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Osnabrück, Germany

Ulrich R.G.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Imholt C.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Kruger D.H.,Charite Universitatsmedizi Berlin Und Fachber Virologie | Krautkramer E.,University of Heidelberg | And 3 more authors.
Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift | Year: 2013

Hantaviruses are so-called "emerging" and "re-emerging" viruses because of the new and sudden nature of their appearance. Human infections can lead to two distinct disease patterns, the Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome. All known human pathogenic hantaviruses are transmitted through rodent hosts. There are three rodent-associated hantaviruses in Germany. The bank vole-associated Puumala virus (PUUV) is responsible for most of the human hantavirus infections. The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) associated with the striped field mouse is causing hantavirus disease in the North and Northeast of Germany. The human pathogenicity of Tula virus (TULV) is still controversially discussed - the virus has been mainly associated with the common vole as the reservoir, but was molecularly detected also in the field and the water vole. More recently, two shrew-borne hantaviruses were described in Germany, i. e. Seewis virus in the common shrew and Asikkala virus in the pygmy shrew. Systematic studies about hantavirus infections of zoo, pet, companion and farm animals are still lacking. Hence, the aim of this review article is to summarise the current knowledge on this topic and raise the attention of veterinarians to potentially overlooked clinical disease patterns. © 2013 Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG. Source

Steuer P.,University of Bonn | Clauss M.,Clinic for Zoo Animals | Sudekum K.-H.,University of Bonn | Hatt J.-M.,Clinic for Zoo Animals | And 6 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2010

Rhinoceroses represent the largest extant herbivores with extensive dietary specialization for plant groups like browse (black rhino Diceros bicornis) or grass (white rhino Ceratotherium simum). However, it is not clear to what extent such diet selection patterns are reflected in adaptations of digestive physiology of the respective feeding types. In this study, feeding trials with four black and five white rhinos were conducted in four zoos. The animals had ad libitum access to the same batch of grass hay (second cut; neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 63% dry matter (DM), crude protein 10.2% DM). Total intake, fecal N content, in vitro digestibility of NDF residues of feces, fecal particle size and mean retention time (MRT) of particles (Cr-mordanted fiber; 1-2 mm) and fluid (Co-EDTA) were quantified. The average daily DM intake was 70 ± 12 g/kg BW0.75 for white and 73 ± 10 g/kg BW0.75 for black rhinos. In the in vitro fermentation test fecal NDF residues of black rhinos resulted in higher gas productions at fermentation times of 12 to 24 h, indicating that white rhinos have a superior capacity to digest NDF. Average MRT for fluids and particles was 28 ± 4 h and 43 ± 5 h in white and 34 ± 4 h and 39 ± 4 h in black rhinos. The selectivity factor (SF = MRTparticle / MRTfluid) was higher for white (1.5 ± 0.2) than for black rhinos (1.2 ± 0.1) (p = 0.016). In a comparison of 12 ruminant and 3 rhino species, SF was correlated to percentage of grass in diet (R = 0.75). Mean fecal particle size was higher in white (9.1 ± 1.94 mm) than in black rhinos (6.1 ± 0.79 mm) (p = 0.016). The results demonstrate differences between white and black rhinos in terms of retention times and fiber digestibility. The more selective retention of particles by the white rhino corresponds with the higher digestion of fiber measured indirectly. Furthermore there is indication for a general pattern of high SF in grazing ruminants and rhinos. The difference in fecal particle size between both rhino species might be due to the considerable difference in body weight. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Hoppe N.,University of Oldenburg | Boer M.,Zoo Osnabruck | Bininda-Emonds O.R.P.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Ganslosser U.,University of Greifswald
Der Zoologische Garten | Year: 2016

The study aimed at spatial-temporal behaviour and possible path-use of zoo-giraffes (Osnabrück Zoo). Another aim was to reveal possible connections between external factors and the spatial behaviour of the animals. Results should be used for the restructuring of the giraffes' outdoor enclosure as well. The herd consisted of one bull, three females and one calf.Data recording took place in July/August 2014 (ca. 170 observing hours, > 2000 scan-points recorded). The animals were observed by scan-sampling-method. For path-use animals were observed individually (ca. 45 observing hours, > 5100 scan-points).The results suggest that the animals are using paths. Some paths seem to connect feeding areas and to promote energy saving, also. Spatial behaviour of females (and the calf) is more similar to each other than in comparison with the bull. Giraffes' organization in female groups and also their social preferences cause them to be close together most of the time. The influence of visitor numbers and the weather on spatial use could not be fully resolved. It remains questionable why the animals tended to frequent two areas near the visitors with increased temperatures. Most of the time was invested in the feeding activity. © 2016. Source

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