Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Fuerst-Waltl B.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Fuerst C.,ZuchtData EDV Dienstleistungen GmbH
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Most countries worldwide already include functional traits in the breeding goals for cattle. Among those are e.g. reproductive traits or longevity while traits regarding calves or heifers are hardly considered. Mortality, but also culling of heifers before first calving may result in higher replacement costs but also in reduced possibility for selection and is thus of importance in cattle breeding. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality and involuntary culling in Austrian Fleckvieh (dual purpose Simmental) calves and replacement heifers. The following periods were defined for analyses: P1 = 48. h to 30. days, P2 = 31 to 180. days, P3 = 181 to 365. days, P4 = 366. days to first calving or a maximum age of 1200. days if no calving was reported, P5 = birth to age at first calving or a maximum age of 1200. days if no calving was reported, P4S = heifers having at least one insemination slaughtered in P4, defined as involuntarily culled. After data editing records of more than 86,000 calves and heifers were investigated. Mortality rates were 1.85, 1.39, 0.36, 0.70, and 5.61% for the defined periods P1-P5, respectively; 7.78% of heifers were involuntarily culled (P4S). For the estimation of genetic parameters a linear and threshold sire model and a linear animal model with the random effects herd * year and sire as well as the fixed effects year * month, number of dam's parity, and calving ease were applied. In total, the pedigree consisted of 11,609 animals (sire model, sire-dam relationship) and 237,113 animals (animal model). For mortality traits, heritabilities ranged from < 0.0001 (P3) to 0.018 (P5) for the linear models, and 0.001 (P3) to 0.072 (P1) for the threshold model, respectively. Heritabilities for involuntary culling (P4S) were 0.024, 0.021 and 0.067 for the linear animal, linear sire and threshold sire model, respectively. The rank correlations were > 0.99 between random effects of sires obtained with linear sire and threshold sire models and were lower (r= 0.77 to 0.90) for animal and sire models, respectively. Total calf and heifer mortality is higher than stillbirth. Consequently, its economic impact on cattle breeding should not be neglected. Based on the results obtained in this study selection against higher postnatal mortality and involuntary culling of heifers should be possible. Furthermore, monitoring of the population and of extreme bulls might be very useful for breeding organisations to avoid deterioration in these traits. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Fuerst-Waltl B.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Fuerst C.,ZuchtData EDV Dienstleistungen GmbH
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to estimate inbreeding depression for juvenile mortality in Austrian Brown Swiss replacement heifers born in the years 2001 to 2007. After data editing, records of 69,571 animals were investigated. In total, the pedigree consisted of 203,894 animals. Mean and median inbreeding coefficients were 0.0514 and 0.0475, respectively. The following periods were defined for analyses of juvenile mortality: P1 = 48. h to 30 d, P2 = 31 to 180 d, P3 = 181 to the day before first calving or a maximum age of 1,200. d if no calving was reported, P4 = 48. h to the day before age at first calving or a maximum age of 1,200. d if no calving was reported. Mortality during the first 30. d of life was 3.2%; in the total rearing period, 9.3% of the heifers died (excluding slaughtered and exported animals). For the estimation of the effect of inbreeding and of genetic parameters a linear animal model with the random effects herd-year of birth and animal as well as the fixed effects year of birth-month of birth and dam parity, and the continuous effect of inbreeding coefficient (linear and quadratic) was applied. The model was reduced to the linear effect of inbreeding as the quadratic term was not found to have a significant effect. Inbreeding significantly affected all traits unfavorably. In the full rearing period (P4), heifer calves with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.10 had a 4.9% higher mortality rate than heifer calves with no inbreeding. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Jung S.,TU Munich | Pausch H.,TU Munich | Langenmayer M.C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Schwarzenbacher H.,ZuchtData EDV Dienstleistungen GmbH | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of cattle, first described in Holstein-Friesian animals. Affected calves suffer from severe skin lesions and show a poor general health status. Recently, eight calves with the phenotypic appearance of BHZD have been reported in the Fleckvieh cattle population.Results: In spite of the similar disease phenotypes, SLC39A4, the gene responsible for BHZD in Holstein-Friesian was excluded as underlying gene for the disorder in the affected Fleckvieh calves. In order to identify the disease-associated region, genotypes of eight affected calves obtained with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip comprising 777,962 SNPs were contrasted with the genotypes of 1,339 unaffected animals. A strong association signal was observed on chromosome 21 (P = 5.87 × 10-89). Autozygosity mapping in the eight affected animals revealed a common segment of extended homozygosity encompassing 1,023 kb (BTA 21: 70,550,045 - 71,573,501). This region contains 17 genes/transcripts, among them two genes encoding gastro-intestinal zinc transporters (CRIP1, CRIP2). However, no mutation that was compatible with recessive inheritance could be detected in these candidate genes. One of the affected calves was re-sequenced together with 42 unaffected Fleckvieh animals. Analysis of the sequencing data revealed a nonsense mutation (p.W215X) in a phospholipase encoding gene (PLD4) as candidate causal polymorphism. To confirm the causality, genotypes of the p.W215X-mutation were obtained from 3,650 animals representing three different breeds. None of the unaffected animals was homozygous for the defect allele, while all eight affected calves were homozygous. The deleterious effect of the mutation is manifested in a significantly lower survival rate of descendants from risk matings when compared with the survival rate of descendants from non-risk matings. The deleterious allele has an estimated frequency of 1.1% in the Fleckvieh population.Conclusion: Our results provide strong evidence that a newly identified recessive disorder in the Fleckvieh population is caused by a nonsense mutation in PLD4, most likely resulting in an impaired function of the encoded protein. Although the phenotype of affected calves strongly resembles BHZD, a zinc deficiency resulting from malabsorption is unlikely to be responsible for the diseased Fleckvieh calves. © 2014 Jung et al. Source


Waldmann P.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Waldmann P.,Linkoping University | Meszaros G.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Gredler B.,Qualitas AG | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2013

The number of publications performing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has increased dramatically. Penalized regression approaches have been developed to overcome the challenges caused by the high dimensional data, but these methods are relatively new in the GWAS field. In this study we have compared the statistical performance of two methods (the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator-lasso and the elastic net) on two simulated data sets and one real data set from a 50 K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel of 5570 Fleckvieh bulls. The first simulated data set displays moderate to high linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, whereas the second simulated data set from the QTLMAS 2010 workshop is biologically more complex. We used cross-validation to find the optimal value of regularization parameter γ with both minimum MSE and minimum MSE + 1SE of minimum MSE. The optimal γ values were used for variable selection. Based on the first simulated data, we found that the minMSE in general picked up too many SNPs. At minMSE + 1SE, the lasso didn't acquire any false positives, but selected too few correct SNPs. The elastic net provided the best compromise between few false positives and many correct selections when the penalty weight a was around 0.1. However, in our simulation setting, this a value didn't result in the lowest minMSE + 1SE. The number of selected SNPs from the QTLMAS 2010 data was after correction for population structure 82 and 161 for the lasso and the elastic net, respectively. In the Fleckvieh data set after population structure correction lasso and the elastic net identified from 1291 to 1966 important SNPs for milk fat content, with major peaks on chromosomes 5, 14, 15, and 20. Hence, we can conclude that it is important to analyze GWAS data with both the lasso and the elastic net and an alternative tuning criterion to minimum MSE is needed for variable selection. © 2013 Waldmann, Mészáros, Gredler, Fuerst and Sölkner. Source


Egger-Danner C.,ZuchtData EDV Dienstleistungen GmbH | Schwarzenbacher H.,ZuchtData EDV Dienstleistungen GmbH | Willam A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes for direct health traits on annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG) and discounted profit. The calculations were based on a deterministic approach using ZPLAN software (University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany). It was assumed that increases in reliability of the total merit index (TMI) of 5, 15, and 25 percentage points were achieved through genotyping 5,000, 25,000, and 50,000 cows, respectively. Costs for phenotyping, genotyping, and genomic estimated breeding values vary between €150 and €20 per cow. The gain in genotyping cows for traits with medium to high heritability is more than for direct health traits with low heritability. The AMGG is increased by 1.5% if the reliability of TMI is 5 percentage points higher (i.e., 5,000 cows genotyped) and 6.53% higher AMGG can be expected when the reliability of TMI is increased by 25 percentage points (i.e., 50,000 cows genotyped). The discounted profit depends not only on the costs of genotyping but also on the population size. This study indicates that genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes is feasible to speed up the availability of genomic estimated breeding values for direct health traits. But, because of the huge amount of valid phenotypes and genotypes needed to establish an efficient genomic evaluation, it is likely that financial constraints will be the main limiting factor for implementation into breeding program such as Fleckvieh Austria. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Discover hidden collaborations