Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center

Chatuchak, Thailand

Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center

Chatuchak, Thailand
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Uchida Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Uchida Y.,Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | Watanabe C.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Takemae N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2012

Seventeen recombinant viruses were generated by a reverse genetic technique to elucidate the pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in chickens. The recombinant viruses generated possessed hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from an HPAIV. Other segments were combinations of the genes from an HPAIV and two low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) derived from chicken (LP) and wild bird (WB). Exchange of whole internal genes from an HPAIV with those of an LPAIV resulted in a significant extension of the survival time following intranasal infection of the chickens with the recombinants. Survival analysis demonstrated that the exchange of a gene segment affected survivability of the chickens with statistical significance. The analysis revealed three groups of recombinants with various gene constellations that depended upon the survivability of the infected chickens. Recombinants where the PA gene was exchanged from LP to WB in the LP gene background, LP (W/PA), did not kill any chickens. LP (W/PA) replicated less efficiently both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the intrinsic replication ability of LP (W/PA) affects pathogenicity; however, such a correlation was not seen for the other recombinants. Microarray analysis of the infected chicken lungs indicated that the expression of 7 genes, CD274, RNF19B, OASL, AC3HAV1, PLA2G6, GCH1, and USP18, correlated with the survivability of the chickens infected (P < 0.01). Further analysis of the functions of these genes in chickens would aid in the understanding of host gene responses following fatal infections by HPAIVs. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Uchida Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Uchida Y.,Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | Kanehira K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Takemae N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2017

H7N9 human influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (Anhui2013) showed low pathogenicity in chickens, quail, and pigeons, with quail being the most susceptible among the species tested. IVPIE1-1, which was recovered from a dead chicken after intravenous inoculation of Anhui 2013, had broader tissue tropism in chickens than did the original inoculum, as well as amino acid substitutions in the polymerase acidic gene and neuraminidase gene segments, but its pathogenicity was not enhanced. Viruses obtained after passage of Anhui 2013 in 10- and 14-day-old embryonated eggs showed rapid accumulation of amino acid substitutions at the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin protein. Two strains obtained through egg passage, 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13, replicated better in intranasally infected chickens than did the original Anhui 2013 strain, yet the new isolates showed low pathogenicity in chickens despite their amino acid substitutions. The increased virus replication in chickens of 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13 was not correlated with temperature-sensitive replication, given that virus replication was suppressed at increased temperatures. The existence of highly susceptible hosts, such as quail, which permit asymptomatic infection, facilitates increased mutation of the virus through amino acid substitution at the receptor-binding site, and this might be one of the mechanisms underlying the prolonged circulation of H7N9 influenza virus. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Watanabe C.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Uchida Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Uchida Y.,Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | Ito H.,Tottori University | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology | Year: 2011

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) induces acute disease in chickens causing high mortality and morbidity and is a major threat to poultry industries in Southeast Asian countries. The mechanisms of disease manifestation and host innate immune responses against HAPIV in chickens are not well understood. In this study, we examined virus replication and host gene expressions in four chicken cell lines in vitro to elucidate the impact of host innate immune responses against viral replication. It was demonstrated that viral replication efficiencies were different depending on the cell line. The viral replication appeared to be affected by the basal expression of IFN related genes. The expression of immune-related genes against the viral infection also varied in a cell line dependent manner. In non-immune derived cell lines, but not in immune derived cell lines, the expression of the CCL5 and CCL20 genes were induced by HPAIV infection. Reverse genetics HPAIV, with internal genes from avirulent avian influenza, reduced virus replication and affected immune-related gene expression in a cell line dependent manner. These results suggest the possibility that differential immune responses in different cell types in local tissues could modulate the consequences of HPAIV infection in chickens. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Suzuki Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Suzuki Y.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Uchida Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Uchida Y.,Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

Amino acid substitutions were introduced into avian influenza virus PB1 in order to characterize the interaction between polymerase activity and pathogenicity. Previously, we used recombinant viruses containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 strain and other internal genes from two lowpathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from chicken and wild-bird hosts (LP and WB, respectively) to demonstrate that the pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of subtype H5N1 in chickens is regulated by the PB1 gene (Y. Uchida et al., J. Virol. 86:2686 -2695, 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.06374-11). In the present study, we introduced a C38Y substitution into WB PB1 and demonstrated that this substitution increased both polymerase activity in DF-1 cells in vitro and the pathogenicity of the recombinant viruses in chickens. The V14A substitution in LP PB1 reduced polymerase activity but did not affect pathogenicity in chickens. Interestingly, the V14A substitution reduced viral shedding and transmissibility. These studies demonstrate that increased polymerase activity correlates directly with enhanced pathogenicity, while decreased polymerase activity does not always correlate with pathogenicity and requires further analysis. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


Takahashi T.,University of Shizuoka | Kawakami T.,University of Shizuoka | Mizuno T.,University of Shizuoka | Minami A.,University of Shizuoka | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Influenza A virus (IAV) recognizes two types of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by galactose (Gal) linkages, Neu5Acα2,3Gal and Neu5Acα2,6Gal. Avian IAV preferentially binds to Neu5Acα2,3Gal linkage, while human IAV preferentially binds to Neu5Acα2,6Gal linkage, as a virus receptor. Shift in receptor binding specificity of avian IAV from Neu5Acα2,3Gal linkage to Neu5Acα2,6Gal linkage is generally believed to be a critical factor for its transmission ability among humans. Surveillance of this shift of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian IAV (HPAI) is thought to be a very important for prediction and prevention of a catastrophic pandemic of HPAI among humans. In this study, we demonstrated that receptor binding specificity of IAV bound to sialo-glycoconjugates was sensitively detected by quantifying the HA gene with real-time reverse-transcription-PCR. The new assay enabled direct detection of receptor binding specificity of HPAIs in chicken clinical samples including trachea and cloaca swabs in only less than 4 h. © 2013 Takahashi et al.


Uchida Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Uchida Y.,Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | Suzuki Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Shirakura M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 12 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2012

Outbreaks of H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) were recorded in chickens, domesticated birds and wild birds throughout Japan from November 2010 to March 2011. Genetic analysis of the Japanese isolates indicated that all gene segments, except the PA gene, were closely related to Japanese wild bird isolates in 2008 and belonged to clade 2.3.2.1 classified by the WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. Direct ancestors of the PA gene segment of all Japanese viruses analyzed in this study can be found in wild bird strains of several subtypes other than H5N1 isolated between 2007 and 2009. The PA gene of these wild bird isolates share a common ancestor with H5N1 HPAIVs belonging to clades 2.5, 7 and 9, indicating that wild birds were involved in the emergence of the current reassortant 2.3.2.1 viruses. To determine how viruses were maintained in the wild bird population, two isolates derived from chickens (A/chicken/Shimane/1/2010, Ck10 and A/chicken/Miyazaki/S4/2011, CkS411) and one from a wild bird (A/mandarin duck/Miyazaki/22M-765/2011, MandarinD11) were compared in their ability to infect and be transmitted to chickens. There was a significant difference in the survival of chickens that were infected with 106EID50 of CkS411 compared to those with MandarinD11 and the transmission efficiency of CkS411 was greater than the other viruses. The increased titer of CkS411 excreted from infected chickens contributed to the improved transmission rates. It was considered that reduced virus excretion and transmission of MandarinD11 could have been due to adaptation of the virus in wild birds. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Hiromoto Y.,Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | Hiromoto Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Parchariyanon S.,National Institute of Animal Health | Ketusing N.,National Institute of Animal Health | And 9 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2012

A total of 300 nasal swabs were collected from 5 pig farms in two provinces in the Eastern part of Thailand in February 2011 and were subjected to viral isolation of influenza A viruses. Two H3N2 and 6 H1N1 influenza A viruses were isolated from swabs collected from clinically healthy weaning pigs on farms in Chonburi and Chachoengsao provinces, respectively. The H3N2 isolates consisted of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes closely related to Thai SIVs and derived from a cluster of human seasonal H3N2 strains circulating around 1996-1997. The remaining gene segments of the isolates originated from the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (A (H1N1) pdm09) virus. Antigenicity of the H3N2 isolates was distinguishable from a human seasonal vaccine strain in the 1996-1998 seasons that represented antigenicity of the seasonal strains around 1996-1998. Nasal swabs from a Chachoengsao farm yielded A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses in chicken embryonated eggs and MDCK cells. A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses isolated in this study grew poorly in MDCK cells. Deduced amino acid sequences of the HA1 region of the HA protein of egg isolated viruses were identical to the sequences directly amplified from original swab samples. Our result demonstrated that the A (H1N1) pdm09 virus has been established in the Thai pig population and this has resulted in genetic reassortment with Thai SIV that previously circulated among pigs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Uchida Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Uchida Y.,Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | Takemae N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Takemae N.,Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2014

In this study, reverse genetics was applied to produce vaccine candidate strains against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N1 subtype. The H5 subtype vaccine strains were generated by a reverse genetics method in a biosafety level 2 facility. The strain contained the HA gene from the H5N1 subtype HPAIV attenuated by genetic modification at the cleavage site, the NA gene derived from the H5N1 subtype HPAI or the H5N3 subtype of avian influenza virus and internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34. Vaccination with an inactivated recombinant virus with oil-emulsion completely protected chickens from a homologous viral challenge with a 640 HAU or 3,200 HAU/vaccination dose. Vaccination with a higher dose of antigen, 3,200 HAU, was effective at increasing survival and efficiently reduced viral shedding even when challenged by a virus of a different HA clade. The feasibility of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) was demonstrated against a challenge with H5N1 HPAIVs when the recombinant H5N3 subtype viruses were used as the antigens of the vaccine. Our study demonstrated that the use of reverse genetics would be an option to promptly produce an inactivated vaccine with better matching of antigenicity to a circulating strain. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.


Ngo L.T.,Center for Veterinary Diagnostics | Hiromoto Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Hiromoto Y.,Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center | Pham V.P.,Center for Veterinary Diagnostics | And 7 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2012

Please cite this paper as: Ngo et al. (2012) Isolation of novel triple-reassortant swine H3N2 influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of a seasonal influenza virus in Vietnam in 2010. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(1), 6-10. Surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in 31 pig farms in northern and southern parts of Vietnam was conducted. Six H3N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from a pig farm in southern Vietnam. They were novel genetic reassortants between a triple-reassortant SIV and a human seasonal H3N2 virus. Their hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were derived from a human virus circulating around 2004-2006 and the remaining genes from a triple-reassortant SIV that originated in North America. This is the first report describing the isolation of a novel triple-reassortant SIV in Vietnam. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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