Center for Zoonosis Control

Campo Grande, Brazil

Center for Zoonosis Control

Campo Grande, Brazil

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PubMed | Center for Zoonosis Control and State University of Maringá
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of lasers in medical sciences | Year: 2015

The topical and intradermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect of methylene blue (MB) using light-emitting diode (LED) as light source (MB/LED-PDT) in the treatment of lesions of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis in hamsters were investigated.Hamsters were infected in the footpad with 410(7) promastigotes of L. braziliensis and divided in 4 groups: Control group was not treated, AmB group was treated with amphotericin B, MB-Id group received intradermal MB at the edge of the lesion and MB-Tp group received MB topic. After treatment with MB, the animals were illuminated using red LEDs at the 655 nm wavelength for 1 hour. The MB/LED-PDT was carried out three times a week for 12 weeks.Animals of MB-Tp group presented lesion healing with significant diminution in extent of the lesion, and reduced parasite burden compared to control group; however, no significant difference was seen compared to the AmB group. MB-Tp group also showed reconstitution of the epithelium, the formation of collagen fibers, organization in the epidermis, a little disorganization and inflammation in the dermis. MB-Id was ineffective in all parameters evaluated, and it was comparable to the control group results.These data show that PDT with the use of MB-Tp and LED may be an alternative for the treatment of ACL. However, additional studies are being conducted to assess the potential of MB/LED-PDT, alone or in combination with conventional therapy, for the treatment of ACL.


Santana K.S.O.,Federal University of Bahia | Bavia M.E.,Federal University of Bahia | Lima A.D.,Bahia State University | Guimaraes I.C.S.,Center for Zoonosis Control | And 4 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2011

Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil-currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation-is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs) that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3%) with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%). Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved.


Casaril A.E.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Monaco N.Z.N.,Center for Zoonosis Control | De Oliveira E.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Eguchi G.U.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | And 6 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Environmental changes caused by urbanization can cause alterations in the ecology and behavior of sandflies and in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Geotechnological tools allow the analysis and recognition of spatiotemporal patterns by monitoring and mapping risk areas of this vector-borne disease. This study aims to describe the sandfly fauna in the municipality of Corumbá and to compare it with the data described in a three-year period from 1984 to 1986 by Galati. A further aim was to analyze the influence of environmental changes on the composition of the fauna.Methods: Captures were conducted weekly from April 2012 to March 2013, in intra and peridomicile areas with automatic light traps, from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am. The following indices were calculated for both periods analyzed: Standardized Index of Species Abundance (SISA), Shannon's diversity index (H) and Pielou's index (J). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was extracted from a remote sensing LANDSAT-5 image.Results: In total, 7,370 specimens (6,169 males and 1,201 females) were collected, distributed among 12 species. Lutzomyia cruzi was the most frequent species (93,79%) and the first in the ranking of standardized species abundance index in both studies. The dominance of the species Lu. cruzi in the neighborhoods of Maria Leite and Centro was demonstrated by the low equitability index. The neighborhood of Cristo Redentor had the greatest diversity of sandflies in the present study and the second greatest in the study performed by Galati et al. (Rev Saúde Pública 31:378-390, 1997). Analyzing the satellite images and the NDVI from 1984 and 2010, the largest amount of dense vegetation was found in the neighborhood of Cristo Redentor.Conclusions: It was, therefore, possible to show how changes caused due to urbanization have affected the density and distribution of Lu. cruzi and other species over time. Moreover, the data suggest that different populations of sandflies adapt in different ways according to environmental conditions and the adaptation does not necessarily depends on the presence of high vegetation cover. © 2014 Casaril et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Brilhante A.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Nunes V.L.B.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Kohatsu K.A.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Galati E.A.B.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Bonito municipality, known as an area of ecoturism, in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, is also a focus of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases, with cases registered in both human and canine populations. This study sought to investigate natural infection by flagellate forms of Leishmania in phlebotomines of the urban area of Bonito. Findings: Sand flies were collected fortnightly from October 2005 to July 2006 with modified automatic light traps installed in peridomiciles and animal shelters in the center and on the outskirts of the city. The females were dissected and their guts observed under an optical microscope. A total of 1977 specimens were captured, Lutzomyia longipalpis (88.4 %) and Bichromomyia flaviscutelata (3.0 %) being the most frequent species. Bi. flaviscutellata was found infected by flagellates that were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis by indirect immunofluorescence reaction, employing monoclonal antibodies and the biotin-avidin system. This is the first report of natural infection by L. amazonensis in Bi. flaviscutellata in a Brazilian urban area. Conclusions: As Bi. flaviscutellata is only slightly attracted by humans, the transmission of L. amazonensis in the study area may have a zoonotic character; however, the sympatric occurrence of this parasite and Lu. longipalpis should be taken into consideration by the local health authorities since this sand fly has already been found with L. amazonensis DNA in a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Bonito municipality. © 2015 Brilhante et al.


PubMed | Anhanguera-Uniderp University, Federal University of Pará, Center for Zoonosis Control and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: The journal of venomous animals and toxins including tropical diseases | Year: 2015

Bonito municipality, known as an area of ecoturism, in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, is also a focus of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases, with cases registered in both human and canine populations. This study sought to investigate natural infection by flagellate forms of Leishmania in phlebotomines of the urban area of Bonito.Sand flies were collected fortnightly from October 2005 to July 2006 with modified automatic light traps installed in peridomiciles and animal shelters in the center and on the outskirts of the city. The females were dissected and their guts observed under an optical microscope. A total of 1977 specimens were captured, Lutzomyia longipalpis (88.4%) and Bichromomyia flaviscutelata (3.0%) being the most frequent species. Bi. flaviscutellata was found infected by flagellates that were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis by indirect immunofluorescence reaction, employing monoclonal antibodies and the biotin-avidin system. This is the first report of natural infection by L. amazonensis in Bi. flaviscutellata in a Brazilian urban area.As Bi. flaviscutellata is only slightly attracted by humans, the transmission of L. amazonensis in the study area may have a zoonotic character; however, the sympatric occurrence of this parasite and Lu. longipalpis should be taken into consideration by the local health authorities since this sand fly has already been found with L. amazonensis DNA in a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Bonito municipality.


PubMed | Federal University of São Paulo, Center for Zoonosis Control, Federal University of Paraná, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health and 2 more.
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Mycoses | Year: 2015

Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that occurs worldwide, causing symptomatic infection mostly in immunocompromised hosts. Etiological agent is the dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, which occurs in soil contaminated with bird or bat droppings. Major limitation in recognition of H. capsulatum infections is the low awareness, since other diseases may have similar symptomatology. The molecular methods have gained importance because of unambiguous diagnostic ability and efficiency. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a padlock probe in view of rolling circle amplification (RCA) detection method which targets ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) rDNA of H. capsulatum enabling rapid and specific detection of the fungus in clinical samples. Two padlock probes were designed and one of these (HcPL2) allowed specific amplification of H. capsulatum DNA while no cross-reactivity was observed with fungi used as negative controls. This method proved to be effective for H. capsulatum specific identification and demonstrated to be faster than the traditional method of microbiological identification.


Costa L.N.G.,University of Campinas | Borba A.S.,Health Surveillance of Municipal Health | Castagna C.L.,Center for Zoonosis Control | Carvalho Filho E.B.,University of Campinas | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis has greater sensitivity and specificity than culture and visualization of the parasite. This study compares PCR for the diagnosis of the genus and species of Leishmania with serological techniques used for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil, considering two regions. We analysed peripheral blood samples collected from 195 dogs in the Campinas (SP) and Teresina (PI) regions. ELISA was performed as a serological method and PCR was performed using specific primers for the genus Leishmania spp. and the species Leishmania chagasi. In Campinas, a greater sensitivity of PCR (88·24%) (P = 0·0455) compared to Teresina (14·71%) (P < 0·0001) was observed, and an agreement was observed for Cohen's kappa index (0·9096). Both PCR and ELISA showed discordance for sensitivity (Campinas 100%, Teresina 21·74%), specificity (Campinas 30·77%, Teresina 100%), positive predictive value (Campinas 68·97%, Teresina 100%), negative predictive value (Campinas 100%, Teresina 37·94%) and Cohen's kappa index (0·1238). This study confirms the importance of PCR in analysis of the canine reservoir, and as an effective method for the detection of active and recent infection. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.


PubMed | Health Surveillance of Municipal Health, Municipal Health Foundation, University of Campinas, Center for Zoonosis Control and Hospital Clinics
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Epidemiology and infection | Year: 2015

SUMMARY Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis has greater sensitivity and specificity than culture and visualization of the parasite. This study compares PCR for the diagnosis of the genus and species of Leishmania with serological techniques used for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil, considering two regions. We analysed peripheral blood samples collected from 195 dogs in the Campinas (SP) and Teresina (PI) regions. ELISA was performed as a serological method and PCR was performed using specific primers for the genus Leishmania spp. and the species Leishmania chagasi. In Campinas, a greater sensitivity of PCR (88.24%) (P = 0.0455) compared to Teresina (14.71%) (P < 0.0001) was observed, and an agreement was observed for Cohens kappa index (0.9096). Both PCR and ELISA showed discordance for sensitivity (Campinas 100%, Teresina 21.74%), specificity (Campinas 30.77%, Teresina 100%), positive predictive value (Campinas 68.97%, Teresina 100%), negative predictive value (Campinas 100%, Teresina 37.94%) and Cohens kappa index (0.1238). This study confirms the importance of PCR in analysis of the canine reservoir, and as an effective method for the detection of active and recent infection.


De Oliveira E.F.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | dos Santos Fernandes C.E.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Araujo e Silva E.,Center for Zoonosis Control | Brazil R.P.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | de Oliveira A.G.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2013

The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.


De Oliveira E.F.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Silva E.A.,Center for Zoonosis Control | Casaril A.E.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Fernandes C.E.S.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

The study of some of the behavioral aspects of the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas in the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), such as dispersion, population size, and vector survival rates, is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These parameters were studied by means of capture-mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area of Campo Grande municipality, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, situated in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Six capture-mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken between November 2009 and November 2010 and once in January 2012 with a view to assessing the population size and survival rate of Lu. longipalpis. The insects were released in a peridomicile surrounded by 13 residences. The recaptures were undertaken with automatic light traps for four consecutive weeks after release in the surrounding area. In total, 3,354 sand flies were captured, marked, and released. The overall recapture rate during the capture-markrelease-recapture experiments was 4.23%, of which 92.45% were recaptured at the release site, indicating limited dispersal. The greatest distance recorded from the release site was 165 m for males and 241 m for females. The male daily survival rate, calculated on the basis of regressions from the numbers of marked recaptured insects during the 15 successive days after release was 0.897. The estimated male population size measured by the Lincoln Index was 10,947.127. Though Lu. longipalpis presented a limited dispersion the physical barriers typical of urban environments did not prevent the sand flies from flying long distances. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.

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