South Australia, Australia
South Australia, Australia

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McLelland D.J.,Zoos South Australia | Reardon T.,South Australian Museum | Dickason C.,Government of South Australia | Kessell A.,Gribbles Veterinary Laboratories | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2013

In 2009, an outbreak of white nodular cutaneous lesions was detected in one of only two known breeding colonies of the critically endangered southern bentwing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii), at Nara-coorte, South Australia. Necropsies were conducted on 10 euthanized bats in September 2009. In October 2009, 123 bats were examined under anesthesia, with skin biopsies collected from 18 affected bats. Prevalence of skin lesions was 45.2%. The prevalence among males was three times greater than among females. The majority of lesions examined histologically were granulomas, typically centered on a nematode. A single lesion had epidermal hyperplasia with intracytoplasmic inclusions consistent with a pox virus; pox virions were identified on electron microscopy. Nematodes dissected from frozen lesions were identified morphologically as Riouxgolvania beveridgei, previously described in the eastern bentwing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis). The factors contributing to this apparent disease emergence and outbreak remain undetermined. Lesions consistent with white nose syndrome were not identified. © Wildlife Disease Association 2013.

Funnell O.,Adelaide Hills Animal Hospital | Johnson L.,Zoos South Australia | Woolford L.,University of Adelaide | Boardman W.,University of Adelaide | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2013

Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phasco-larctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chla-mydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR. © Wildlife Disease Association 2013.

Swinbourne M.,University of Adelaide | Sparrow E.,Zoos South Australia | Hatch M.,University of Adelaide | Bowden T.,University of Adelaide | Taggart D.,University of Adelaide
Leading Edge | Year: 2014

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was used to map the warrens of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in South Australia in a variety of soil types. Although farmers often cull wombats to reduce their impact on infrastructure and agriculture, their population dynamics are poorly understood, and all stakeholders agree that better information is required. Warrens were mapped successfully at four locations, providing insight into how soil type and local conditions affect burrow morphology and how these can influence population abundance. The use of GPR has provided the first noninvasive means of mapping wombat warrens and the first opportunity to conduct follow-up research to determine how warrens might change over time in response to changes in population.

Read J.L.,Khan Research Laboratories | Read J.L.,University of Adelaide | Johnston G.R.,University of South Australia | Morley T.P.,Zoos South Australia
ORYX | Year: 2011

Case studies of well-documented snake reintroductions are limited, despite their potential value for conservation and ecosystem recovery. The Endangered woma Aspidites ramsayi is a large boid snake that has declined considerably and is now threatened throughout much of central Australia. We describe a trial release of captive-bred womas into the feral predator-free Arid Recovery Reserve in northern South Australia. All of the reintroduced womas were killed within 4 months, with predation by the mulga snake Pseudechis australis confirmed or implied in all cases. Lessons learned for the conditioning of captive-bred snakes for wild release and the role of the mulga snake in structuring Australian arid-zone snake assemblages are discussed. © 2011 Fauna & Flora International.

Sparrow E.E.,Zoos South Australia | Parsons M.H.,Hofstra University | Blumstein D.T.,University of California at Los Angeles
Australian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016

Southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) are fossorial marsupials that live in large burrow systems where their digging behaviour brings them into conflict with agriculture. In the absence of any available control options, non-selective culling is the primary mode of wombat management. This approach is contentious and has unknown implications for long-term wombat conservation. Predator scents, however, have been effective in altering behaviours of some herbivores and may offer a non-lethal alternative to culling if they discourage wombats from burrowing in perceived problem areas. Therefore, we trialled two dingo scents (faeces, urine) over 75 days to determine whether these scents would deter wombats from repopulating collapsed burrows. Ten inhabited single-entrance burrows were excavated over three days (to allow time for inhabitants to exit), collapsed and then filled in. Five burrows, separated by at least 200m, were used for dingo scent treatments (three urine; two faeces) and three burrows, separated by the same distance, served as negative controls (unscented), along with two 'farmer-monitored' active controls (dog urine and a dingo carcass). We used a rank-sum score to assess wombat activity: scratching was scored with a value of (1), digging (2), and recolonisation (5), with each value reflecting total energy and time spent in the vicinity of the treatment. We fitted Generalised Estimating Equations (repeated-measures, Fisher Method) to explain variation within, and across, treatment and control burrows. Within 20 days, all 10 sites had signs of wombat activity that ranged from fresh digging, to fully functional burrows. Among the five treatment sites, scratching and tracks identified wombats as being present, but they did not dig. After 75 days, the five sites treated with dingo scents had minimal activity and no new burrows, while wombats recolonised all control burrows. Though we used only 10 burrows for this preliminary study, our findings suggest the need for further testing of dingo scents as a tool for dissuading wombats from digging and recolonisation of collapsed burrows. This represents a novel use for a predator scent, in that prey may remain in the vicinity near the deterrent, but curb problematic behaviours of economic consequence. © CSIRO 2016.

Lepage V.,University of Guelph | Young J.,Toronto Zoo | Dutton C.J.,Toronto Zoo | Crawshaw G.,Toronto Zoo | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

Seahorses, pipefish and seadragons are fish of the Family Syngnathidae. From 1998 to 2010, 172 syngnathid cases from the Toronto Zoo were submitted for post-mortem diagnostics and retrospectively examined. Among the submitted species were yellow seahorses Hippocampus kuda Bleeker (n = 133), pot-bellied seahorses Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson (n = 35) and weedy seadragons Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacépède; n = 4). The three most common causes of morbidity and mortality in this population were bacterial dermatitis, bilaterally symmetrical myopathy and mycobacteriosis, accounting for 24%, 17% and 15% of cases, respectively. Inflammatory processes were the most common diagnoses, present in 117 cases. Seven neoplasms were diagnosed, environmental aetiologies were identified in 46 cases, and two congenital defects were identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Russell S.,Novartis | Tubbs L.,Novartis | McLelland D.J.,Zoos South Australia | LePage V.,University of Guelph | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2015

Amyloid associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma was discovered in two captive adult tricolour sharkminnows Balantiocheilus melanopterus Bleeker found dead in a freshwater display. Enlarged abdomens expanded by bloody ascitic fluid and grossly visible masses of abnormal tissue were present surrounding sections of the stomach and intestine. Histologically, the masses were composed of areas of well-organized exocrine pancreatic acini interspersed with cords of poorly differentiated, spindle-shaped cells that compressed and effaced normal parenchyma. These cells possessed small numbers of cytoplasmic zymogen granules; the exocrine nature of these cells was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fibrovascular connective tissue of the hepatopancreas and mesenteries was expanded by lightly eosinophilic, hyaline, homogeneous acellular material. Similar material greatly expanded the tunica media of large blood vessels in the hepatopancreas. After staining with Congo red or thioflavin T, this material exhibited red-green dichroism under polarized light or bright green fluorescence under ultraviolet light (255 nm), respectively. The non-branching fibrils, of indeterminate length, had an approximate diameter of 10-20 nm using TEM. Although exocrine pancreatic neoplasia is relatively common in fish, the presence of amyloid is not. To our current knowledge, the latter has not yet been described in association with a neoplastic lesion in fish. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Mclelland D.J.,Zoos South Australia | Fielder K.,Zoos South Australia | Males G.,Zoos South Australia | Langley N.,Zoos South Australia | Schultz D.,Zoos South Australia
Zoo Biology | Year: 2015

A 47-day-old orphaned Goodfellow's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus goodfellowi) joey was successfully cross-fostered onto a yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus). The joey was subsequently taken for hand-rearing at age 5 months. This is the first report of the cross-fostering technique, well-established in other macropods, being applied to a Dendrolagus sp. This technique can be considered as a viable option to raise young orphaned tree kangaroos, and as a tool to accelerate breeding in captive breeding programs of Dendrolagus spp. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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