Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud |
Tryjanowski P.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań |
Diaz M.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences |
Kwiecinski Z.,Zoological Garden |
And 4 more authors.
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2015
Animals respond to approaching predators by taking flight at a distance that optimizes the costs and benefits of such flight. Previous studies have shown that urban populations of birds have shorter flight initiation distances than rural populations of the same species, that this difference is partly explained by differences in the community of predators, and that a longer history of urbanization implies a greater reduction in flight initiation distance in urban populations. The use of birdfeeders may be an additional factor reducing flight initiation distance not only in cities but also elsewhere by among other effects increasing body condition, increasing availability and reliability of food, and hence reducing the relative cost of flight. Here, we tested the prediction that urban habitats and presence of feeders independently accounted for reductions in flight initiation distance using extensive samples from different cities in Poland. We found independent significant effects of urban habitat and presence of feeders on flight initiation distance. These findings suggest that different factors have contributed to the "tameness" of urban birds. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology.
Gawalek M.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań |
Dudek K.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań |
Ekner-Grzyb A.,Adam Mickiewicz University |
Kwiecinski Z.,Zoological Garden |
Sliwowska J.H.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań
North-Western Journal of Zoology | Year: 2014
The field cricket Gryllus campestris used to be very common throughout Europe, but in recent decades its population has declined. We study ecology and behavior of crickets near the Odolanów, Poland, between 2009-2011, with emphasis on the effects of grazing of cattle and horses on insects population. We compared the number of burrows per square meter on both grazed and non-grazed areas and examined the size of the arena in front of the burrow. We hypothesized that juvenile crickets would have smaller arenas in front of the burrows compared to adults. We also hypothesized that crickets would prefer burrows with entrances facing southwards. We found that: (1) the number of burrows in area grazed by cattle and horses was higher compared to non-grazed areas; (2) there was the interindividual variation in arena size in front of the burrows, with adult insects having bigger arenas in comparison to the arenas of the young; (3) there was diversity in geographical direction of the burrow entrance with the south being the preferred one. We propose that grazing may have a positive impact on biodiversity of meadows biocenosis and is important for the protection of the field cricket populations. © NwjZ, Oradea, Romania, 2014.
Dulisz B.,University of Warmia and Mazury |
Nowakowski J.J.,University of Warmia and Mazury |
Gornik J.,Zoological Garden
Urban Ecosystems | Year: 2016
Data collected out of the breeding season suggest that House sparrows (Passer domesticus) from the urban populations are characterized by a smaller body size and poorer body condition compared to birds from rural populations. Considering an urbanized Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) and other potential predators, a new predator-prey dependency is developing that can also be a reason for the House sparrow’s poorer condition. This study was aimed at comparing the multivariate biometrical characteristics and few body condition indices of adult birds from urban and rural populations during the breeding season. It was hypothesized that a higher predation risk during the breeding season concerns mainly males, thus affecting their poorer condition. Most of the condition indices of males were significantly lower in the urban population. Males from the urban populations had lower body mass, shorter tarsus, longer alula, greater Kipp’s distance and higher wing pointedness index in comparison to the birds from rural populations, whereas these differences were not found between females. We suggest that the lower body condition and biometric differences in the analyzed birds are a means of adapting to the new predator-prey scheme in accordance to the tradeoff theory between starvation and predation risks. A lower condition of birds in poor foraging urban habitats and higher predation risk may be indicative of a declining population. © 2016 The Author(s)
Cherlin V.A.,Zoological Garden |
Shepilov S.A.,Zoological Garden
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2014
The ecology of the Central Asian blunt-nosed viper (Macrovipera lebetina turanica) inhabiting the Nuratau Crest of Uzbekistan is described. The temperature conditions of the environment and the spatialtemporal structure of the viper activity are represented, which made it possible to find some of thermobiological characteristics. The temperature diapason of full activity of this viper constitutes approximately 17–34°C. The temperature of thermostabilization is in the range of 26–31°C, nocturnal temperatures are elevated from 9–15°C to 18–23°C in spring and summer, respectively, and diurnal body temperatures are decreased from 18–22°C to 10–15°C. Feeding and digestion are normal in blunt-nosed vipers at 25°C, which is below the diurnal temperature variation. In spring, the light phase duration is rapidly increased from 3–6 h to 14 h or more. This length of time and the large diurnal variation in the body temperature from 18°C to 20–22°C facilitate active and efficient coupling. Later, the diurnal body temperature is decreased to 13–18°C, which facilitates successful recovery in males and pregnancy in females. Plots for the average viper body temperature in different seasons are represented. The thermobiological characteristics of the bluntnosed viper of Macrovipera lebetina ěrnovi are similar to M. l. turanica. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Majie A.K.,Zoological Garden |
Mondal P.,Zoological Garden |
Ghosh S.K.,Zoological Garden |
Banerjee D.,Zoological Garden
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Year: 2014
High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca) has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation. © 2014. The Authors.