuity | Date: 2015-04-26

Processes and units are provided, which carry out cyclic steps of zinc oxidation and reduction of zinc oxide to combine an exothermic heat delivering step with an endothermic syngas production step, respectively. Both steps use zinc as the pivotal element that enables the process to be carried out cyclically. Heat is delivered from the exothermic step to the endothermic syngas via heat storage elements of various types which are arranged according to the reactions conditions and characteristic temperatures. Thus, energy efficient syngas production methods and units are provided.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method comprising: storing heat produced by oxidation of zinc; using the stored heat to react the produced zinc oxide with methane to form syngas; and re-using zinc reduced by the reaction with methane for the oxidation, wherein the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of the zinc oxide carried out cyclically, to yield syngas continuously.

5. The method of any one of claims 1- 4, further comprising regenerating the reduced zinc during cooling of the syngas.

7. The method of claim 5, further comprising repeatedly alternating roles of a first chamber and a second chamber between (a) zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction and (b) zinc regeneration and syngas cooling, wherein consequent zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction is carried out in the chamber in which the zinc regeneration was carried out last.

14. The method of any one of claims 1- 13, wherein the heat storing is carried out in evaporating zinc fluoride or zinc, and further comprising cooling the syngas and residual zinc vapors to re-use the residual zinc.

15. The method of claim 14, further comprising carrying out the oxidation of zinc and the reaction of the produced zinc oxide with methane in a lower section of a single chamber and carrying out the cooling of the syngas in an upper section of the single chamber, and configuring an intermediate section of the single chamber to withstand thermal and pressure gradients between the lower and upper chamber sections.

21. A syngas production unit comprising: a single chamber comprising:a first section arranged for oxidizing zinc,a second section arranged for reducing the produced zinc oxide with methane, andan intermediate section comprising a plurality of heat storage pipes configured to receive zinc oxidation heat from the first section and to provide the received heat for the zinc oxide reduction in the second section,wherein the oxidation and reduction are carried out simultaneously in the respective sections.

22. The syngas production unit of claim 21, further comprising a control unit configured to regulate flows of air or oxygen into the first section, nitrogen out of the first section, methane into the second section and syngas out of the second section.

23. The syngas production unit of claim 22, further comprising at least one particle removal device configured to remove zinc oxide particles from the nitrogen flow and deliver the particles into the second section.

24. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 21- 23, wherein the plurality of heat storage pipes contains at least one fluoride.

25. A syngas production unit comprising at least one reaction chamber associated with at least one heat storage element, wherein:at least one first reaction chamber is configured to enable zinc oxidation by introduced oxygen and zinc oxide reduction by introduced methane, within the at least one first reaction chamber,the at least one heat storage element is configured to store heat produced by the oxidation of zinc in the at least one first reaction chamber and supply the stored heat to the zinc oxide reduction with methane,at least one second reaction chamber is configured to enable cooling of syngas produced by the zinc oxide reduction by introduced methane and zinc regeneration from the zinc oxide reduction,the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of the zinc oxide are carried out cyclically, to yield syngas continuously, andthe syngas production unit further comprises a control unit arranged to introduce oxygen into the at least one first reaction chamber to react with zinc therewithin, introduce methane into the at least one first reaction chamber to react with zinc oxide therewithin, and regulate the syngas cooling and the zinc regeneration with respect to the zinc oxidation and the zinc oxide reduction processes.

26. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the at least one second reaction chamber is the at least one first reaction chamber and the syngas production unit is configured to perform the syngas cooling and the zinc regeneration within the at least one first reaction chamber.

27. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the at least one second reaction chamber is separate from the at least one first reaction chamber and the control unit is further arranged to introduce the regenerated zinc into the at least one first reaction chamber.

28. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the at least one first reaction chamber and the at least one second reaction chamber are arranged to enable both (a) zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction and (b) zinc regeneration and syngas cooling, and wherein the control unit is arranged to repeatedly alternate roles of the at least one first and second chambers to carry out consequent zinc oxidation and zinc oxide reduction in the at least one chamber in which the zinc regeneration was carried out last.

29. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25- 28, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises at least one of: at least one first material selected to change phase upon the heat storing; at least one second material selected to heat up upon the heat storing; and at least one third material selected to undergo a specified reversible chemical reaction upon the heat storing.

30. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25- 28, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises at least one of: copper, copper alloys, silicon, silicon alloys, silicon carbide, silicon carbide foam, zinc, zinc fluoride, fluorides salts of magnesium, fluoride salts of alkali metals, fluorides salts of alkaline earth metals and mixtures thereof.

31. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25- 28, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises at least one of: walls of the at least one first reaction chamber and pipework containing heat storage material.

32. The syngas production unit of claim 31, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises vertical pipes containing heat storage material.

33. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25- 32, wherein the at least one first reaction chamber is configured to enable zinc oxidation by supplying pre-heated air and is further configured to remove heated nitrogen via a heat exchanger to pre-heat at least one of the supplied air and the introduced methane.

34. The syngas production unit of any one of claims 25- 33, wherein the oxidation of zinc is carried out by pure oxygen.

35. The syngas production unit of claim 25, wherein the oxidation of zinc and the reaction of the produced zinc oxide with methane are carried out simultaneously in a single reaction chamber.

36. The syngas production unit of claim 35, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises a foam configured to spatially separate the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of the zinc oxide to enable carrying them out simultaneously in the single reaction chamber.

37. The syngas production unit of claim 35, wherein the single chamber comprises: a first section for the oxidation of zinc, a second section for the reaction of the produced zinc oxide with methane, and an intermediate section configured to withstand thermal and pressure gradients between the first and the second chamber sections.

38. The syngas production unit of claim 37, wherein the intermediate section comprises the at least one heat storage element.

39. The syngas production unit of claim 38, wherein the at least one heat storage element comprises a plurality of vertical metal pipes containing at least one fluoride.

40. A vertical chamber comprising: a lower reaction chamber in which zinc oxidation is carried out by introduced oxygen and zinc oxide reduction is carried out by introduced methane to produce syngas, wherein heat from the zinc oxidation is stored and released to drive the zinc oxide reduction, an upper cooling chamber in which the produced syngas is cooled and from which residual zinc is returned to the lower reaction chamber, and an intermediate section configured to connect the lower and upper chambers and withstand thermal and pressure gradients therebetween.


Fuel and fuel additives can be produced by processes that provide Fischer-Tropsch liquids having high biogenic carbon concentrations of up to about 100% biogenic carbon. The fuels and fuel additive have essentially the same high biogenic concentration as the Fischer-Tropsch liquids which, in turn, contain the same concentration of biogenic carbon as the feedstock.

Claims which contain your search:

9. A high biogenic content fuel additive derived from renewable organic feedstock according to claim 8 wherein the renewable organic feedstock is processed by sub-stoichiometric carbon oxidation and hydrocarbon reformation while producing syngas, including CO, H2 and CO2.

13. A system according to claim 12 further including a syngas conditioning system and an F-T reactor that receives syngas from the syngas conditioning system.

14. A system according to claim 13 wherein the syngas conditioning system provides the CO2 recycle to the Gasification Island.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 98.85K | Year: 2011

With the advent of more efficient hydrogen reforming systems, a practical hydrogen source has lead to investigations on the operating characteristics of diesel (JP-8) engines with a hydrogen/syngas additive. Several sources have reported that higher thermal efficiencies and lower pollution occur when hydrogen is added to the fuel stream. The objective of this proposal is to experimentally quantify the advantages of using (reformed) hydrogen to supplement JP-8 in modern CI engines. The results of this project will be used to determine what fuel-hydrogen ratios are most advantageous for engine performance and pollution mitigation. Based on the results of engine performance testing, the integration with available JP-8 reformer hardware will be evaluated.The objective of this project is to determine the effect on engine performance of introducing hydrogen/syngas into a compression ignition engine and develop a means to integrate the in-situ hydrogen/syngas production into a comprehensive system. Specific technical objectives include the experimental determination of the effects of mixing hydrogen and/or syngas with JP-8 on combustion thermal efficiency and emissions, and assessment of system level impacts such as performance, size, weight, safety, scaling and cost.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENERGY.2011.6.1-1 | Award Amount: 5.30M | Year: 2011

The OPTIMASH project aims to optimise the efficiency and reliability of gasifiers fuelled with high-ash content coals. High Pressure Circulating Fluidized Bed gasifiers are the target technology. The objective of this 4 years project is to develop a pilot gasifier capable of producing a syngas flow at 10 bars suitable for 1MWth. The gasification characteristics of high ash content coal will be investigated using pressurized Drop Tube Furnace facilities and accompanying measurement instruments. Coal gasification models will be developed taking into account the relevant chemical kinetics. In parallel, coal beneficiation and preparation studies will be conducted experimentally; the results will be modelled for their generalization. The 1 MWth pilot-scale plant will be modelled and numerically simulated using relevant CFD codes. The computations will be validated with data coming from the pilot-plant. The global IGCC system using the developed gasifier will be modelled using existing energy and mass balance soft-wares. Commercial scale design criteria will be developed taking into account pressure and geometric scaling. Indian high ash coals are the main target of the project. To insure the fuel flexibility of the developed process, Turkish high ash coals will also be studied and their characteristics used in the modelling of the process. The project will allow optimizing the global efficiency of the gasification technology for high ash coal by minimizing the steam use, optimising particle size vs residence time, developing particle agglomeration avoidance strategies, investigating corrosion risks, increasing fuel flexibility, developing efficient ash disposal system and testing different technologies for gas cooling, tar and fly ash removal. The consortium comprises a major industrial partner and a major research institute from India, together with two major research organisms from Netherlands and France, the Turkish Coal Enterprises and one Turkish university.


Martinez J.D.,CSIC - Institute of Carbochemistry | Martinez J.D.,Pontifical Bolivarian University | Murillo R.,CSIC - Institute of Carbochemistry | Garcia T.,CSIC - Institute of Carbochemistry | Arauzo I.,University of Zaragoza
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

This paper shows the maximum limit on syngas composition obtained from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis when they are submitted to an air-steam partial oxidation process. Thus, from mass and energy balances and a stoichiometric equilibrium model, syngas composition and reaction temperature as well as some process parameters were predicted by varying both the equivalence ratio (ER) and the steam to fuel ratio (SF). In addition, pyrolysis experiments were performed using a continuous auger reactor, and the influence of pyrolysis temperature on composition of both volatiles and char was studied. Consequently, the resulting syngas characteristics were correlated with the pyrolysis temperature. The stoichiometric equilibrium model showed that an ER down to 0.4 is a practical limit to perform the air-steam partial oxidation process. When the process is carried out only with air, volatiles obtained at high pyrolysis temperature lead to lower reaction temperature and higher LHV of syngas in comparison with those found at low pyrolysis temperature. The H2 production is favored between 0.20 and 0.40 of ER and seems to be more influenced by the H/C ratio than by the water gas-shift reaction. On the other hand, the steam addition shows a more notable effect on the H2 production for volatiles obtained at the highest pyrolysis temperature (600 C) in agreement with the lower reaction temperature under these experimental conditions. This thermodynamic analysis provides essential data on the optimization of syngas production from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis prior to run any test. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): syngas production, syngas characteristics, syngas.


Shih H.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Hsu J.-R.,Chang Gung University
Combustion and Flame | Year: 2012

This paper reported a numerical study on the NO x emission characteristics of opposed-jet syngas diffusion flames. A narrowband radiation model was coupled to the OPPDIF program, which used detailed chemical kinetics and thermal and transport properties to enable the study of 1-D counterflow syngas diffusion flames with flame radiation. The effects of syngas composition, pressure and dilution gases on the NO x emission of H 2/CO synthetic mixture flames were examined. The analyses of detailed flame structures, chemical kinetics, and nitrogen reaction pathways indicate NO x are formed through Zeldovich (or thermal), NNH and N 2O routes both in the hydrogen-lean and hydrogen-rich syngas flames at normal pressure. Zeldovich route is the main NO formation route. Therefore, the hydrogen-rich syngas flames produce more NO due to higher flame temperatures compared to that for hydrogen-lean syngas flames. Although NNH and N 2O routes also are the primary NO formation paths, a large amount of N 2 will be reformed from NNH and N 2O species. For hydrogen-rich syngas flames, the NO formation from NNH and N 2O routes are lesser, where NO can be dissipated through the reactions of NH+NO→N 2+OH and NH+NO→N 2O+H more actively. At a rather low pressure (0.01atm), NNH-intermediate route is the only formation path of NO. Increasing pressure then enhances NO formation reactions, especially through Zeldovich mechanisms. However, at higher pressures (5-10atm), NO is then converted back to N 2 through reversed N 2O route for hydrogen-lean syngas flames, and through NNH as well for hydrogen-rich syngas flames. In addition, the dilution effects from CO 2, H 2O, and N 2 on NO emissions for H 2/CO syngas flames were studied. The hydrogen-lean syngas flames with H 2O dilution have the lowest NO production rate among them, due to a reduced reaction rate of NNH+O→NH+NO. But for hydrogen-rich syngas flames with CO 2 dilution, the flame temperatures decrease significantly, which leads to a reduction of NO formation from Zeldovich route. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

Document Keywords (matching the query): syngas flames, syngas composition, emission characteristics.


Patent
Southern Company | Date: 2013-12-10

A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400 C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100 C. above the bed temperature.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A second stage gasification unit useful with an integrated gasification process for low reactivity fuels having a first stage gasification unit forming a first stage syngas stream containing unwanted species in a first stage concentration, the second stage gasification unit comprising: a high temperature second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier having operating characteristics to promote conversion of a first stage syngas stream containing unwanted species in a first stage concentration into a second stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in a second stage concentration, the second stage concentration of the unwanted species lower than the first stage concentration of the unwanted species, the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier comprising:bed material in a bed material region;a freeboard region above the bed material region; andan outlet for the second stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in the second stage concentration; a syngas temperament device (STD) to temper the second stage syngas stream temperature containing the unwanted species in the second stage concentration; and a bed material return to return at least a portion of bed material from the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier flowing through the STD to the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier; wherein a first operating characteristic of the second stage gasifier is that it operates in the range of approximately 1100 to 1400 C. to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% and produce the second stage syngas stream from low reactivity fuels.

2. The second stage gasification unit of claim 1, the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier having syngas inlets in the bed material region of the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier for introduction of the first stage syngas stream to the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier, the first stage syngas stream entering the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier tangentially at different elevations to form a well-mixed turbulent fluidized bed distributing the first stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in the first stage concentration among the bed material of the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier.

9. The second stage gasification unit of claim 1, wherein a second operating characteristic of the second stage gasifier is that it operates with a gas superficial velocity range between approximately 3 to 12 ft/s, and wherein a third operating characteristic of the second stage gasifier is that it operates within a pressure range between approximately 30 to 1000 psia.

10. The second stage gasification unit of claim 1, wherein the operating characteristics of the second stage gasifier help achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% and produce both a tar-free and dust-free second stage syngas stream from low reactivity fuels.

11. A gasification system for low reactivity carbonaceous fuels with an ash content comprising: a first stage gasification unit combining low reactivity carbonaceous fuels and oxidant to produce a first stage syngas stream containing unwanted species in a first stage concentration; and the second stage gasification unit of claim 1.

15. The gasification system of claim 11, wherein the system achieves over approximately 95% carbon conversion into syngas gasifying low reactivity carbonaceous fuels with ash content up to approximately 45 wt %.

16. The gasification system of claim 11, wherein the system achieves over approximately 95% carbon conversion into syngas gasifying low reactivity carbonaceous fuels.

17. The gasification system of claim 11, wherein the system achieves over approximately 98% carbon conversion into syngas gasifying low reactivity carbonaceous fuels comprising low reactivity bituminous coals.

18. The gasification system of claim 11, wherein: the first stage gasification unit having operating characteristics including an operating first stage gasification unit temperature range, an operating first stage gasification unit gas superficial velocity range, and an operating first stage gasification unit pressure range at an exit of the first stage gasification unit; the second stage gasification unit having additional operating characteristics including an operating second stage gasification unit gas superficial velocity range, and an operating second stage gasification unit pressure range at an exit of the second stage gasification unit; and wherein the operating second stage gasification unit gas superficial velocity range is between approximately 3 to 12 ft/s, and the operating second stage gasification unit pressure range is between approximately 30 to 1000 psia.

21. A process of conditioning a first stage syngas stream containing unwanted species in a first stage concentration formed by a first stage gasification unit of an integrated gasification process for low reactivity fuels, the process comprising: converting the first stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in the first stage concentration into a second stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in a second stage concentration in a high temperature second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier having operating characteristics, wherein a first operating characteristic of the second stage gasifier is operating the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier in the range of approximately 1100 to 1400 C., the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier including bed material in a bed material region, a freeboard region above the bed material region, and an outlet for the second stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in the second stage concentration, the second stage concentration of the unwanted species lower than the first stage concentration of the unwanted species; tempering the second stage syngas stream temperature containing the unwanted species in the second stage concentration in a syngas temperament device (STD); and returning at least a portion of bed material from the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier flowing through the STD to the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier.

22. The process of claim 21, wherein the process achieves over approximately 95% carbon conversion into syngas gasifying low reactivity fuels comprising carbonaceous materials with ash content up to approximately 45 wt %.

23. The process of claim 21, wherein the process achieves over approximately 95% carbon conversion into syngas gasifying low reactivity fuels comprising carbonaceous materials.

24. The process of claim 21, wherein the process achieves over approximately 98% carbon conversion into syngas gasifying low reactivity fuels comprising low reactivity bituminous coals.

25. The process of claim 21 further comprising operating the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier in a second operating characteristic comprising a superficial velocity range of between approximately 3 to 12 ft/s.

26. The process of claim 21 further comprising operating the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier in a third operating characteristic comprising a pressure range of between approximately 30 to 1000 psia.

27. A process of conditioning a first stage syngas stream containing unwanted species in a first stage concentration formed by a first stage gasification unit of an integrated gasification process for low reactivity fuels, the process comprising: converting the first stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in the first stage concentration into a second stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in a second stage concentration in a high temperature second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier, the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier including bed material in a bed material region, a freeboard region above the bed material region, and an outlet for the second stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in the second stage concentration, the second stage concentration of the unwanted species lower than the first stage concentration of the unwanted species; operating the high temperature second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier in the range of approximately 1100 to 1400 C.; operating the high temperature second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier with a superficial velocity range of between approximately 3 to 12 ft/s; operating the high temperature second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier in the range of between approximately 30 to 1000 psia; tempering the second stage syngas stream temperature containing the unwanted species in the second stage concentration in a syngas temperament device (STD); and returning at least a portion of bed material from the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier flowing through the STD to the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier; wherein the process achieves over approximately 95% carbon conversion into syngas gasifying low reactivity fuels.

28. A process for generating syngas from low reactivity fuels comprising: combining in a first unit low reactivity fuels and oxidant to produce a first stage syngas stream containing unwanted species in a first stage concentration; converting in a second unit being a second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier having bed material the first stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in the first stage concentration into a second stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in a second stage concentration, the second stage concentration of the unwanted species lower than the first stage concentration of the unwanted species; operating the second stage turbulent fluidized bed gasifier in the range of approximately 1100 to 1400 C.; tempering in a third unit the second stage syngas stream containing the unwanted species in the second stage concentration; and returning at least a portion of bed material flowing through the third unit to the second unit.

29. The process of claim 28, wherein the process achieves over approximately 95% carbon conversion into syngas gasifying low reactivity fuels comprising carbonaceous materials with ash content up to approximately 45 wt %.

31. The process of claim 28 further comprising introducing the first stage syngas stream into the second unit tangentially at different elevations of the second unit to form a well-mixed fluidized bed of the bed material that uniformly distributes the unwanted species among the bed material.

34. The process of claim 28 further comprising forming a spouted bed in the third unit with the second stage syngas stream.

35. The process of claim 28, wherein the first stage syngas stream comprises fine entrained particles in the range of approximately 0 to 50 microns, and upon char carbon conversion in the bed material of the second unit and entrainment of unconverted char carbon and finer ash particles from the bed material into a freeboard region of the second unit, the bed material contains less than approximately 1 wt %. of char carbon and less than approximately 5 wt %. of fine ash.

37. The process of claim 28, wherein the second stage syngas stream is tar-free and has a methane content in the range of approximately 0.25 to 0.5 mole %.

40. The process of claim 39, wherein for low reactivity bituminous coal gasification, the steam consumption is low and in the range of 0.25 to 0.35 steam-to-coal mass ratio, and the lower heating value of the exiting syngas is in the range of 8.5 to 10 MJ/scm.


Nipattummakul N.,University of Maryland University College | Nipattummakul N.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Bangkok | Ahmed I.I.,University of Maryland University College | Kerdsuwan S.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Bangkok | Gupta A.K.,University of Maryland University College
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

High temperature steam gasification is an attractive alternative technology which can allow one to obtain high percentage of hydrogen in the syngas from low-grade fuels. Gasification is considered a clean technology for energy conversion without environmental impact using biomass and solid wastes as feedstock. Sewage sludge is considered a renewable fuel because it is sustainable and has good potential for energy recovery. In this investigation, sewage sludge samples were gasified at various temperatures to determine the evolutionary behavior of syngas characteristics and other properties of the syngas produced. The syngas characteristics were evaluated in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen production, syngas chemical analysis, and efficiency of energy conversion. In addition to gasification experiments, pyrolysis experiments were conducted for evaluating the performance of gasification over pyrolysis. The increase in reactor temperature resulted in increased generation of hydrogen. Hydrogen yield at 1000 °C was found to be 0.076 g gas g sample -1. Steam as the gasifying agent increased the hydrogen yield three times as compared to air gasification. Sewage sludge gasification results were compared with other samples, such as, paper, food wastes and plastics. The time duration for sewage sludge gasification was longer as compared to other samples. On the other hand sewage sludge yielded more hydrogen than that from paper and food wastes. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Keywords (matching the query): syngas production, clean syngas.