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Benjamin S.P.,Sri Lanka Institute of Fundamental Studies | Benjamin S.P.,Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

Morphological comparison of the genera Angaeus Thorell, 1881 and Paraborboropactus Tang and Li, 2009 (Araneae: Thomisidae) shows that the latter should be relegated to a junior synonym of the former. Further, I propose the following new synonyms: Angaeus leucomenus (Thorell, 1895), Stephanopis weyersi Simon, 1899 and Paraborboropactus leguminaceus Tang and Li, 2009 = Angaeus rhombifer Thorell, 1890 syn. nov., Paraborboropactus oblatus Tang and Li, 2010 = Angaeus lenticulosus Simon, 1903 syn. nov. The following species are transferred from Paraborboropactus: Angaeus canalis (Tang & Li, 2010) comb. nov., Angaeus liangweii (Tang & Li, 2010) comb. nov., Angaeus rhombus (Tang & Li, 2009) comb. nov. and Angaeus zhengi (Tang & Li, 2009) comb. nov. The holotype of Angaeus pudicus (type species of the genus) is illustrated, and the male and female of Angaeus rhombifer are redescribed and illustrated based partly on fresh material from Singapore. A new species, Angaeus christae sp. nov. is described based on both sexes, and a syntype of Angaeus comatulus Simon, 1909 is illustrated. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Weigert A.,University of Leipzig | Helm C.,University of Leipzig | Meyer M.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Nickel B.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Annelida is one of three animal groups possessing segmentation and is central in considerations about the evolution of different character traits. It has even been proposed that the bilaterian ancestor resembled an annelid. However, a robust phylogeny of Annelida, especially with respect to the basal relationships, has been lacking. Our study based on transcriptomic data comprising 68,750-170,497 amino acid sites from 305 to 622 proteins resolves annelid relationships, including Chaetopteridae, Amphinomidae, Sipuncula, Oweniidae, and Magelonidae in the basal part of the tree. Myzostomida, which have been indicated to belong to the basal radiation as well, are now found deeply nested within Annelida as sister group to Errantia in most analyses. On the basis of our reconstruction of a robust annelid phylogeny, we show that the basal branching taxa include a huge variety of life styles such as tube dwelling and deposit feeding, endobenthic and burrowing, tubicolous and filter feeding, and errant and carnivorous forms. Ancestral character state reconstruction suggests that the ancestral annelid possessed a pair of either sensory or grooved palps, bicellular eyes, biramous parapodia bearing simple chaeta, and lacked nuchal organs. Because the oldest fossil of Annelida is reported for Sipuncula (520 Ma), we infer that the early diversification of annelids took place at least in the Lower Cambrian. © 2014 The Author.

Struck T.H.,Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Phylogenomic studies based on hundreds of genes derived from expressed sequence tags libraries are increasingly used to reveal the phylogeny of taxa. A prerequisite for these studies is the assignment of genes into clusters of orthologous sequences. Sophisticated methods of orthology prediction are used in such analyses, but it is rarely assessed whether paralogous sequences have been erroneously grouped together as orthologous sequences after the prediction, and whether this had an impact on the phylogenetic reconstruction using a super-matrix approach. Herein, I tested the impact of paralogous sequences on the reconstruction of annelid relationships based on phylogenomic datasets. Using single-partition analyses, screening for bootstrap support, blast searches and pruning of sequences in the supermatrix, wrongly assigned paralogous sequences were found in eight partitions and the placement of five taxa (the annelids Owenia, Scoloplos, Sthenelais and Eurythoe and the nemertean Cerebratulus) including the robust bootstrap support could be attributed to the presence of paralogous sequences in two partitions. Excluding these sequences resulted in a different, weaker supported placement for these taxa. Moreover, the analyses revealed that paralogous sequences impacted the reconstruction when only a single taxon represented a previously supported higher taxon such as a polychaete family. One possibility of a priori detection of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences could combine 1) a screening of single-partition analyses based on criteria such as nodal support or internal branch length with 2) blast searches of suspicious cases as presented herein. Also possible are a posteriori approaches in which support for specific clades is investigated by comparing alternative hypotheses based on differences in per-site likelihoods. Increasing the sizes of EST libraries will also decrease the likelihood of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences, and in the case of orthology prediction methods like HaMStR it is likewise decreased by using more than one reference taxon. © 2013 Torsten H.

Struck T.H.,Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig
Evolutionary Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Phylogenies of species or genes are commonplace nowadays in many areas of comparative biological studies. However, for phylogenetic reconstructions one must refer to artificial signals such as paralogy, long-branch attraction, saturation, or conflict between different datasets. These signals might eventually mislead the reconstruction even in phylogenomic studies employing hundreds of genes. Unfortunately, there has been no program allowing the detection of such effects in combination with an implementation into automatic process pipelines. TreSpEx (Tree Space Explorer) now combines different approaches (including statistical tests), which utilize tree-based information like nodal support or patristic distances (PDs) to identify misleading signals. Te program enables the parallel analysis of hundreds of trees and/or predefined gene partitions, and being command-line driven, it can be integrated into automatic process pipelines. TreSpEx is implemented in Perl and supported on Linux, Mac OS X, and MS Windows. Source code, binaries, and additional material are freely available at http://www.annelida.de/research/bioinformatics/software.html. © the authors, publisher and licensee libertas academica limited.

Wesener T.,Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig | Raupach M.J.,AG Molekulare Taxonomie Mariner Organismen | Decker P.,Metadatenbank Myriapoda
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

To elucidate the speciation mechanisms prevalent within hotspots of biodiversity, and the evolutionary processes behind the rise of their species-rich and endemic biota, we investigated the phylogeny of the giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus Silvestri, 1897, a Malagasy endemic. This study is the first comprehensive (molecular and morphological) phylogenetic study focusing on millipede (class Diplopoda) speciation on Madagascar. The morphological analysis is based on 35 morphological characters and incorporates ten described as well as two newly described species (A. rubrodorsalis n. sp. and A. jeekeli n. sp.) of Aphistogoniulus. The molecular analysis is based on both mitochondrial (COI and 16S), and nuclear genes (complete 18S rDNA), together comprised of 3031 base pairs, which were successfully sequenced for 31 individual specimens and eight species of Aphistogoniulus. In addition to the null-model (speciation by distance), two diversification models, mountain refugia and ecotone shift, were discovered to play a role in the speciation of soil arthropods on Madagascar. Mountain refugia were important in the speciation of the A. cowani clade, with three species occurring in the Andringitra and Ranomafana Mountains in the southeast (A. cowani), the Ambohijanahary and Ambohitantely Mountains in the mid-west (A. sanguineus), and the Marojejy Mountain in the northeast (A. rubrodorsalis n. sp.). An ecotone shift from the eastern rainforest to the unique subarid spiny forest of Mahavelo was discovered in the A. vampyrus - A. aridus species-pair. In the monophyletic A. diabolicus clade, evidence for divergent evolution of sexual morphology was detected: species with greatly enlarged gonopods are sister-taxa to species with normal sized gonopods. Among the large-bodied Spirobolida genera of Madagascar, Colossobolus and Sanguinobolus were found to be close sister-genera to Aphistogoniulus. Forest destruction has caused forest corridors between populations to disappear, which might limit the possible resolution of biogeographic analyses on Madagascar. © 2011 Wesener et al.

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