Zora Biosciences

Espoo, Finland

Zora Biosciences

Espoo, Finland
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Zora Biosciences | Date: 2016-12-07

The present invention inter alia provides a method, and use thereof, of predicting CV events such as AMI, ACS, stroke, and CV death by determining the concentration of at least one ceramide of Formula I or one lysophospholipid of Formula II and/or III and at least one lysophospholipid of Formula IV, V, VI, VII and/or VIII in a biological sample and comparing those concentrations to a control. Finding an increased concentration of the at least one Formula I ceramide or Formula II and/or III lysophospholipid and a decreased concentration of the at least one Formula IV, V, VI, VII and/or VIII lysophospholipid indicates that the subject has an increased risk of developing one or more CV events. The present disclosure also provides a method, and use thereof, of diagnosing subjects suffering acute ischemia. Also provided are kits and compositions comprising the same for use in predicting and/or diagnosing CV events.

Bergan J.,University of Oslo | Skotland T.,University of Oslo | Sylvanne T.,Zora Biosciences | Simolin H.,Zora Biosciences | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The ether-lipid precursor sn-1-O-hexadecylglycerol (HG) can be used to compensate for early metabolic defects in ether-lipid biosynthesis. To investigate a possible metabolic link between ether-linked phospholipids and the rest of the cellular lipidome, we incubated HEp-2 cells with HG. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed major changes in the lipidome of HG-treated cells compared to that of untreated cells or cells treated with palmitin, a control substance for HG containing an acyl group instead of the ether group. We present quantitative data for a total of 154 species from 17 lipid classes. These species are those constituting more than 2% of their lipid class for most lipid classes, but more than 1% for the ether lipids and glycosphingolipids. In addition to the expected ability of HG to increase the levels of ether-linked glycerophospholipids with 16 carbon atoms in the sn-1 position, this precursor also decreased the amounts of glycosphingolipids and increased the amounts of ceramide, phosphatidylinositol and lysophosphatidylinositol. However, incubation with palmitin, the fatty acyl analogue of HG, also increased the amounts of ceramide and phosphatidylinositols. Thus, changes in these lipid classes were not ether lipid-dependent. No major effects were observed for the other lipid classes, and cellular functions such as growth and endocytosis were unaffected. The data presented clearly demonstrate the importance of performing detailed quantitative lipidomic studies to reveal how the metabolism of ether-linked glycerophospholipids is coupled to that of glycosphingolipids and ester-linked glycerophospholipids, especially phosphatidylinositols. © 2013 Bergan et al.

Bergan J.,University of Oslo | Skotland T.,University of Oslo | Lingelem A.B.D.,University of Oslo | Simm R.,University of Oslo | And 5 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2014

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Currently, only supportive treatment is available for diagnosed patients. We show here that 24-h pretreatment with an ether lipid precursor, the alkylglycerol sn-1-O-hexadecylglycerol (HG), protects HEp-2 cells against Shiga toxin and Shiga toxin 2. Also the endothelial cell lines HMEC-1 and HBMEC are protected against Shiga toxins after HG pretreatment. In contrast, the corresponding acylglycerol, dl-α-palmitin, has no effect on Shiga toxicity. Although HG treatment provides a strong protection (~30 times higher IC50) against Shiga toxin, only a moderate reduction in toxin binding was observed, suggesting that retrograde transport of the toxin from the plasma membrane to the cytosol is perturbed. Furthermore, endocytosis of Shiga toxin and retrograde sorting from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus remain intact, but transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum is inhibited by HG treatment. As previously described, HG reduces the total level of all quantified glycosphingolipids to 50-70 % of control, including the Shiga toxin receptor globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in HEp-2 cells. In accordance with this, we find that interfering with Gb3 biosynthesis by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Gb3 synthase for 24 h causes a similar cytotoxic protection and only a moderate reduction in toxin binding (to 70 % of control cells). Alkylglycerols, including HG, have been administered to humans for investigation of therapeutic roles in disorders where ether lipid biosynthesis is deficient, as well as in cancer therapy. Further studies may reveal if HG can also have a therapeutic potential in Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infections. © 2014 Springer Basel.

Kavaliauskiene S.,University of Oslo | Nymark C.-M.,University of Oslo | Bergan J.,University of Oslo | Simm R.,University of Oslo | And 5 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2014

Cell density is one of the extrinsic factors to which cells adapt their physiology when grown in culture. However, little is known about the molecular changes which occur during cell growth and how cellular responses are then modulated. In many cases, inhibitors, drugs or growth factors used for in vitro studies change the rate of cell proliferation, resulting in different cell densities in control and treated samples. Therefore, for a comprehensive data analysis, it is essential to understand the implications of cell density on the molecular level. In this study, we have investigated how lipid composition changes during cell growth, and the consequences it has for transport of Shiga toxin. By quantifying 308 individual lipid species from 17 different lipid classes, we have found that the levels and species distribution of several lipids change during cell growth, with the major changes observed for diacylglycerols, phosphatidic acids, cholesterol esters, and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. In addition, there is a reduced binding and retrograde transport of Shiga toxin in high density cells which lead to reduced intoxication by the toxin. In conclusion, our data provide novel information on how lipid composition changes during cell growth in culture, and how these changes can modulate intracellular trafficking. © 2013 Springer Basel.

PubMed | University of Tampere, University of Zürich, Medical University of Graz, University of Helsinki and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European heart journal | Year: 2016

The aim was to study the prognostic value of plasma ceramides (Cer) as cardiovascular death (CV death) markers in three independent coronary artery disease (CAD) cohorts.Corogene study is a prospective Finnish cohort including stable CAD patients (n = 160). Multiple lipid biomarkers and C-reactive protein were measured in addition to plasma Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0), and Cer(d18:1/24:1). Subsequently, the association between high-risk ceramides and CV mortality was investigated in the prospective Special Program University Medicine-Inflammation in Acute Coronary Syndromes (SPUM-ACS) cohort (n = 1637), conducted in four Swiss university hospitals. Finally, the results were validated in Bergen Coronary Angiography Cohort (BECAC), a prospective Norwegian cohort study of stable CAD patients. Ceramides, especially when used in ratios, were significantly associated with CV death in all studies, independent of other lipid markers and C-reactive protein. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation for the Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio were 4.49 (95% CI, 2.24-8.98), 1.64 (1.29-2.08), and 1.77 (1.41-2.23) in the Corogene, SPUM-ACS, and BECAC studies, respectively. The Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio improved the predictive value of the GRACE score (net reclassification improvement, NRI = 0.17 and AUC = 0.09) in ACS and the predictive value of the Marschner score in stable CAD (NRI = 0.15 and AUC = 0.02).Distinct plasma ceramide ratios are significant predictors of CV death both in patients with stable CAD and ACS, over and above currently used lipid markers. This may improve the identification of high-risk patients in need of more aggressive therapeutic interventions.

Hoeks J.,Maastricht University | Mensink M.,Wageningen University | Hesselink M.K.C.,Maastricht University | Ekroos K.,Zora Biosciences | Schrauwen P.,Maastricht University
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Context: Animal studies revealed that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), due to their metabolic characteristics, are not stored in skeletal muscle and may therefore not give rise to potentially hazardous lipid species impeding insulin signaling. Objective: We here hypothesized that infusion of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in healthy lean subjects does not lead to ectopic fat accumulation and hence does not result in lipid-induced insulin resistance. Design and Methods: Nine healthy lean male subjects underwent a 6-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with simultaneous infusion of 1) a 100% long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT) emulsion, 2) a 50/50% MCT/LCT emulsion, or 3) glycerol in a randomized crossover design. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after each clamp. Results: MCT/LCT infusion raised plasma free fatty acid levels to a similar level compared with LCT infusion alone. Despite elevated free fatty acid levels, intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) levels were not affected by the MCT/LCT emulsion, whereas LCT infusion resulted in an approximately 1.6-fold increase in IMTG. These differences in muscle fat accumulation did not result in significant differences in lipid-induced insulin resistance between LCT (-28%,P=0.003) and MCT/LCT (-20%, P < 0.001). Total skeletal muscle ceramide content as well as lactosyl- and glucosylceramide levels were not affected by any of the interventions. In addition, the distribution pattern of all ceramide species remained unaltered. Conclusions: Although we confirm that MCFA do not lead to ceramide and IMTG accumulation in skeletal muscle tissue in humans, they do induce insulin resistance. These results indicate that, in humans, MCFA may not be beneficial in preventing peripheral insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

PubMed | University of Helsinki and Zora Biosciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry | Year: 2016

Monitoring the levels of the ceramides (Cer) d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/24:0, and Cer d18:1/24:1 and ratios thereof in human plasma empowers the prediction of fatal outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD). We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodology for clinical-scaled measurement of the four distinct ceramides. Rapid plasma precipitation was accomplished in 96-well format. Excellent extraction recoveries in the range of 98-109% were achieved for each ceramide. Addition of corresponding D7-labeled ceramide standards facilitated precise quantification of each plasma ceramide species utilizing a novel short 5-min LC-MS/MS method. Neither matrix interference nor carryover was observed. Robust intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision <15% at five different concentrations were obtained. Linear calibration lines with regressions, R(2)>0.99, were achieved for all analytes. Short-term bench top, long-term plasma, and extract stability demonstrated that the distinct ceramides were stable in the conditions evaluated. The validity of the methodology was demonstrated by determining the precise ceramide concentrations in a small CAD case-control study. Thus, our LC-MS/MS methodology features simple sample preparation and short analysis time for accurate quantification of Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/24:0, and Cer d18:1/24:1, designed for routine analysis.

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