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Systems and methods are provided for combined cycle power generation and enhanced hydrocarbon production where emission gases during power generation are separated by adsorption and applied to facilitate extraction of hydrocarbons from a reservoir. A power generation plant passes exhaust gas to a first swing adsorption reactor. The first swing adsorption reactor adsorbs the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas. An adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable. An injection well injects the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir. A production well that is in communication with the injection well produces a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2). A second swing adsorption reactor purifies the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well. The purified hydrocarbons are fed back to the power generation plant where combustion occurs and power is generated.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method for optimizing hydrocarbon production, comprising: passing recycle exhaust gas from a power generation plant to a first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the exhaust gas includes CO_(2 )and N_(2); adsorbing the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas on a first adsorbent material of the first swing adsorption reactor, wherein an adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable; injecting the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir by using an injection well; producing a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2 )by using a production well, which is in communication with the injection well; and purifying the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well on a second adsorbent material of a second swing adsorption reactor.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein a N _(2 )stream unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor exits the first swing adsorption reactor at a pressure that is substantially the same as a pressure of the exhaust gas from the power generation plant.

3. The method of claim 1, further comprising: recovering a N_(2 )stream unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor.

4. The method of claim 1, further comprising: purging the second swing adsorption reactor with a stream of N_(2 )unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor.

6. The method of claim 1, further comprising: wherein the adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is varied to adjust composition of adsorbed CO_(2 )based on a composition of hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon reservoir.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein at least one of the first swing adsorption reactor and the second swing adsorption reactor is a high-temperature reactor.

10. The method of claim 1, further comprising: purging the first swing adsorption reactor with at least one of steam, a stream of N_(2), a stream of CO_(2), and a stream of CH_(4).

11. The method of claim 1, further comprising: purging the second swing adsorption reactor with at least one of a stream of CO_(2 )and a stream of CH_(4 )flowing from the production well.

12. A method for optimizing power generation, comprising: passing recycle exhaust gas from a power generation plant to a first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the exhaust gas includes CO_(2 )and N_(2); adsorbing the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas on a first adsorbent material of the first swing adsorption reactor, wherein an adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable; injecting the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir by using an injection well; producing a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2 )by using a production well, which is in communication with the injection well; and purifying the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well on a second adsorbent material of a second swing adsorption reactor.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein a N _(2 )stream unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor exits the first swing adsorption reactor at a pressure that is substantially the same as a pressure of the exhaust gas from the power generation plant.

14. The method of claim 12, further comprising: recovering a N_(2 )stream unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor.

15. The method of claim 12, further comprising: purging the second swing adsorption reactor with a stream of N_(2 )unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor.

17. The method of claim 12, further comprising: wherein the adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is varied to adjust composition of adsorbed CO_(2 )based on a composition of hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon reservoir.

19. The method of claim 12, wherein at least one of the first swing adsorption reactor and the second swing adsorption reactor is a high-temperature reactor.

21. The method of claim 12, further comprising: purging the first swing adsorption reactor with at least one of steam, a stream of N_(2), a stream of CO_(2), and a stream of CH_(4).

22. The method of claim 12, further comprising: purging the second swing adsorption reactor with at least one of a stream of CO_(2 )and a stream of CH_(4 )flowing from the production well.

23. A system for optimizing hydrocarbon production, comprising: a power generation plant that produces recycle exhaust gas, wherein the exhaust gas includes CO_(2 )and N_(2); a first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the power generation plant passes the exhaust gas to the first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the first swing adsorption reactor adsorbs the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas on a first adsorbent material of the first swing adsorption reactor, and wherein an adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable; an injection well that injects the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir; a production well that is in communication with the injection well and that produces a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2); and a second swing adsorption reactor that purifies the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well on a second adsorbent material of the second swing adsorption reactor.

24. The system of claim 23, wherein the adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is varied to adjust composition of adsorbed CO _(2 )based on a composition of hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon reservoir.

26. A system for optimizing power generation, comprising: a power generation plant that produces recycle exhaust gas, wherein the exhaust gas includes CO_(2 )and N_(2); a first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the power generation plant passes the exhaust gas to the first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the first swing adsorption reactor adsorbs the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas on a first adsorbent material of the first swing adsorption reactor, and wherein an adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable; an injection well that injects the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir; a production well that is in communication with the injection well and that produces a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2); and a second swing adsorption reactor that purifies the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well on a second adsorbent material of the second swing adsorption reactor.

27. The system of claim 26, wherein the adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is varied to adjust composition of adsorbed CO _(2 )based on a composition of hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon reservoir.

...

Patent
Chevron, Bhandarkar, Benham, Gill, Gonzales, Kufeld, Mutchler, Nguyen and Odi | Date: 2017-08-30

A technique for polymerizing ethylene on catalyst in a first polymerization reactor and in a second polymerization reactor to form polyethylene particles, and controlling particle size of the polyethylene particles.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method of operating a polyethylene reactor system, comprising: polymerizing ethylene on a catalyst in a first polymerization reactor to form intermediate particles having the catalyst and a first polyethylene; discharging the intermediate particles from the first polymerization reactor to a second polymerization reactor; polymerizing ethylene on the catalyst in the intermediate particles in the second polymerization reactor to form product particles having the catalyst, the first polyethylene, and the second polyethylene; discharging the product particles from the second polymerization reactor; and controlling a particle size of the product particles by adjusting a residence time of the catalyst through the first polymerization reactor, the second polymerization reactor, or both the first and second polymerization reactors.

2. The method of claim 1, comprising feeding ethylene, diluent, and the catalyst to the first polymerization reactor, and feeding ethylene and diluent to the second polymerization reactor.

3. The method of claim 1 or claim 2, comprising wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor, or wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the second polymerization reactor.

4. The method of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a solids concentration in the first polymerization reactor, in the second polymerization reactor, or in both the first and second polymerization reactors.

5. The method of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a first residence time of the catalyst in the first polymerization reactor or adjusting a second residence time of the catalyst in the second polymerization reactor, or adjusting both the first residence time and the second residence time.

6. The method of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein adjusting the first residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor.

7. The method of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein adjusting the second residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a first diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor, adjusting a rate of a second diluent feed stream to the second polymerization reactor, or both adjusting a rate of a first diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor and adjusting a rate of a second diluent feed stream to the second polymerization reactor.

8. The method of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein adjusting the first residence time comprises adjusting solids concentration in the first polymerization reactor, and wherein adjusting the second residence time comprises adjusting solids concentration in the second polymerization reactor.

9. The method of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the first polymerization reactor and the second polymerization reactor each comprise a liquid-phase reactor.

10. The method of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the first polymerization reactor and the second polymerization reactor each comprise a loop reactor.

11. The method of any one of claims 1 to 10, comprising further controlling the particle size of the product particles by adjusting activity of the catalyst in the first polymerization reactor, in the second polymerization reactor, or in both the first and second polymerization reactors.

12. The method of any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein adjusting activity comprises adding an activity inhibitor to the first polymerization reactor, to the second polymerization reactor, or to both the first and second polymerization reactors, wherein the activity inhibitor comprises a catalyst poison.

13. The method of any one of claims 1 to 12, comprising feeding comonomer to the first polymerization reactor, to the second polymerization reactor, or to both the first and second polymerization reactors.

15. A method of operating a polyethylene reactor system, comprising: polymerizing ethylene on a catalyst in a first polymerization reactor to form a first polyethylene and to form intermediate polyethylene particles comprising the catalyst and the first polyethylene; discharging the intermediate polyethylene particles from the first polymerization reactor to a second polymerization reactor; polymerizing ethylene on the catalyst in the second polymerization reactor to form a second polyethylene and to form product polyethylene particles comprising the catalyst, the first polyethylene, and the second polyethylene; discharging the product polyethylene particles from the second polymerization reactor; and controlling a particle size of the product polyethylene particles by adjusting activity of the catalyst in the first polymerization reactor, in the second polymerization reactor, or in both the first and second polymerization reactors.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein adjusting activity comprises adding an activity inhibitor to the first polymerization reactor, to the second polymerization reactor, or both the first and second polymerization reactors, wherein the activity inhibitor comprises a catalyst poison.

17. The method of claim 15 or 16, comprising further controlling a particle size of the product particles by adjusting a residence time of the catalyst through the first polymerization reactor, the second polymerization reactor or both the first and second polymerization reactors.

18. The method of any one of claims 15 to 17, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor, or wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the second polymerization reactor.

19. The method of any one of claims 15 to 18, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a solids concentration in the first polymerization reactor, in the second polymerization reactor, or in both the first and second polymerization reactors.

20. The method of any one of claims 15 to 19, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a first residence time of the catalyst in the first polymerization reactor or adjusting a second residence time of the catalyst in the second polymerization reactor, or adjusting both the first residence time and the second residence time.

...
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Organizations compared on records for related keywords
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Weight of records per source
Name Score Publications Conferences Grants Patents Trademarks News Webs
74.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
45.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
44.3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
34.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
20.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
19.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
18.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
18.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
16.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
14.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
13.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
13.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
13.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
ODI
13.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
13.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
13.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
13.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
13.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
13.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
13.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
12.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
12.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
12.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
11.9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
11.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
11.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
11.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
10.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
10.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
10.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
10.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
10.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
10.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
9.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
9.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
8.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
8.2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
8.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
8.1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
8.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
7.0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
6.4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
SABIC
6.3 - - - 10 10 10 10
Total Petrochemicals Research Feluy
6.2 - - - 10 10 10 10
Sumitomo Electric Industries
5.9 - - - 10 10 10 10
SunEdison
5.8 - - - 10 10 10 10
Hanyang University
5.7 4 1 - 10 10 10 10
Dongjin Semichem Co.
5.7 - - - 10 10 10 10
Yunnan Electric Power Research Institute
5.7 2 4 - 10 10 10 10
Tsinghua University
5.7 21 7 - 10 10 10 10
Rouge H2 Engineering GmbH
5.7 - - - 10 10 10 10
ABB
5.7 - - - 10 10 10 10
Total Research & Technology Feluy
5.6 - - - 10 10 10 10
Shin - Etsu Chemical Co.
5.5 - - - 10 10 10 10
Union Carbide Chemicals & Plastics Technology LLC
5.4 - - - 10 10 10 10
Air Products and Chemicals Inc
5.4 - - - 10 10 10 10
Kia Motors
5.3 - - - 10 10 10 10
Hyundai Motor Company
5.3 - - - 10 10 10 10
Asahi Kasei Corporation
5.1 - - - 10 10 10 10
BASF
5.1 - 1 - 10 10 10 10
BRILLOUIN ENERGY Corporation
5.0 - - - 10 10 10 10
French National Center for Scientific Research
5.0 6 - - 10 10 10 10
China Electric Power Research Institute
5.0 3 3 - 10 10 10 10
Celanese Corporation
4.9 - - - 10 10 10 10
Fraunhofer United States Inc.
4.9 - - - 10 10 10 10
Harbin Institute of Technology
4.9 21 3 - 10 10 10 10
Biofuel Technology A S
4.9 - - - 10 10 10 10
MItsubishi Electric
4.9 1 - - 10 10 10 10
Saudi Aramco
4.8 - - - 10 10 10 10
Sumitomo Wiring Systems Ltd.
4.7 - - - 10 10 10 10
Trygstad
4.6 - - - 10 10 10 10
Abengoa
4.6 - - - 10 10 10 10
AutoNetworks Technologies Ltd.
4.6 - - - 10 10 10 10
MEMC Electronic Materials
4.6 - - - 10 10 10 10
Columbia University
4.5 1 - - 10 10 10 10
The Administrators Of The Tulane Educational Fund
4.4 - - - 10 10 10 10
Fluor Corporation
4.4 - - - 10 10 10 10
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
4.4 5 1 - 10 10 10 10
Yanggu Xiangguang Copper Co.
4.2 - - - 10 10 10 10
Ube Industries
4.2 - - - 10 10 10 10
Rockwater Resource LLC
4.2 - - - 10 10 10 10
KF Co.
4.2 - - - 10 10 10 10

Systems and methods are provided for combined cycle power generation and enhanced hydrocarbon production where emission gases during power generation are separated by adsorption and applied to facilitate extraction of hydrocarbons from a reservoir. A power generation plant passes exhaust gas to a first swing adsorption reactor. The first swing adsorption reactor adsorbs the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas. An adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable. An injection well injects the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir. A production well that is in communication with the injection well produces a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2). A second swing adsorption reactor purifies the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well. The purified hydrocarbons are fed back to the power generation plant where combustion occurs and power is generated.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method for optimizing hydrocarbon production, comprising: passing recycle exhaust gas from a power generation plant to a first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the exhaust gas includes CO_(2 )and N_(2); adsorbing the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas on a first adsorbent material of the first swing adsorption reactor, wherein an adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable; injecting the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir by using an injection well; producing a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2 )by using a production well, which is in communication with the injection well; and purifying the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well on a second adsorbent material of a second swing adsorption reactor.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein a N _(2 )stream unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor exits the first swing adsorption reactor at a pressure that is substantially the same as a pressure of the exhaust gas from the power generation plant.

3. The method of claim 1, further comprising: recovering a N_(2 )stream unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor.

4. The method of claim 1, further comprising: purging the second swing adsorption reactor with a stream of N_(2 )unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor.

6. The method of claim 1, further comprising: wherein the adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is varied to adjust composition of adsorbed CO_(2 )based on a composition of hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon reservoir.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein at least one of the first swing adsorption reactor and the second swing adsorption reactor is a high-temperature reactor.

10. The method of claim 1, further comprising: purging the first swing adsorption reactor with at least one of steam, a stream of N_(2), a stream of CO_(2), and a stream of CH_(4).

11. The method of claim 1, further comprising: purging the second swing adsorption reactor with at least one of a stream of CO_(2 )and a stream of CH_(4 )flowing from the production well.

12. A method for optimizing power generation, comprising: passing recycle exhaust gas from a power generation plant to a first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the exhaust gas includes CO_(2 )and N_(2); adsorbing the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas on a first adsorbent material of the first swing adsorption reactor, wherein an adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable; injecting the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir by using an injection well; producing a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2 )by using a production well, which is in communication with the injection well; and purifying the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well on a second adsorbent material of a second swing adsorption reactor.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein a N _(2 )stream unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor exits the first swing adsorption reactor at a pressure that is substantially the same as a pressure of the exhaust gas from the power generation plant.

14. The method of claim 12, further comprising: recovering a N_(2 )stream unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor.

15. The method of claim 12, further comprising: purging the second swing adsorption reactor with a stream of N_(2 )unadsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor.

17. The method of claim 12, further comprising: wherein the adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is varied to adjust composition of adsorbed CO_(2 )based on a composition of hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon reservoir.

19. The method of claim 12, wherein at least one of the first swing adsorption reactor and the second swing adsorption reactor is a high-temperature reactor.

21. The method of claim 12, further comprising: purging the first swing adsorption reactor with at least one of steam, a stream of N_(2), a stream of CO_(2), and a stream of CH_(4).

22. The method of claim 12, further comprising: purging the second swing adsorption reactor with at least one of a stream of CO_(2 )and a stream of CH_(4 )flowing from the production well.

23. A system for optimizing hydrocarbon production, comprising: a power generation plant that produces recycle exhaust gas, wherein the exhaust gas includes CO_(2 )and N_(2); a first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the power generation plant passes the exhaust gas to the first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the first swing adsorption reactor adsorbs the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas on a first adsorbent material of the first swing adsorption reactor, and wherein an adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable; an injection well that injects the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir; a production well that is in communication with the injection well and that produces a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2); and a second swing adsorption reactor that purifies the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well on a second adsorbent material of the second swing adsorption reactor.

24. The system of claim 23, wherein the adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is varied to adjust composition of adsorbed CO _(2 )based on a composition of hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon reservoir.

26. A system for optimizing power generation, comprising: a power generation plant that produces recycle exhaust gas, wherein the exhaust gas includes CO_(2 )and N_(2); a first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the power generation plant passes the exhaust gas to the first swing adsorption reactor, wherein the first swing adsorption reactor adsorbs the CO_(2 )from the exhaust gas on a first adsorbent material of the first swing adsorption reactor, and wherein an adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is variable; an injection well that injects the CO_(2 )adsorbed by the first swing adsorption reactor in a hydrocarbon reservoir; a production well that is in communication with the injection well and that produces a mixture of hydrocarbons and CO_(2); and a second swing adsorption reactor that purifies the produced hydrocarbons by adsorbing the produced CO_(2 )from the production well on a second adsorbent material of the second swing adsorption reactor.

27. The system of claim 26, wherein the adsorption cycle of the first swing adsorption reactor is varied to adjust composition of adsorbed CO _(2 )based on a composition of hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon reservoir.


Patent
Chevron, Bhandarkar, Benham, Gill, Gonzales, Kufeld, Mutchler, Nguyen and Odi | Date: 2017-08-30

A technique for polymerizing ethylene on catalyst in a first polymerization reactor and in a second polymerization reactor to form polyethylene particles, and controlling particle size of the polyethylene particles.

Claims which contain your search:

1. A method of operating a polyethylene reactor system, comprising: polymerizing ethylene on a catalyst in a first polymerization reactor to form intermediate particles having the catalyst and a first polyethylene; discharging the intermediate particles from the first polymerization reactor to a second polymerization reactor; polymerizing ethylene on the catalyst in the intermediate particles in the second polymerization reactor to form product particles having the catalyst, the first polyethylene, and the second polyethylene; discharging the product particles from the second polymerization reactor; and controlling a particle size of the product particles by adjusting a residence time of the catalyst through the first polymerization reactor, the second polymerization reactor, or both the first and second polymerization reactors.

2. The method of claim 1, comprising feeding ethylene, diluent, and the catalyst to the first polymerization reactor, and feeding ethylene and diluent to the second polymerization reactor.

3. The method of claim 1 or claim 2, comprising wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor, or wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the second polymerization reactor.

4. The method of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a solids concentration in the first polymerization reactor, in the second polymerization reactor, or in both the first and second polymerization reactors.

5. The method of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a first residence time of the catalyst in the first polymerization reactor or adjusting a second residence time of the catalyst in the second polymerization reactor, or adjusting both the first residence time and the second residence time.

6. The method of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein adjusting the first residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor.

7. The method of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein adjusting the second residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a first diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor, adjusting a rate of a second diluent feed stream to the second polymerization reactor, or both adjusting a rate of a first diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor and adjusting a rate of a second diluent feed stream to the second polymerization reactor.

8. The method of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein adjusting the first residence time comprises adjusting solids concentration in the first polymerization reactor, and wherein adjusting the second residence time comprises adjusting solids concentration in the second polymerization reactor.

9. The method of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the first polymerization reactor and the second polymerization reactor each comprise a liquid-phase reactor.

10. The method of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the first polymerization reactor and the second polymerization reactor each comprise a loop reactor.

11. The method of any one of claims 1 to 10, comprising further controlling the particle size of the product particles by adjusting activity of the catalyst in the first polymerization reactor, in the second polymerization reactor, or in both the first and second polymerization reactors.

12. The method of any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein adjusting activity comprises adding an activity inhibitor to the first polymerization reactor, to the second polymerization reactor, or to both the first and second polymerization reactors, wherein the activity inhibitor comprises a catalyst poison.

13. The method of any one of claims 1 to 12, comprising feeding comonomer to the first polymerization reactor, to the second polymerization reactor, or to both the first and second polymerization reactors.

15. A method of operating a polyethylene reactor system, comprising: polymerizing ethylene on a catalyst in a first polymerization reactor to form a first polyethylene and to form intermediate polyethylene particles comprising the catalyst and the first polyethylene; discharging the intermediate polyethylene particles from the first polymerization reactor to a second polymerization reactor; polymerizing ethylene on the catalyst in the second polymerization reactor to form a second polyethylene and to form product polyethylene particles comprising the catalyst, the first polyethylene, and the second polyethylene; discharging the product polyethylene particles from the second polymerization reactor; and controlling a particle size of the product polyethylene particles by adjusting activity of the catalyst in the first polymerization reactor, in the second polymerization reactor, or in both the first and second polymerization reactors.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein adjusting activity comprises adding an activity inhibitor to the first polymerization reactor, to the second polymerization reactor, or both the first and second polymerization reactors, wherein the activity inhibitor comprises a catalyst poison.

17. The method of claim 15 or 16, comprising further controlling a particle size of the product particles by adjusting a residence time of the catalyst through the first polymerization reactor, the second polymerization reactor or both the first and second polymerization reactors.

18. The method of any one of claims 15 to 17, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the first polymerization reactor, or wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a rate of a diluent feed stream to the second polymerization reactor.

19. The method of any one of claims 15 to 18, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a solids concentration in the first polymerization reactor, in the second polymerization reactor, or in both the first and second polymerization reactors.

20. The method of any one of claims 15 to 19, wherein adjusting the residence time comprises adjusting a first residence time of the catalyst in the first polymerization reactor or adjusting a second residence time of the catalyst in the second polymerization reactor, or adjusting both the first residence time and the second residence time.


Patent
LyondellBasell Acetyls LLC | Date: 2017-04-10

The present disclosure provides for a method for measuring the concentration of one or more components in a reactor or a separation unit of an acetic acid process by Raman spectroscopic analyses. In some embodiments, the conditions in the reactor or in any subsequent step of the acetic acid production process are adjusted in response to the measured concentration of one or more components.

Claims which contain your search:

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the reactor mixture comprises: (A) a carbonylation catalyst; (B) methanol; (C) methyl acetate; (D) water; (E) carbon monoxide; (F) carbon dioxide; and (G) acetic acid.

1. A method for the production of acetic acid comprising: (A) reacting,(i) methanol,(ii) carbon monoxide, and(iii) water, in a carbonylation reactor in the presence of a carbonylation catalyst to produce a reactor mixture; (B) measuring an initial value for a reference component by Raman spectroscopic analysis with an uncoated probe or flow-through cell in contact with the reactor mixture; (C) measuring a value for the reference component and measuring the concentration of one or more components of interest in the reactor mixture by Raman spectroscopic analysis; (D) determining an Adjustment Ratio by dividing the initial value for the reference component by the value for the reference component; (E) calculating an Adjusted Value for the concentration of the component(s) of interest by multiplying the concentration of the component(s) of interest by the Adjustment Ratio; and (F) modifying at least one process condition in the carbonylation reactor or a separation unit, based upon the Adjusted Value.

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the reactor mixture comprises: (A) a carbonylation catalyst; (B) methanol; (C) methyl acetate; (D) water; (E) carbon monoxide; (F) carbon dioxide; (G) methyl iodide; and (H) acetic acid.


Patent
CatalySystems Ltd | Date: 2017-06-14

An improved photocatalytic reactor stator having a first surface and an opposing second surface, and at least one channel extending between the first surface and the second surface to allow fluid flow through the stator. The at least one channel may be configured to redirect the fluid flow in a direction substantially parallel to the first and/or second surface. This improved photocatalytic reactor stator improves the performance of a photocatalytic reactor by increasing the mobility of the photocatalyst and thereby increasing the surface area of the catalyst that is exposed to the reactant and the UV light source.

Claims which contain your search:

32. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in claim 31 wherein the photocatalyst particles are granular, powders, agglomerates or pellets.

1. An improved photocatalytic reactor stator, the improved stator comprising: a first surface and an opposing second surface, and at least one channel extending between the first surface and the second surface to allow fluid flow through the stator, wherein the at least one channel is configured to redirect the fluid flow in a direction substantially parallel to the first and/or second surface.

34. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in any of claims 31 to 33 wherein the at least one stator is a support surface for a layer of mobile photocatalyst particles.

35. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in any of claims 31 to 34 wherein the photocatalyst particles comprises a semi-conductor catalyst selected from titanium dioxide, a metal doped titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, iron oxide, cadmium sulphide and zinc sulphide.

36. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed any of claims 31 to 35 wherein the photocatalyst particles comprise a catalyst support material core coated with photocatalyst material.

37. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in any of claims 31 to 36 wherein the photocatalyst particles comprise a substantially cylindrical shape.

38. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in any of claims 31 to 36 wherein the photocatalyst particles comprise a substantially spherical shape.

33. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in claim 31 or claim 32 wherein the photocatalyst particles are formed by compaction, moulding, extrusion, milling, agglomeration or granulation.

40. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in any of claims 31 to 39 wherein the photocatalyst particles are negatively buoyant in the fluid in the apparatus.

41. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in any of claims 31 to 39 wherein the photocatalyst particles are neutrally buoyant, positively buoyant or are configured to be lifted or moved when exposed to a jet of fluid through the at least one channel in the stator.

42. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in any of claims 31 to 41 wherein the reaction chamber comprises a plurality of spatially separated cells or sub-chambers, and each cell or sub-chamber comprises a stator.

39. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in any of claims 31 to 38 wherein the photocatalyst particles have a minimum diameter of greater than approximately 0.1 mm and a maximum diameter of less than approximately 5 mm.

44. A method of carrying out a photocatalytic reaction, the method comprising: providing a photocatalytic reactor comprising at least one stator according to the first aspect; providing a layer of mobile photocatalyst particles disposed on at least one surface of the stator; providing a flow of fluid through the stator; redirecting the fluid flow in a direction substantially parallel to the at least one surface of the stator.

46. The method as claimed in claim 44 or claim 45, comprising adjusting the fluid flow through the reactor and/or adjusting the fluid flow through the stator to optimise the movement of the mobile photocatalyst particles across or around the at least one surface of the stator.

47. The method as claimed in any of claims 44 to 46, comprising adjusting the fluid flow through the reactor and/or adjusting the fluid flow through the stator until the fluidisation generated by the fluid flow is greater than the fluidisation value of the photocatalyst particles.

43. The photocatalytic reactor as claimed in any of claims 31 to 42 wherein the fluid inlet is configured to induce flow swirls and/or a vortex within the reactor.

50. The method as claimed in claim 49, comprising adjusting the fluid flow through the reactor and/or adjusting the fluid flow through the stator to optimise the sequential and non-continuous movement of the mobile photocatalyst particles across or around the at least one surface of the stator.

24. The improved stator as claimed in claim 23 wherein the light source is one or more discrete light source located in and/or around the reactor.

49. A method of carrying out a photocatalytic reaction, the method comprising: providing a photocatalytic reactor comprising at least one stator according to the first aspect; providing a layer of mobile photocatalyst particles disposed on at least one surface of the stator; providing a flow of fluid through the stator; redirecting the fluid flow to sequentially move the mobile photocatalyst particles around the at least one surface of the stator in a non-continuous path.

31. A photocatalytic reactor comprising: a reaction chamber having a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet displaced in a longitudinal direction of the reaction chamber, at least one stator according to the first aspect located between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and a plurality of mobile photocatalyst particles disposed on the at least one stator.


Patent
Instrument Manufacturing Company | Date: 2017-08-09

Exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure are directed to diagnostic testing of electrical power cables using a resonant test system. The resonant test system can be configured to adjust an inductance to set the inductance of the resonant test system to a test inductance value and to adjust an output frequency of the resonant test system to set the output frequency to a test output frequency. The inductance of the resonant test system can be adjusted by controlling a reactor of the resonant test system and the output frequency of the resonant test system can be controlled by an inverter of the resonant test system. The test inductance value and the test output frequency the test inductance value and the test output frequency can be automatically and dynamically set by a controller of the resonant test system to achieve resonance in series with an electrical power cable under test. One or more diagnostic tests can be performed on the electrical power cable.

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5. The method of claim 1, wherein the resonant test set includes a reactor and adjusting the inductance of the resonant test set comprises: receiving feedback signals associated with the inductance of the reactor by a processing device; determining whether the inductance of the reactor corresponds to a minimum phase angle by the processing device; and adjusting the inductance of the reactor to the test inductance value in response to determining that the feedback signals do not correspond to the test inductance value.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein the resonant test set comprises a reactor having a split magnetic core including a first core segment and a second core segment that is moveable with respect to the first core segment and adjusting the inductance of the resonant test set comprises: receiving control signals from a processing device by an actuator of the reactor, the actuator being controlled by the control signal to adjust a distance between the first and second core segments until the test inductance value is achieved.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein the distance between the first and second core segment is adjustable between approximately a tenth of a centimeter and approximately five centimeters.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the inductance of the reactor is approximately four hundred Henries when the distance is set to approximately one tenth of a centimeter and is approximately fifteen Henries when the distance is set to approximately five centimeters.

13. A resonant test system for diagnostic testing of electrical cables, the resonant test system comprising: an inverter configured to receive a direct current (DC) voltage at an input and to output an alternating current (AC) voltage at an output; an exciter operatively coupled to the inverter, the exciter amplifying an amplitude of the AC voltage; a reactor having an input that is operatively coupled to the exciter and an output that is configured to be operatively coupled to an electrical cable; and a processing device operatively coupled to the inverter and the reactor, the processing device being programmed to adjust an inductance of the reactor and an output frequency of the inverter to achieve resonance in series with the electrical cable.

21. The resonant test system of claim 13, wherein the processing device is programmed to: receive feedback signals associated with the inductance of the reactor; determine whether the inductance of the reactor corresponds to a minimum phase angle by the processing device; and adjust the inductance of the reactor to the test inductance value in response to determining that the feedback signals do not correspond to the minimum phase angle.

22. The resonant test system of claim 13, wherein the reactor has a split magnetic core including a first core segment and a second core segment that is moveable with respect to the first core segment, wherein the processing device is programmed to adjust the inductance of the resonant test controlling an actuator of the reactor, the actuator being controlled by the control signal to adjust a distance between the first and second core segments until the test inductance value is achieved.

24. The medium of claim 23, wherein the resonant test set includes a reactor and adjusting the inductance of the resonant test set comprises: receiving feedback signals associated with the inductance of the reactor by a processing device; determining whether the inductance of the reactor corresponds to a minimum phase angle by the processing device; and adjusting the inductance of the reactor to the test inductance value in response to determining that the feedback signals do not correspond to the test inductance value.

25. The medium of claim 23, wherein the resonant test set comprises a reactor having a split magnetic core including a first core segment and a second core segment that is moveable with respect to the first core segment and adjusting the inductance of the resonant test set comprises: receiving control signals from a processing device by an actuator of the reactor, the actuator being controlled by the control signal to adjust a distance between the first and second core segments until the test inductance value is achieved.


A system and method for startup of a polyolefin reactor temperature control system having a first reactor temperature control path, a second reactor temperature control path, and a shared temperature control path. In some embodiments, during startup the second reactor temperature control path is configured to allow the temperature of a second reactor to rise due to the heat of the exothermic polymerization reaction occurring within reactor until reaching a predetermined setpoint temperature. In other embodiments, during startup a first reactor temperature control path is configured to include a heat exchanger used as a cooler, and a second reactor temperature control path is configured to include a heat exchanger used as a heater, to raise the temperature of the second reactor until reaching a predetermined setpoint temperature.

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3. The method of claim 2, further comprising measuring the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor; determining that the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor has reached a predetermined setpoint; adjusting conditions within the second heat exchanger zone such that the second treated stream temperature is lower than the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor.

4. The method of claim 2, wherein conditions are adjusted within the second heat exchanger zone at about 30% of the design production rate of the reactor system.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein no heat is added to the second heat exchanger zone feed stream through the second heat exchanger zone; and the energy exchange between the second treated stream and the second polyolefin reactor allows the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor to rise until reaching a predetermined setpoint.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein, at startup, the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor is about equal to the temperature of the first polyolefin reactor.

7. The method of claim 5, wherein at startup, the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor is about one degree Fahrenheit greater than the temperature of the first polyolefin reactor.

8. The method of claim 5, wherein at startup, the temperature of the first and second polyolefin reactor is about 188 degrees Fahrenheit.

9. The method of claim 5, further comprising measuring the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor; determining that the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor has reached a predetermined setpoint; adjusting conditions within the second heat exchanger zone such that the second treated stream temperature is lower than the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor.

11. The method of claim 9, wherein conditions are adjusted within the second heat exchanger zone at about 50% of the design production rate of the reactor system.

12. A method of controlling reactor temperature during startup conditions, comprising: splitting a first control feed system into at least (1) a first heat exchanger zone feed stream through a first heat exchanger zone to produce a first heat exchanger zone output stream and (2) a first heat exchanger zone bypass stream; combining the first heat exchanger zone output stream and the first heat exchanger zone bypass stream to give a first treated stream having a first treated stream temperature; recycling a first return stream comprising the first treated stream after the first treated stream has exchanged energy with a first polyolefin reactor, wherein the first treated stream temperature is lower than the temperature of the first polyolefin reactor; splitting a second control feed stream into at least (1) a second heat exchanger zone feed stream through a second heat exchanger zone to produce a second heat exchanger zone output stream and (2) a second heat exchanger zone bypass stream; combining the second heat exchanger zone output stream and the second heat exchanger zone bypass stream to give a second treated stream having a second treated stream temperature; recycling a second return stream comprising the second treated stream after the second treated stream has exchanged energy with a second polyolefin reactor, wherein the second treated stream temperature is higher than the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor; combining the first and second return streams to form a combined return stream; processing the combined return stream through shared system equipment to form a shared output stream; and splitting the shared output stream into the first control feed and the second control feed.

13. The method of claim 12, further comprising measuring the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor; determining that the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor has reached a predetermined setpoint; adjusting conditions within the second heat exchanger zone such that the second treated stream temperature is lower than the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor.

14. The method of claim 12, wherein conditions are adjusted within the second heat exchanger zone at about 30% of the design production rate of the reactor system.

15. The method of claim 12, wherein no heat is added to the second heat exchanger zone feed stream through the second heat exchanger zone; and the energy exchange between the second treated stream and the second polyolefin reactor allows the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor to rise until reaching a predetermined setpoint;

16. The method of claim 12, wherein, at startup, the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor is about equal to the temperature of the first polyolefin reactor.

17. The method of claim 12, wherein at startup, the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor is about one degree Fahrenheit greater than the temperature of the first polyolefin reactor.

18. The method of claim 12, wherein at startup, the temperature of the first and second polyolefin reactor is about 188 degrees Fahrenheit.

19. The method of claim 12, further comprising measuring the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor; determining that the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor has reached a predetermined setpoint; adjusting conditions within the second heat exchanger zone such that the second treated stream temperature is lower than the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor.

20. A method of controlling reactor temperature during start-up conditions, comprising: splitting a first control feed system into at least (1) a first heat exchanger zone feed stream through a first heat exchanger zone to produce a first heat exchanger zone output stream and (2) a first heat exchanger zone bypass stream; combining the first heat exchanger zone output stream and the first heat exchanger zone bypass stream to give a first treated stream having a first treated stream temperature; recycling a first return stream comprising the first treated stream after the first treated stream has exchanged energy with a first polyolefin reactor; splitting a second control feed stream into at least (1) a second heat exchanger zone feed stream through a second heat exchanger zone to produce a second heat exchanger zone output stream and (2) a second heat exchanger zone bypass stream; combining the second heat exchanger zone output stream and the second heat exchanger zone bypass stream to give a second treated stream having a second treated stream temperature; recycling a second return stream comprising the second treated stream after the second treated stream has exchanged energy with a second polyolefin reactor, wherein no heat is added to the second heat exchanger zone feed stream through the second heat exchanger zone, and the energy exchange between the second treated stream and the second polyolefin reactor allows the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor to rise until reaching a predetermined setpoint; combining the first and second return streams to form a combined return stream; processing the combined return stream through shared system equipment to form a shared output stream; and splitting the shared output stream into the first control feed and the second control feed.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein at startup, the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor is about equal to the temperature of the first polyolefin reactor.

22. The method of claim 20, wherein at startup, the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor is about one degree Fahrenheit greater than the temperature of the first polyolefin reactor.

23. The method of claim 20, wherein at startup, the temperature of the first and second polyolefin reactor is about 188 degrees Fahrenheit.

24. The method of claim 20, wherein the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor is increased in steps of about 0.5 degrees Fahrenheit throughout startup.

25. The method of claim 20, further comprising measuring the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor; determining that the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor has reached a predetermined setpoint; adjusting conditions within the second heat exchanger zone such that the second treated stream temperature is lower than the temperature of the second polyolefin reactor.

26. The method of claim 25, wherein conditions are adjusted within the second heat exchanger zone at about 50% of the design production rate of the reactor system.


Patent
Ineos Europe AG | Date: 2017-05-03

A process and system are provided for controlling an amount of ammonia and/or air provided to an ammoxidation reactor. The process includes maintaining a pH of a quench water bottoms and adjusting an amount of ammonia in a reactor feed to provide an ammonia to hydrocarbon ratio of about 1 to about 2 in the reactor feed. Further, the process may include adjusting an amount of air the reactor feed to provide an air to hydrocarbon ratio of about 9 to about 10 in the reactor feed.

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1. A process for controlling an amount of ammonia provided to an ammoxidation reaction, the process comprising: providing a reactor feed to a reactor, the reactor feed including ammonia, oxygen, and a hydrocarbon selected from the group consisting of propane, propylene, isobutane and isobutylene, and combinations thereof; reacting the reactor feed in the presence of a catalyst to provide a reactor effluent stream; providing the reactor effluent stream to a quench vessel; providing a quench liquid to the quench vessel; contacting the gaseous stream with the quench liquid; monitoring a pH of quench water bottoms; and adjusting an amount of ammonia in the reactor feed to provide an ammonia to hydrocarbon molar ratio of about 1 to about 2 in the reactor feed.

2. The process of claim 1 wherein the reactor effluent stream includes acrylonitrile and ammonia.

34. The system of claim 32 wherein the controller is configured to increase or decrease air flow to the reactor.

38. The process of claim 31 wherein a ratio of a cross-sectional area of the ammoxidation reactor to a cross-sectional area of the quench column is about 1 to about 3.

33. The system of claim 31 further comprising an oxygen monitor for determining oxygen concentration in reactor effluent, the oxygen monitor electronically connected to the controller.

10. The process of claim 1 wherein a ratio of a cross- sectional area of the ammoxidation reactor to a cross-sectional area of the quench column is about 1 to about 3.

11. A process for controlling an amount of air provided to an ammoxidation reaction, the process comprising: providing a reactor feed to a reactor, the reactor feed including ammonia, oxygen, and a hydrocarbon selected from the group consisting of propane, propylene, isobutane and isobutylene, and combinations thereof; reacting the reactor feed in the presence of a catalyst to provide a reactor effluent stream; monitoring an amount of oxygen in the reactor effluent; and adjusting an amount of air in the reactor feed to provide an air to hydrocarbon molar ratio of about 9 to about 12 in the reactor feed.

12. The process of claim 11 wherein the reactor effluent stream includes acrylonitrile and oxygen.

13. The process of claim 11 wherein the reactor effluent stream includes about 0.5 to about 1 weight % oxygen.

14. The process of claim 11 wherein the amount of oxygen in the reactor effluent is measured continuously.

17. An ammoxidation process comprising: providing a reactor feed to a reactor, the reactor feed including ammonia, oxygen, and a hydrocarbon selected from the group consisting of propane, propylene, isobutane and isobutylene, and combinations thereof; reacting the reactor feed in the presence of a catalyst to provide a reactor effluent stream; providing a quench liquid to the quench vessel; contacting the gaseous stream with the quench liquid; monitoring a pH of quench water bottoms, monitoring an amount of oxygen in the reactor effluent stream; adjusting an amount of ammonia in the reactor feed to provide an ammonia to hydrocarbon ratio of about 1 to about 2 in the reactor feed; and adjusting an amount of air in the reactor feed to provide an air to hydrocarbon molar ratio of about 9 to about 12 in the reactor feed.

18. The process of claim 17 wherein the reactor effluent stream includes acrylonitrile, ammonia, and oxygen.

23. The process of claim 17 wherein the reactor effluent stream includes about 0.5 to about 1 weight % oxygen.

26. The process of claim 17 wherein the amount of oxygen in the reactor effluent is measured continuously.

30. The process of claim 17 wherein a ratio of a cross-sectional area of the ammoxidation reactor to a cross-sectional area of the quench column is about 1 to about 3.

31. A system for ammonia control in an ammoxidation reactor, the system comprising: an ammoxidation reactor configured to supply a reactor effluent to a quench column; a pH sensor for monitoring pH of a quench water bottoms from the quench column; and a controller electronically connected to the pH sensor and to an ammonia control valve, the ammonia control valve configured to control ammonia flow to the ammoxidation reactor; wherein the controller is configured to increase or decrease ammonia flow through the ammonia control valve.


Patent
Dongjin Semichem Co. | Date: 2017-01-11

The present invention relates to a silsesquioxane complex polymer and a method for preparing same, and more specifically, to a silsesquioxane complex polymer of which processability and physical properties are maximized by including, in a single polymer, a silsesquioxane ladder chain, a complex chain, and a cage-type silsesquioxane, which have a specific structure.

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8. A method for preparing silsesquioxane complex polymer represented by the chemical formula 1, comprising a step 1 of mixing a basic catalyst and an organic solvent in a reactor and then adding an organic silane compound to prepare the following chemical formula 4 of two types of which the condensation rate is controlled; a step 2 of adding an acidic catalyst to the reactor to adjust the reaction solution to acidic state in order to incorporate [B]b structure and [D]d(OR^(2))_(2) structure into the chemical formula 4 obtained from the above step 1 and then adding an organic silane compound and stirring them; a step 3 of adding a basic catalyst to the reactor after each reaction of the above step 2 to convert the reaction solution into its basic state and performing condensation reaction; and a step 4 of condensing two or more substances obtained through the above step 3 under basic condition to connect them:^(1), R^(2), R^(6), B, D, X, Y, a, b, and d are as defined in the chemical formulae 1 to 3.

9. A method for preparing silsesquioxane complex polymer represented by the chemical formula 2, comprising a step 1 of mixing a basic catalyst and an organic solvent in a reactor and then adding an organic silane compound to prepare the following chemical formula 4 of two types of which the condensation rate is controlled; a step 2 of adding an acidic catalyst to the reactor to adjust the reaction solution to acidic state in order to incorporate [B]b structure and [D]d(OR^(4))_(2) structure to the chemical formula 4 obtained from the above step 1 and then adding an organic silane compound and stirring them; a step 3 of adding a basic catalyst to the reactor after each reaction of the above step 2 to convert the reaction solution into its basic state and performing condensation reaction; a step 4 of condensing two or more substances obtained through the above step 3 under basic condition to connect them; a step 5 of adding an acidic catalyst to the reactor to adjust the reaction solution to acidic state in order to incorporate [D]d(OR^(3))_(2) structure after the above step 4 and then adding an organic silane compound and stirring them; and a step 6 of adding a basic catalyst to the reactor after the reaction of the above step 5 to convert the reaction solution into its basic state and performing condensation reaction:^(1), R^(2), R^(3), R^(4), R^(6), B, D, X, Y, a, b, and d are as defined in the chemical formulae 1 to 3.

10. A method for preparing silsesquioxane complex polymer represented by the chemical formula 3, comprising a step 1 of mixing a basic catalyst and an organic solvent in a reactor and then adding an organic silane compound to prepare the following chemical formula 4 of two types of which the condensation rate is controlled; a step 2 of adding an acidic catalyst to the reactor to adjust the reaction solution to acidic state in order to incorporate [B]b structure into the chemical formula 4 obtained from the above step 1 and then adding an organic silane compound and stirring them; a step 3 of adding a basic catalyst to the reactor after each reaction of the above step 2 to convert the reaction solution into its basic state and performing condensation reaction; a step 4 of condensing two or more substances obtained through the above step 3 under basic condition to connect them; a step 5 of adding an acidic catalyst to the reactor to adjust the reaction solution to acidic state in order to incorporate [D]d(OR^(5))_(2) structure after the above step 4 and then adding an organic silane compound and stirring them; a step 6 of adding a basic catalyst to the reactor after the reaction of the above step 5 to convert the reaction solution into its basic state and performing condensation reaction; and a step of 7 of adding an acidic catalyst to the reactor to convert the reaction solution into acidic atmosphere in order to incorporate [E]eX_(2) structure at the end of the complex polymer after the above step 6 and then mixing an organic silane compound and stirring them:^(1), R^(2), R^(5), R^(6), B, D, E, X, Y, a, b, d and e are as defined in the chemical formulae 1 to 3.


A method and apparatus for converting an alcohol into a fuel mixture which consists of alcohol, ether and water and is suitable for operating a combustion engine, in particular an internal combustion engine in a motor vehicle, converts the alcohol into the fuel mixture in a reactor at a suitable reaction temperature. The mixing ratio of alcohol fraction, ether fraction and water fraction in the fuel mixture is adjusted by controlling at least one reaction parameter of a reaction taking place in the reactor.

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1. An apparatus, comprising: a reactor that converts an alcohol into a fuel mixture by a reaction, the fuel mixture consisting of alcohol, ether, and water, and being suitable for operating a combustion engine; a heating device that heats the alcohol before the alcohol enters the reactor; a control device that adjusts a mixing ratio of an alcohol fraction, an ether fraction, and a water fraction in the fuel mixture by adjusting at least one reaction parameter of the reaction taking place in the reactor, wherein the control device adjusts the at least one reaction parameter taking into account a first measurement signal indicating an operating parameter of an exhaust-gas aftertreatment system and a second measurement signal indicating an operating parameter of the combustion engine including at least one of speed, load, acceleration, cylinder pressure, and knocking.

3. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the at least one reaction parameter is the reaction temperature or the reaction pressure in the reactor, and wherein the second heat exchanger is disposed between the exhaust-gas heat exchanger and the reactor and uses the ambient air or a liquid to cool the alcohol heated in the exhaust-gas heat exchanger to at least one of a temperature and pressure value suitable for the reaction taking place in the reactor.

4. The apparatus according to claim 3, further comprising at least one sensor that measures the reaction temperature and the reaction pressure in the reactor and transmits the measured values as measurement signals to the control device.

5. The apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising at least one of a cylinder pressure sensor and a knocking sensor on the combustion engine that transmits measurement signals to the control device as operating parameters of the combustion engine, the control device adjusting at least one of the heating of the alcohol to be converted and the pressure in the reactor based on the measurement signals.

6. The apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the control device adjusts at least one of the heating of the alcohol to be converted and the pressure in the reactor based on the speed and load of the combustion engine.

7. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the control device adjusts at least one of the heating of the alcohol to be converted and the pressure in the reactor based on the speed and load of the combustion engine.

14. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the at least one reaction parameter is the reaction temperature or the reaction pressure in the reactor.


Patent
TerraPower | Date: 2016-09-30

A dynamic neutron reflector assembly for a breed-and-burn fast reactor incrementally adjusts neutron spectrum and reactivity in a reactor core. The composition of materials in the dynamic neutron reflector may be adjusted to change neutron reflectivity levels, or to introduce neutron moderating or absorption characteristics. The dynamic neutron reflector may contain a flowing reflecting liquid of adjustable volume and/or density. Submergible members may be selectively inserted into the flowing reflecting liquid to alter its volume and introduce other neutron modifying effects such as moderation or absorption. Selective insertion of the submergible members allows for concentration of the neutron modifying effects in a selected portion of the reactor core. The flowing reflecting liquid may also act as a secondary coolant circuit by exchanging heat with the molten fuel salt.

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1. A method comprising: sustaining a nuclear fission reaction in a nuclear reactor core, the nuclear reactor core surrounded by a neutron reflector assembly; and adjusting fast neutron flux and thermal neutron flux within the nuclear reactor core during the sustained nuclear fission reaction by altering reflectivity characteristics of reflector material in the neutron reflector assembly.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the adjusting operation increases a nuclear fuel burnup rate in the nuclear reactor core.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the adjusting operation decreases a nuclear fuel burnup rate in the nuclear reactor core.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the adjusting operation increases a nuclear fuel breed rate in the nuclear reactor core.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein the adjusting operation decreases a nuclear fuel breed rate in the nuclear reactor core.

42. The system of claim 25, wherein the neutron reflector assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical tubes flowing reflector material in neutronic communication with the nuclear reactor, at least two of the tubes in the plurality of tubes having different radius values.

43. A nuclear fast reactor comprising: a reactor vessel configured to maintain criticality of a molten nuclear fuel salt; a neutron reflector assembly configured to surround the reactor vessel; and the neutron reflector assembly being further configured to adjust fast neutron flux and thermal neutron flux within the reactor vessel by altering reflectivity characteristics of reflector material in the neutron reflector assembly.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein the adjusting fast neutron flux and thermal neutron flux operation includes shifting the neutron spectrum in the nuclear reactor core.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein shifting the neutron spectrum in the nuclear reactor core is an incremental spectrum shift.

22. The method of claim 1, wherein the neutron reflector assembly is a structural support for the nuclear reactor core.

24. The method of claim 1, wherein the neutron reflector assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical tubes flowing reflector material in neutronic communication with the nuclear reactor, at least two of the tubes in the plurality of tubes having different radius values.

25. A system comprising: a neutron reflector assembly configured to surround a nuclear reactor core during a sustained nuclear fission reaction; and the neutron reflector assembly being further configured to adjust fast neutron flux and thermal neutron flux within the reactor core by altering reflectivity characteristics of reflector material in the neutron reflector assembly.