Zoo Exotic Pathology Service

West Sacramento, CA, United States

Zoo Exotic Pathology Service

West Sacramento, CA, United States
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Griffin C.,Griffin Avian and Exotic Veterinary Hospital | Reavill D.R.,Zoo Exotic Pathology Service | Stacy B.A.,University of Florida | Childress A.L.,University of Florida | Wellehan J.F.X.,University of Florida
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2010

Cryptosporidiosis in squamates is well documented, but there is very limited information available on cryptosporidiosis in testudines. We describe three cases of cryptosporidiosis in tortoises with associated pathology. Two Russian tortoises (Agrionemys [Testudo] horsfieldii) and a pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri), all from separate collections, were found dead. At necropsy, two had histological evidence of intestinal cryptosporidiosis and one had gastric cryptosporidiosis. Consensus Cryptosporidium sp. PCR and sequencing was used to identify the Cryptosporidium sp. present in these three tortoises. In the juvenile Russian tortoise with gastric cryptosporidiosis, the organism had 98% homology with a previously reported sequence from an Indian star tortoise isolate. A second chelonian Cryptosporidium sp. was identified in the pancake tortoise and the second Russian tortoise. This sequence was 100% identical to a shorter gene sequence previously reported in a marginated tortoise. This is the first report coordinating pathology with Cryptosporidium characterization in chelonians. The two Cryptosporidium sp. found in tortoises segregate according to site of infection, and there may be further differences in pathology, host range, and transmission. These Cryptosporidium sp. appear to be able to infect diverse tortoise host species. This may be an under-recognized problem in tortoises. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Bunting E.M.,Cornell University | Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath | Abou-Madi N.,Cornell University | Schmidt R.E.,Zoo Exotic Pathology Service | Kollias G.V.,Cornell University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2010

Diseases of the thyroid gland are common in many zoo species, but there are few descriptions of thyroid dysfunction in Mustelidae. A 7-yr-old, captive-bred female fisher (Martes pennanti) with progressive alopecia was diagnosed with clinical hyperthyroidism based on persistent elevation of both total and free serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, ultrasound examination, and histologic evidence of adenomatous hyperplasia. Four additional geriatric adult fishers (two male and two female) were identified with thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia in a review of 23 postmortem records. Banked sera were available for thyroid hormone testing from three of the four necropsy cases. Total and free thyroxine were elevated in four of four animals tested, and triiodothyronine was elevated in two of three animals tested. Necropsy findings in four cases identified cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and vascular lesions consistent with hypertension; complete tissues were not available from the remaining case. Clinical and subclinical hyperthyroidism may be a common but overlooked condition of captive fishers. © 2010 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Ikpatt O.F.,University of Miami | Reavill D.,Zoo Exotic Pathology Service | Chatfield J.,Jungle Island | Clubb S.,University of Miami | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

Lymphoma is a common malignancy observed in companion animals. This type of naturally occurring neoplasia has been uncommonly reported in great apes. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in an 8-yr-old captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with gastrointestinal disease by histologic and immunohistochemical methodologies. The orangutan was treated with three cycles of combination chemotherapy (intravenous Rituxan, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine). The primate has been in good health and exhibiting normal behaviors for more than 15 mo following treatment. © Copyright 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Cheng K.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | Jancovich J.K.,Institute for Conservation Research | Burchell J.,California State University, San Marcos | Schrenzel M.D.,Zoo Exotic Pathology Service | And 5 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2014

A captive 'survival assurance' population of 56 endangered boreal toads Anaxvrus boreas boreas, housed within a cosmopolitan collection of amphibians originating from Southeast Asia and other locations, experienced high mortality (91%) in April to July 2010. Histological examination demonstrated lesions consistent with ranaviral disease, including multicentric necrosis of skin, kidney, liver, spleen, and hematopoietic tissue, vasculitis, and myriad basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Initial confirmation of ranavirus infection was made by Taqman real-time PCR analysis of a portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene and detection of iridovirus-like particles by transmission electron, microscopy. Preliminary DNA sequence analysis of the MCP, DNA polymerase, and neurofilament protein (NFP) genes demonstrated highest identity with Bohle iridovirus (BIV). A virus, tentatively designated zoo ranavirus (ZRV), was subsequently isolated, and viral protein profiles, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and next generation DNA sequencing were performed. Comparison of a concatenated set of 4 ZRV genes, for which BIV sequence data are available, with sequence data from representative ranaviruses confirmed that ZRV was most similar to BIV. This is the first report of a BIV-like agent outside of Australia. However, it is not clear whether ZRV is a novel North American variant of BIV or whether it was acquired by exposure to amphibians co-inhabiting the same facility and originating from different geographic locations. Lastly, several surviving toads remained PCR-positive 10 wk after the conclusion of the outbreak. This finding has implications for the management of amphibians destined for use in reintroduction programs, as their release may inadvertently lead to viral dissemination.

Krause K.J.,Serrano Animal and Bird Hospital | Reavill D.,Zoo Exotic Pathology Service | Weldy S.H.,Serrano Animal and Bird Hospital | Bradway D.S.,Washington State University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015

A 19-yr-old female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with labored breathing and anorexia. Radiographs revealed soft-Tissue density lesions in the left lung fields and fluid in the right. The penguin died during the night. Postmortem examination demonstrated multiple granulomas in the lungs and air sacs. The right coelom was filled with opaque fluid. Histopathology of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen identified Mycobacterium as a primary disease etiology. Large numbers of acid fast-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were recognized on tissue staining. Mycobacterium genavense was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for the species. Further confirmation of M. genavense was accomplished using PCR with universal Mycobacterium spp. primers followed by sequencing of the amplicon obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycobacteriosis-And specifically M. genavense-in an African penguin. This case also demonstrates the similarities of presentation between the more commonly suspected and encountered aspergillosis and mycobacteriosis. © Copyright 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

PubMed | Zoo Exotic Pathology Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice | Year: 2013

Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

PubMed | Zoo Exotic Pathology Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice | Year: 2012

Mycobacteriosis is a serious disease across many animal species. Approximately more than 120 species are currently recognized in the genus Mycobacterium. This article describes the zoonotic potential of mycobacteria and mycobacteriosis in fish, amphibians, rodents, rabbits, and ferrets. It considers clinical signs; histology; molecular methods of identification, such as polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing; routes of infection; and disease progression. Studying the disease in animals may aid in understanding the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections in humans and identify better therapy and preventative options such as vaccines.

PubMed | Zoo Exotic Pathology Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice | Year: 2010

Aging processes leading to specific organ problems are not obvious in aging psittacines. In general, birds live long and age slowly despite their high metabolic rates and very high total lifetime energy expenditures. Most pathologic processes seen in older parrots are generally not specific for aging because they are seen in young birds as well. Pathologic processes that have a tendency to occur more in older psittacines are atherosclerosis and repeated injury processes, such as chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, liver fibrosis, and lens cataracts. Also, some neoplasms are more often seen at an older age.

PubMed | Zoo Exotic Pathology Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice | Year: 2014

A variety of disease agents can affect the gastrointestinal tract of the exotic companion mammal, some of which can pose zoonotic health concerns. Many conditions present with nonspecific clinical signs (lethargy, variable degrees of diarrhea, and for most sick rodents, presenting hunched with spiky fur), necessitating additional laboratory testing to reach a diagnosis. Primary tumors of the digestive tract are also presented as well as miscellaneous conditions ranging from toxins to trauma.

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