Gabor E.F.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca |
Ichim O.,Zoo Technology Group |
Suteu M.,Zoo Technology Group
Biharean Biologist | Year: 2012
Fodder additives have been used for a long time with notable effects. Most of them are chemically synthesized and are antibiotics derivatives. The biggest problem following their use is the development of drug-resistant bacteria. In order to overcome this downside and to abide to the new food safety regulations, a search for natural alternatives has begun and the attention has been focused on plants or plants extracts, some used for millennia as natural remedies. As they are natural substances the negative impact on fish health and environment is negligible. Phyto-additives are a relatively new class of additives and the knowledge regarding their use or mode of action is sometimes partially or totally lacking. They have multiple effects; most notable being the antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunostimulating and bioproductive effects. Phyto-additives are a heterogeneous group of additives being extracted from bulbs, roots, leaves or fruits of different plants species; they are available in many forms: dry and/or crushed or as liquids (essential oils). Research has been carried out world-wide, focusing on cultured species (rainbow trout, tilapia, and catfish) using a wide variety of plants (garlic, onion, ginger, Echinacea, nettle, sage, cinnamon) demonstrating the positive effects of the phyto-additives used. Even if they exhibit a positive influence on many parameters, their use is dose dependent, as higher or lower doses could have inhibitory effect or no effects at all. © Biharean Biologist, Oradea, Romania, 2012.