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Krause K.J.,Serrano Animal and Bird Hospital | Reavill D.,Zoo Exotic Pathology Service | Weldy S.H.,Serrano Animal and Bird Hospital | Bradway D.S.,Washington State University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

A 19-yr-old female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with labored breathing and anorexia. Radiographs revealed soft-Tissue density lesions in the left lung fields and fluid in the right. The penguin died during the night. Postmortem examination demonstrated multiple granulomas in the lungs and air sacs. The right coelom was filled with opaque fluid. Histopathology of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen identified Mycobacterium as a primary disease etiology. Large numbers of acid fast-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were recognized on tissue staining. Mycobacterium genavense was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for the species. Further confirmation of M. genavense was accomplished using PCR with universal Mycobacterium spp. primers followed by sequencing of the amplicon obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycobacteriosis-And specifically M. genavense-in an African penguin. This case also demonstrates the similarities of presentation between the more commonly suspected and encountered aspergillosis and mycobacteriosis. © Copyright 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Cheng K.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | Jancovich J.K.,Institute for Conservation Research | Burchell J.,California State University, San Marcos | Schrenzel M.D.,Zoo Exotic Pathology Service | And 5 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

A captive 'survival assurance' population of 56 endangered boreal toads Anaxvrus boreas boreas, housed within a cosmopolitan collection of amphibians originating from Southeast Asia and other locations, experienced high mortality (91%) in April to July 2010. Histological examination demonstrated lesions consistent with ranaviral disease, including multicentric necrosis of skin, kidney, liver, spleen, and hematopoietic tissue, vasculitis, and myriad basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Initial confirmation of ranavirus infection was made by Taqman real-time PCR analysis of a portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene and detection of iridovirus-like particles by transmission electron, microscopy. Preliminary DNA sequence analysis of the MCP, DNA polymerase, and neurofilament protein (NFP) genes demonstrated highest identity with Bohle iridovirus (BIV). A virus, tentatively designated zoo ranavirus (ZRV), was subsequently isolated, and viral protein profiles, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and next generation DNA sequencing were performed. Comparison of a concatenated set of 4 ZRV genes, for which BIV sequence data are available, with sequence data from representative ranaviruses confirmed that ZRV was most similar to BIV. This is the first report of a BIV-like agent outside of Australia. However, it is not clear whether ZRV is a novel North American variant of BIV or whether it was acquired by exposure to amphibians co-inhabiting the same facility and originating from different geographic locations. Lastly, several surviving toads remained PCR-positive 10 wk after the conclusion of the outbreak. This finding has implications for the management of amphibians destined for use in reintroduction programs, as their release may inadvertently lead to viral dissemination. Source

Ikpatt O.F.,University of Miami | Reavill D.,Zoo Exotic Pathology Service | Chatfield J.,Jungle Island | Clubb S.,University of Miami | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Lymphoma is a common malignancy observed in companion animals. This type of naturally occurring neoplasia has been uncommonly reported in great apes. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in an 8-yr-old captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with gastrointestinal disease by histologic and immunohistochemical methodologies. The orangutan was treated with three cycles of combination chemotherapy (intravenous Rituxan, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine). The primate has been in good health and exhibiting normal behaviors for more than 15 mo following treatment. © Copyright 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Bunting E.M.,Cornell University | Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath | Abou-Madi N.,Cornell University | Schmidt R.E.,Zoo Exotic Pathology Service | Kollias G.V.,Cornell University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Diseases of the thyroid gland are common in many zoo species, but there are few descriptions of thyroid dysfunction in Mustelidae. A 7-yr-old, captive-bred female fisher (Martes pennanti) with progressive alopecia was diagnosed with clinical hyperthyroidism based on persistent elevation of both total and free serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, ultrasound examination, and histologic evidence of adenomatous hyperplasia. Four additional geriatric adult fishers (two male and two female) were identified with thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia in a review of 23 postmortem records. Banked sera were available for thyroid hormone testing from three of the four necropsy cases. Total and free thyroxine were elevated in four of four animals tested, and triiodothyronine was elevated in two of three animals tested. Necropsy findings in four cases identified cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and vascular lesions consistent with hypertension; complete tissues were not available from the remaining case. Clinical and subclinical hyperthyroidism may be a common but overlooked condition of captive fishers. © 2010 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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