Zootecnia

Aracaju, Brazil

Zootecnia

Aracaju, Brazil

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Brandao F.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ceolin A.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Gianezini M.,Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas | Ruviaro C.F.,Zootecnia | And 2 more authors.
Coffee Science | Year: 2012

This paper aims to verify whether the Regional Orientation Index (ROI) can assist in decision making for export market orientation for Brazilian coffee, to export the searching products from the major importers. The Decision Making Theory was adopted and through the descriptive and quantitative method, the ROI is calculated in order to determine if Brazilian coffee exports are being addressed to the main importers. The data source of Brazilian green coffee used is the ALICEWEB base, linked to the Department of Commerce (SECEX) of the Ministry of Industry and Trade (MDIC) for the period studied from 2000 to 2009 in US dollars (USD). We observed that coffee exports have been less directed towards countries like Canada, Netherlands, France, Italy, Belgium and Spain, with emphasis on decline of the ROI in Slovenia. The results also show that the Brazilian green coffee have been exported for Sweden, Finland, Japan, Germany, USA. The ROI shows increasing values for these regions, noting that over 40% of coffee imports are represented by Germany and USA, which are important markets for Brazil to follow when directing their exports. The originality of this study is to assist the decision makers through the ROI methodology for export market orientation for Brazilian coffee, according to the behavior and development of exports. This approach along with other economic indicators may indicate possibilities related to the implementation of trade policies in order to redirect products to specific markets.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

A new study challenges the tenet of herpes viruses being strictly host-specific. Scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) in Germany have discovered that gammaherpesviruses switch their hosts more frequently than previously thought. In fact, bats and primates appear to be responsible for the transfer of these viruses to other mammals in many cases. The findings were published in the scientific journal mBio. For herpes, it has generally been thought that every animal has its own specific viruses and that virus and host species have co-evolved. Now, an international team of scientists led by the Leibniz-IZW discovered that herpesviruses may not conform to this commonly held view. Surprisingly, while studying a group of herpesviruses called gammaherpesviruses, the researchers demonstrated that the herpes viruses found in common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata) were similar to those previously found in cattle. While it is known that vampire bats exclusively feed on animal blood, preferring domestic swine and cattle, since they represent an easily accessible food source, the result was somewhat unusual. Were bats being infected by viruses from their food source? To answer this question, researchers from the Leibniz-IZW worked together with the Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en Microbiología Animal -- INIFAP; the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia of the Universidad Veracruzana; the Instituto de Biotecnología of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the SUNY Downstate Medical Center in the USA, and the Freie Universität Berlin in Germany. Following up on the results from vampire bats, the researchers compiled the largest dataset of gammaherpesvirus sequences to date from their own sequencing data and publicly available data, including viruses from many bat species, and performed extensive analyses to determine the relationships of the viruses to one another and to their hosts. This shows that herpesviruses have frequently switched between species in the past, rather than being host specific. Most switches derived from bats, with primates being the second most common source of switches. "We speculate that bat-specific traits such as their ability to fly and a wide geographical range might have been important in promoting a virus spillover from bats to other animal groups," says Dr Marina Escalera-Zamudio, scientist at the Leibniz-IZW. After switching, herpesviruses may have adapted to their new hosts, creating the impression of host specificity. So the vampire bats were not likely infected by their food but more likely infected by other mammals in the past. Also surprisingly, vampire bats were not more prone among bats to transfer viruses, as many viruses from non-blood feeding bats also appear to have jumped. Since many viruses that cause disease in humans belong to the herpes virus family, it is important to understand their evolutionary development. "Herpes viruses establish latent life-long infections. Although they generally cause disease only in immunosuppressed individuals, they can survive largely below the radar even after infection," Escalera-Zamudio adds. Therefore, there may be even more species switches to uncover. However, only further sampling across a larger diversity of hosts will help determine the full scale of such switches. Future efforts should concentrate on clarifying the role of bats and primates for spreading these viruses.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: phys.org

A new study challenges the tenet of herpes viruses being strictly host-specific. Scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) in Germany have discovered that gammaherpesviruses switch their hosts more frequently than previously thought. In fact, bats and primates appear to be responsible for the transfer of these viruses to other mammals in many cases. The findings were published in the scientific journal "mBio". For herpes, it has generally been thought that every animal has its own specific viruses and that virus and host species have co-evolved. Now, an international team of scientists led by the Leibniz-IZW discovered that herpesviruses may not conform to this commonly held view. Surprisingly, while studying a group of herpesviruses called gammaherpesviruses, the researchers demonstrated that the herpes viruses found in common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata) were similar to those previously found in cattle. While it is known that vampire bats exclusively feed on animal blood, preferring domestic swine and cattle, since they represent an easily accessible food source, the result was somewhat unusual. Were bats being infected by viruses from their food source? To answer this question, researchers from the Leibniz-IZW worked together with the Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en Microbiología Animal - INIFAP; the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia of the Universidad Veracruzana; the Instituto de Biotecnología of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the SUNY Downstate Medical Center in the USA, and the Freie Universität Berlin in Germany. Following up on the results from vampire bats, the researchers compiled the largest dataset of gammaherpesvirus sequences to date from their own sequencing data and publicly available data, including viruses from many bat species, and performed extensive analyses to determine the relationships of the viruses to one another and to their hosts. This shows that herpesviruses have frequently switched between species in the past, rather than being host specific. Most switches derived from bats, with primates being the second most common source of switches. "We speculate that bat-specific traits such as their ability to fly and a wide geographical range might have been important in promoting a virus spillover from bats to other animal groups," says Dr Marina Escalera-Zamudio, scientist at the Leibniz-IZW. After switching, herpesviruses may have adapted to their new hosts, creating the impression of host specificity. So the vampire bats were not likely infected by their food but more likely infected by other mammals in the past. Also surprisingly, vampire bats were not more prone among bats to transfer viruses, as many viruses from non-blood feeding bats also appear to have jumped. Since many viruses that cause disease in humans belong to the herpes virus family, it is important to understand their evolutionary development. "Herpes viruses establish latent life-long infections. Although they generally cause disease only in immunosuppressed individuals, they can survive largely below the radar even after infection," Escalera-Zamudio adds. Therefore, there may be even more species switches to uncover. However, only further sampling across a larger diversity of hosts will help determine the full scale of such switches. Future efforts should concentrate on clarifying the role of bats and primates for spreading these viruses. Explore further: Virus in bats homologous to retroviruses in rodents and primates More information: Escalera-Zamudio M, et al. (2016): Bats, primates, and the evolutionary origins and diversification of mammalian gammaherpesviruses. mBio, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01425-16


Geron L.J.V.,Mato Grosso State University | Da Costa F.G.,Discentes | Santos R.H.E.,Zootecnia | Garcia J.,Mato Grosso State University | And 4 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

Evaluated the nitrogen intake, fecal and urinary nitrogen production and nitrogen balance (NB) in lambs fed levels increasing of concentrate (20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0% and 80.0 %) in the southwestern region of Mato Grosso. Were used four lambs mongrel (SRD), intact, with body weight (BW) averaged 19.3 ± 2.1 kg allocated to metabolism cages, fed twice daily, the concentrate was composed of ground corn and soybean and roughage utilized was corn silage. Were used a design in latin square 4X4, the leavings, faeces and urine were collected daily for six days, in each collection period. Each experimental period lasted 20 days. Intake data of nitrogen (N), fecal N, urinary N, absorbed N and NB expressed in g day-1;% of nitrogen intake (NI) and grams per kilogram of metabolic weight (g kg0.75-1) were undergo analysis of variance (ANOVA) and tested using regression equation at 5% probability. It was observed that the inclusion of different levels of concentrate supplied the lambs, on the intake N, N absorbed and urinary in g day-1, g kg0.75-1 and % NI presented a quadratic effect (P<0.05) with the maximum point obtained for the inclusion of 40.0% concentrate on experimental diets. For fecal nitrogen in g day-1, g kg0.75-1 and % NI and nitrogen balance (NB), the inclusion of concentrate in the diet changed (P<0.05) linearly decreasing with better results for inclusion levels of 20.0% to 40.0% concentrate diet. Thus, it is concluded that the level of 40.0% concentrate in the diet of lambs provides the best values of nitrogen intake, urinary nitrogen and nitrogen absorbed in g day-1, g kg0.75-1 and in % of nitrogen intake, and provide satisfactory results for the values of fecal nitrogen and nitrogen balance expressed in g day-1, g kg0.75-1 and in % of nitrogen consumed.


Bruhn F.R.P.,Federal University of Pelotas | Lopes M.A.,Federal University of Lavras | Faria P.B.,Federal University of Lavras | Junqueira L.V.,Zootecnia | Da Rocha C.M.B.M.,Federal University of Lavras
Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinaria | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to determine which socioeconomic factors are related to the decision to purchase meat with certification of origin, as well as raising the profile of perception and attitude of consumers of beef in Cuiabá, MT. We performed a description of the variables and built Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression model using the statistical package SPSS 18.0, to identify possible associations between socio-demographic characteristics and other variables raised through interviews among 418 respondents in March 2012. The place of acquisition of the flesh was the attribute that most influences the purchasing decisions of consumers. Most respondents never heard about bovine traceability. Among those who have heard about traceability, most would be willing to pay more for meat with certification of origin, although considering that there are disadvantages associated with traceability, especially in relation to the increase in the price of meat. Consumers with higher education and income were more knowledgeable about this type of certification, and these factors are of great influence on the acceptability of consumers to pay more for traced beef.


Leite J.R.S.,Engineering Agricola | Furtado D.A.,Federal University of Campina Grande | Leal A.F.,Federal University of Campina Grande | Souza B.B.,Federal University of Campina Grande | da Silva A.S.,Zootecnia
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to determine the thermal comfort indexes and their effects on physiological parameters of native goats raised in confinement in the Cariri region of Paraíba state. In this study 36 noncastrated male animals, were used, 12 per genetic group, which were Moxotó, Azul and Graúna, with an average weight of 16.6 ± 1.7 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design in 3 × 5 factorial arrangement (three breeds and five observation times). The studied environmental data were collected by an electronic data acquisition model CR1000. To evaluate the physiological parameters rectal temperature, respiratory frequency and surface temperature were measured three days a week from 6 a.m to 6 p.m with an interval of three hours. Environmental parameters increased from 12 h to reach critical values at 3 p.m, characterizing a situation of thermal discomfort. The animals could maintain a rectal temperature within normal limits, but with increasing respiratory frequency. The superficial temperature did not very among races. The animals of breed Graúna presented higher daily weight gain during the experimental period in comparison to other breeds.


de Abreu M.L.T.,DZO UFPI | Donzele J.L.,DZO UFV | Saraiva A.,Zootecnia | de Oliveira R.F.M.,DZO UFV
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The effect was asessed of adding glutamine, nucleotides and spray-dried swine plasma on the performance, intestinal mucosal structure and immune response of piglets weaned at twenty one days. Two hundred and fifty two piglets, initial weight 6.35 ± 0.80 kg, were used placed in a randomized complete block deaign conducted in seven treatments, six replications and six animals per experimental unit. The initial weight of the animals was considered in the formation of the blocks. The treatments consisted of: the control diet, diet with 1.0% glutamine, diet with a commercial nucleotide product, diet with 2.0% swine plasma, diet with 4.0% swine plasma, diet with 2.0% swine plasma and 1.0% glutamine, diet with 2.0% swine plasma and commercial nucleotide product (PN). The diets with swine plasma gave the greatest weight gains to the piglets at 35 and 42 days of age. In the first fourteen days, with exception of piglets in treatment PN, all piglets fed diets with plasma had higher intake (IRD). The best results for daily weight gain (WGD) were obtained with diets with nucleotides, 2% and 4% plasma, Plasma + glutamine and plasma + nucleotides. The feed:gain ratio (FGR) of the animals was not effected by the experimental diets in the first two weeks after weaning. In the whole period (21 to 42 days of age) the best results for intake and weight gain were observed with the supply of diets with 2% swine plasma and plasma + glutamine. The animals fed the control diet presented the worst performance results. The animals fed diets with glutamine, 2% plasma and plasma + nucleotides presented the best feed conversion throughout the experimental period. The villous height, crypt depth and the leukocyte and lymphocyte populations were not influenced by the treatments. The use of glutamine, nucleotide and swine plasma improves the performance of piglets weaned at 21 days of age. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Da Silva B.A.,Federal University of Grande Dourados | De Oliveira M.V.M.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Filho P.M.,Zootecnia | Luz D.F.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | And 3 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

This study evaluated the effect of diets containing fresh sugar cane associated with urea and/or calcium oxide on the productive performance, milk composition and feed digestibility in Girolando dairy cows. The experiment lasted 84 days. Animals were feedlot using a tie stall system and assigned to the following treatments: Fresh sugarcane (Ca); Fresh sugarcane with Urea (CaUr); Sugarcane hydrolyzed with Calcium oxide (CaCal) and Sugarcane hydrolyzed with Calcium oxide plus Urea (CaUrCal). Four multiparous cows, with 21 days postpartum, were distributed in a 4×4 Latin Square. The experimental period was 21 days; the first 14 days for adaptation of animals to diets, and seven days for data collection. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey's test (P<0.05). The intake was not influenced by the diets and the best feed efficiency was foundin animals fed the diet CaUrCal (1.25 kg milk/kg DM). Differences were detected between the treatments for the non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility, in which the diet based on CaCal exceeded CaUr. Serum glucose and urea were similar between treatments, but the excretion of urea and urinary nitrogen was higher in animals fed CaCal than CaUr and Ca. The use of diets containing sugarcane associated with urea and calcium oxide had no influence on milk composition and production.


Antunes-Melo K.D.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | De Oliveira V.S.,Federal University of Sergipe | Santos A.D.F.,UFS | De Oliveira C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

The aims of this study were to improve the cost-benefit ratio of the application of artificial insemination in fixed time (TAI) by the transcervical route in sheep, to test the dosage reduction and the use of the vulvar submucosa (VSM) route as an alternative for the application of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on the efficiency of the synchronization protocol and fertility to artificial insemination (AI) and to measure the level of cortisol in ewes as a result the application of this biotechnique. Blood samples were collected before AI, immediately after AI and seven days after AI. Six groups of twenty animals were used, and each group received doses of 200, 300 and 400 IU of eCG by the intramuscular route (IM) and VSM. Estrus was detected, and 48 hours later, the inseminations were performed by the transcervical route. Among the 120 treated ewes, 87.5% came in estrus. The percentage of the intrauterine deposition of semen was 88.3%. The pregnancy rate ranged from 20 to 70% between treatments, with an average of 46.66%. The VSM route was viable for the application of eCG in doses of 300 and 400 IU. The reduction in the eCG dose to 200 IU by the IM route reduces costs while maintaining the efficiency of estrus synchronization protocols and TAI with frozen semen in Santa Ines ewes. The average levels of cortisol were significant, at 1.15, 2.86 and 0.52 μg/dL according to the three collections, being higher after the animal was off the easel at the end of AI. The procedures for performing the transcervical AI technique indicate that stress in the animals produces satisfactory fertility results and a low cost in multiparous ewes of the Santa Ines breed.


These are the majority of the participants in the study in Brisbane, Australia, 2012. Credit: CRP cryptic fruit fly pest species. Considered among the agricultural pests with the greatest economic impact, the tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a serious worldwide problem. Destroying fruit and vegetable production and markets across all major continents, some key species have raised international attention, leading to six years of coordinated multidisciplinary research that will contribute to overcome phytosanitary trade barriers and apply more sustainable pest management strategies such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The collaboration between over fifty researchers from more than twenty countries resulted in twenty-five articles, compiled by editors Drs. Marc De Meyer, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium, Anthony R. Clarke, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, M. Teresa Vera, Facultad de Agronomia y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Argentina, and Jorge Hendrichs, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Austria. They have now been published in a special volume of the open-access journal ZooKeys. Females from numerous native as well as invasive fruit flies species cause tremendous economic losses by laying their eggs directly into ripening fruit and vegetables, where their larvae feed, destroying the crop. Their presence also results in the loss of export markets and expensive quarantine and regulatory controls that further increase the associated costs. The impact of these pests and the requests from the Member States led the Joint Food and Agriculture Organisation / International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/IAEA) Programme on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture to assist the governments in developing and applying more environment-friendly pest suppression systems. One example is the SIT package developed and applied against the Mediterranean fruit fly, which resulted in the successful management of this pest species in a number of countries. To further develop such techniques to deal with other major fruit fly species threatening the agriculture in many countries around the world, the scientists needed to resolve first controversies related to species identities, so that they can differentiate taxonomic groups and better understand their biology. Therefore, researchers used multiple, independent lines of evidence to delimit the species boundaries. These included traditional morphology, but also morphometrics, developmental physiology, pre- and postzygotic mating incompatibility, karyology, chemoecology, and a wide range of molecular techniques such as multi-locus markers and microsatellites among others. The present Special Issue presents some of the major findings that are of utmost significance for international horticultural trade and the application of biologically-based pest control methods. The volume is dedicated to two prominent and leading figures in the scientific and research community, Serge Quilici and Peter Teal. Both were part of the initiative from the beginning, but regrettably, passed away recently and were not able to see its conclusion. Explore further: What's in a name? Everything—if you're a fruit fly

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