Zootrition Consulting LLC

St. Louis, MO, United States

Zootrition Consulting LLC

St. Louis, MO, United States
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Carlson-Bremer D.,University of California at Davis | Carlson-Bremer D.,Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health | Norton T.M.,St Catherines Island Foundation | Norton T.M.,Georgia Sea Turtle Center | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2014

The American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus palliatus) is currently listed as a species of high concern by the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan. Because nutritional status directly impacts overall health and reproduction of individuals and populations, adequate management of a wildlife population requires intimate knowledge of a species' diet and nutrient requirements. Fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in blood plasma obtained from American oystercatchers and proximate, vitamin, and mineral composition of various oystercatcher prey species were determined as baseline data to assess nutritional status and nutrient supply. Bird and prey species samples were collected from the Cape Romain region, South Carolina, USA, and the Altamaha River delta islands, Georgia, USA, where breeding populations appear relatively stable in recent years. Vitamin A levels in blood samples were higher than ranges reported as normal for domestic avian species, and vitamin D concentrations were lower than anticipated based on values observed in poultry. Vitamin E levels were within ranges previously reported for avian groups with broadly similar feeding niches such as herons, gulls, and terns (eg, aquatic/estuarine/marine). Prey species (oysters, mussels, clams, blood arks [Anadara ovalis], whelks [Busycon carica], false angel wings [Petricola pholadiformis]) were similar in water content to vertebrate prey, moderate to high in protein, and moderate to low in crude fat. Ash and macronutrient concentrations in prey species were high compared with requirements of carnivores or avian species. Prey items analyzed appear to meet nutritional requirements for oystercatchers, as estimated by extrapolation from domestic carnivores and poultry species; excesses, imbalances, and toxicities-particularly of minerals and fat-soluble vitamins-may warrant further investigation. © 2014 by the Association of Avian Veterinarians.

Circulating concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E, minerals, fatty acids, and lipids were quantified in five captive greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) throughout two time periods, during which two diets were offered. Animals were fed mixed-grass hay and concentrate pellets while managed in barns for winter housing (April sampling, winter diet). During the spring and summer, animals were fed the same amount of concentrate pellet but had free access to North American browse and grasses instead of dried forage (November sampling, summer diet). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and α-tocopherol were statistically higher in summer diet samples than in winter diet samples. Retinol was not statistically different between seasons, and β-carotene concentrations were undetectable at both time periods. Cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids were all significantly elevated following access to unlimited fresh forages in summer. Serum electrolytes were not different between the two time periods but differences in circulating minerals were noted (cobalt, inorganic iodine, and magnesium elevated in winter diet samples; selenium and zinc elevated in summer diet). Access to non-native fresh green forages resulted in improvement of several nutritional parameters in greater one-horned rhinoceroses, implying a benefit when fresh browse and access to grass is provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Smith B.K.,Purdue University | Remis M.J.,Purdue University | Dierenfeld E.S.,Zootrition Consulting LLC
Zoo Biology | Year: 2014

The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. Zoo Biol. 33:419-425, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Dermauw V.,Catholic University of Leuven | Dermauw V.,Ghent University | De Cuyper A.,Ghent University | Duchateau L.,Ghent University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Copper deficiency is a commonly diagnosed problem in cattle around the globe. In Jimma, Ethiopia, 8 zebu (Bos indicus) and 8 zebu × Holstein Friesian cross (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) heifers were used in an 11-wk study to investigate breed type differences and effects of Cu deficiency on concentrations of trace elements in plasma and edible tissues as well as mRNA expression of Cu-related genes. Heifers were fed a grass diet (6.4 ± 0.2 [SEM] mg Cu/kg DM) supplemented with 1 mg Mo/kg DM in wk 1 to 4 and 2 mg Mo/ kg DM in wk 5 to 11, with blood samples collected every 2 wk and tissue collection postmortem. Plasma, liver, kidney, and semitendinosus and cardiac muscle were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mo, Co, and Mn. Expression of mRNA Cu-related genes was measured in aorta (lysyl oxidase [LOX]), liver (Cu transporting β-polypeptide [Atp7b], Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase [CCS], cytochrome c oxidase assembly homolog 17 [Cox17], Cu transporter 1 homolog [Ctr1], and superoxide dismutase 1 [Sod1]), and duodenum (diamine oxidase [DAO] and metallo-thionein-1A [Mt1a]) as well as the Se-related glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1). Zebu cattle maintained initial plasma Cu concentrations just below the threshold value for deficiency, whereas crossbred cattle gradually became severely Cu deficient over time (P < 0.001). In contrast, plasma Zn and Co were greater in zebu cattle at the onset of the trial but became similar to crossbred cattle towards the end of the trial (P < 0.001). Liver Cu (P = 0.002) and Fe (P ≤ 0.001), kidney Se (P < 0.001), and kidney and cardiac muscle Co (P ≤ 0.001) concentrations were greater in zebu than in crossbred cattle. Increased hepatic mRNA expression of the Cu regulatory genes Atp7b, Ctr1 (P = 0.02), CCS (P = 0.03), and Cox17 (P = 0.009) and Cu-related Sod1 (P = 0.001) as well as the Se-related Gpx1 (P ≤ 0.001) were greater in zebu than in crossbred cattle. However, duodenal mRNA expression of DAO (P = 0.8) and Mt1a (P = 0.2) and aortic expression of LOX (P = 0.8) were not different. Both the differences in Cu status indices (plasma and liver concentrations) and hepatic mRNA expression of Cu regulatory genes point to the possibility of a more efficient use of dietary Cu in B. indicus as compared to B. taurus × B. indicus cattle resulting in greater sensitivity to Cu deficiency in B. taurus crossbred cattle. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Dermauw V.,Ghent University | Yisehak K.,Jimma University | Dierenfeld E.S.,Zootrition Consulting LLC | Du Laing G.,Ghent University | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

Trace element deficiencies in cattle are omnipresent, both in developing and industrialised regions. Little information is available on the effect of dietary trace elements on nutrient digestibility and utilisation, in spite of many deficiency-related symptoms suggesting a relevant role, such as loss of appetite in Zn deficiency and severe diarrhoea in Cu deficiency. The present study aimed to identify the early effects of dietary trace elements on nutrient utilisation in grass-fed zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Adult bulls (n=8) were randomly assigned to a treatment: control or trace element supplementation (Zn, Mn, Cu, Se, I and Co) during 28 days. Grass mineral analysis suggested deficient Cu (5.53-9.60. mg/kg) and Se (0.02-0.09. mg/kg) concentrations in combination with high S (2577-3855. mg/kg) and Mo (1.52-3.12. mg/kg) and very high Fe (619-1214. mg/kg) concentrations. Supplementation increased plasma Cu (0.82 vs. 0.61. mg/l), Zn (1.40 vs. 0.89. mg/l), Mn (0.30 vs. 0.05. mg/l) and Se (0.07 vs. 0.06. mg/l) concentrations (all P<0.05). Faecal Cu, Zn, Mn and Se were also increased (P<0.05), as was faecal Co (P=0.05) concentration in supplemented bulls. On the contrary, trace element supplementation did not affect plasma ceruloplasmin and superoxide dismutase activities (P>0.05). Also, no effects on apparent nutrient (dry matter, ash, protein, fat, and fibre) digestibility, apparent trace element absorption (except for Se and I) or plasma acyl carnitines (indicators of available energy substrates) were observed in this study (all P>0.05). Overall, despite clear improvement in trace element status - notwithstanding high concentrations of Cu antagonists in the grass diet - supplementation did not affect nutrient digestibility or utilisation in grass-fed zebu cattle. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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