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Sharma H.S.,Uppsala University Hospital | Menon P.K.,Uppsala University Hospital | Lafuente J.V.,University of the Basque Country | Aguilar Z.P.,Zystein LLC | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

Functionalized Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (FMIONPs) are being explored for the development of various biomedical applications, e.g., cancer chemotherapy and/or several other radiological or diagnostic purposes. However, the effects of these NPs per se on the central nervous system (CNS) injury or repair are not well known. This review deals with different aspects of FMIONPs in relation to brain function based on the current literature as well as our own investigation in animal models of CNS injuries. It appears that FMIONPs are innocuous when administered intravenously within the CNS under normal conditions. However, abnormal reactions to FMIONPs in the brain or spinal cord could be seen if they are combined with CNS injuries e.g., hyperthermia or traumatic insults to the brain or spinal cord. Thus, administration of FMIONPs in vivo following whole body hyperthermia (WBH) or a focal spinal cord injury (SCI) exacerbates cellular damage. Since FMIONPs could help in diagnostic purposes or enhance the biological effects of radiotherapy/chemotherapy it is likely that these NPs may have some adverse reaction as well under disease condition. Thus, under such situation, adjuvant therapy e.g., Cerebrolysin (Ever NeuroPharma, Austria), a suitable combination of several neurotrophic factors and active peptide fragments are the need of the hour to contain such cellular damages caused by the FMIONPs in vivo. Our observations show that co-administration of Cerebrolysin prevents the FMIONPs induced pathologies associated with CNS injuries. These observations support the idea that FMIONPs are safe for the CNS in disease conditions when co-administered with cerebrolysin. This indicates that cerebrolysin could be used as an adjunct therapy to prevent cellular damages in disease conditions where the use of FMIONPs is required for better efficacy e.g., cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Shah M.,Western Kentucky University | Badwaik V.,Western Kentucky University | Kherde Y.,Western Kentucky University | Waghwani H.K.,Western Kentucky University | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Bioscience - Landmark | Year: 2014

Colloidal gold is very attractive for several applications in biotechnology because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Many different synthesis methods have been developed to generate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Here, we will introduce these methods and discuss the differences between fabrication techniques. We will also discuss ecofriendly synthesis methods being developed to efficiently generate AuNPs without the use of toxic substrates. Finally, we will discuss the medical applications for AuNPs by highlighting the potential use of intact or functionalized AuNPs in combating bacterial infections.

Al-Ogaidi I.,University of Baghdad | Al-Ogaidi I.,West Virginia University | Gou H.,West Virginia University | Aguilar Z.P.,Zystein LLC | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

An immunoassay has been developed for the detection of the ovarian cancer biomarker CA-125 by utilizing the chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer to graphene quantum dots. This biosensor shows a wide linear range from 0.1 U mL-1 to 600 U mL-1 with a limit of detection of 0.05 U mL-1 for CA-125 in a buffer solution. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Huang X.,Nanchang University | Aguilar Z.P.,Zystein LLC | Xu H.,Nanchang University | Lai W.,Nanchang University | Xiong Y.,Nanchang University
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2015

Membrane-based lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (LFICS) is widely used in various fields because of its simplicity, rapidity (detection within 10. min), and low cost. However, early designs of membrane-based LFICS for preliminary screening only provide qualitative ("yes/no" signal) or semi-quantitative results without quantitative information. These designs often suffer from low-signal intensity and poor sensitivity and are only capable of single analyte detection, not simultaneous multiple detections. The performance of existing techniques used for detection using LFICS has been considerably improved by incorporating different kinds of nanoparticles (NPs) as reporters. NPs can serve as alternative labels and improve analytical sensitivity or limit of detection of LFICS because of their unique properties, such as optical absorption, fluorescence spectra, and magnetic properties. The controlled manipulation of NPs allows simultaneous or multiple detections by using membrane-based LFICS. In this review, we discuss how colored (e.g., colloidal gold, carbon, and colloidal selenium NPs), luminescent (e.g., quantum dots, up-converting phosphor NPs, and dye-doped NPs), and magnetic NPs are integrated into membrane-based LFICS for the detection of target analytes. Gold NPs are also featured because of their wide applications. Different types and unique properties of NPs are briefly explained. This review focuses on examples of NP-based LFICS to illustrate novel concepts in various devices with potential applications as screening tools. This review also highlights the superiority of NP-based approaches over existing conventional strategies for clinical analysis, food safety, and environmental monitoring. This paper is concluded by a short section on future research trends regarding NP-based LFICS. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Wang L.,Nanchang University | Li P.,Nanchang University | Zhang Z.,Nanchang University | Chen Q.,Nanchang University | And 7 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

To improve the accuracy of current methods for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 foodborne disease outbreaks, two reagents, propidium monoazide (PMA) and sodium deoxycholate (SD), were utilized to eliminate the interference of dead and injured cells for qPCR that was combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for cell enrichment in an IMS-SD-PMA-qPCR assay. The optimal SD concentration and the optimal incubation time with SD were recorded at 0.1% and 20min, respectively. The number of bacteria survivors was compared using plate counts, qPCR, PMA-qPCR, and SD-PMA-qPCR assays after the cell suspensions were heat treated at 63°C or freeze stored at-20°C. Cell suspensions treated or not treated with PMA and treated with SD resulted in significantly lower number of bacteria survivors than those analyzed without SD treatment which indicated that dead cell DNA was eliminated with SD. More importantly, the number of bacteria survivors from those analyzed with SD-PMA-qPCR showed a direct correlation with those analyzed using the plate counts methods. In addition, in order to improve the limit of detection (LOD) and shorten the detection time, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was adopted to capture and enrich the target bacteria. Using spiked milk as a matrix, the IMS-SD-PMA-qPCR showed a detection limit of 102CFU/mL. Significantly, even in the presence of 106CFU/mL of non-target bacteria, the LOD for the SD-PMA-qPCR with IMS separation for E.coli O157:H7 in spiked milk matrix was recorded at 102CFU/mL. This combination assay holds promise for the detection of foodborne E.coli O157:H7. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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