Dvur Kralove Zoo

Dvůr Králové nad Labem, Czech Republic

Dvur Kralove Zoo

Dvůr Králové nad Labem, Czech Republic
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Musilova P.,Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Veterinary Research Institute | Vahala J.,Dvur Kralove Zoo | Rubes J.,Veterinary Research Institute
Chromosome Research | Year: 2013

Equidae is a small family which comprises horses, African and Asiatic asses, and zebras. Despite equids having diverged quite recently, their karyotypes underwent rapid evolution which resulted in extensive differences among chromosome complements in respective species. Comparative mapping using whole-chromosome painting probes delineated genome-wide chromosome homologies among extant equids, enabling us to trace chromosome rearrangements that occurred during evolution. In the present study, we performed subchromosomal comparative mapping among seven Equidae species, representing the whole family. Region-specific painting and bacterial artificial chromosome probes were used to determine the orientation of evolutionarily conserved segments with respect to centromere positions. This allowed assessment of the configuration of all fusions occurring during the evolution of Equidae, as well as revealing discrepancies in centromere location caused by centromere repositioning or inversions. Our results indicate that the prevailing type of fusion in Equidae is centric fusion. Tandem fusions of the type telomere-telomere occur almost exclusively in the karyotype of Hartmann's zebra and are characteristic of this species' evolution. We revealed inversions in segments homologous to horse chromosomes 3p/10p and 13 in zebras and confirmed inversions in segments 4/31 in African ass, 7 in horse and 8p/20 in zebras. Furthermore, our mapping results suggested that centromere repositioning events occurred in segments homologous to horse chromosomes 7, 8q, 10p and 19 in the African ass and an element homologous to horse chromosome 16 in Asiatic asses. Centromere repositioning in chromosome 1 resulted in three different chromosome types occurring in extant species. Heterozygosity of the centromere position of this chromosome was observed in the kiang. Other subtle changes in centromere position were described in several evolutionary conserved chromosomal segments, suggesting that tiny centromere repositioning or pericentric inversions are quite frequent in zebras and asses. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Musilova P.,Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Veterinary Research Institute | Hornak M.,Veterinary Research Institute | Cernohorska H.,Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2010

The karyotype of the red river hog Potamochoerus porcus (2n = 34) differs from that of the domestic pig by the presence of 2 fusion chromosomes homologous to pig chromosomes 13/16 and 15/17. Moreover, chromosomes corresponding to pig chromosomes 13/16 and 1 are both acrocentric. Hybridization with region-specific painting probes confirmed tandem fusion of pig chromosomes 13 and 16, and a pericentric inversion of the pig chromosome 1p equivalent in P. porcus. The chromosome complement of the wart hog Phacochoerus africanus (2n = 34) differs from the pig karyotype in 2 centric fusions, 13/16 and 15/17. Karyotypic relationships among different Suidae species are discussed in the article. Besides fusions 13/16 and 15/17, which are common to several suids, another fusion of pig chromosomes 14 and 18 is suggested to exist in the karyotype of Sus cebifrons. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG.

Kopecna O.,Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Veterinary Research Institute | Cernohorska H.,Veterinary Research Institute | Cabelova K.,Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Chromosome Research | Year: 2014

Satellite sequences present in the centromeric and pericentric regions of chromosomes represent useful source of information. Changes in satellite DNA composition may coincide with the speciation and serve as valuable markers of phylogenetic relationships. Here, we examined satellite DNA clones isolated by laser microdissection of centromeric regions of 38 bovid species and categorized them into three types. Sat I sequences from members of Bovini/Tragelaphini/ Boselaphini are similar to the well-documented 1.715 sat I DNA family. Sat I DNA from Caprini/Alcelaphini/Hippotragini/Reduncini/Aepycerotini/Cephalophini/ Antilopini/Neotragini/Oreotragini form the second group homologous to the common 1.714 sat I DNA. The analysis of sat II DNAs isolated in our study confirmed conservativeness of these sequences within Bovidae. Newly described centromeric clones from Madoqua kirkii and Strepsiceros strepsiceros were similar in length and repetitive tandem arrangement but showed no similarity to any other satellite DNA in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis of sat I sequences isolated in our study from 38 bovid species enabled the description of relationships at the subfamily and tribal levels. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses showed a basal position of sequences from Oreotragini in the subfamily Antilopinae. According to the Bayesian inference analysis based on the indels in a partitioned mixed model, Antilopinae satellite DNA split into two groups with those from Neotragini as a basal tribe, followed by a stepwise, successive branching of Cephalophini, Aepycerotini and Antilopini sequences. In the second group, Reduncini sequences were basal followed by Caprini, Alcelaphini and Hippotragini. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Hanzlikova V.,University of Ostrava | Pluhacek J.,Institute of Animal Science | Culik L.,Dvur Kralove Zoo
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2014

Interspecific aggressive interactions are known among a variety of animals including ungulates. Nevertheless, most studies on interspecific interactions in ungulates involve case reports without testing any specific hypotheses. We tested two mutually exclusive hypotheses; that mortality rate in interspecific interactions of captive African ungulates would be higher if combatants are taxonomically (i) more closely related species or (ii) more distantly related species. In addition, we examined if mortality in these interactions was affected by the age, sex and weight difference of combatants. In total, we analyzed 101 interspecific aggressive interactions among 25 species of African ungulates kept in mixed species exhibits in Dvůr Králové Zoo over a period of 20 years. In 18 cases, one of the combatants died. We found that probability of death was higher when the target of aggression was a young animal. Since the majority of fatal attacks towards young were performed by equids, the only known explanation is that the strong defence instinct of equids may cause them to mistake young antelope for small predators. When analysing only fights between adults we found that more aggressive interactions were recorded between taxonomically more distantly related species, however the interactions between taxonomically more closely related species led to the death of combatants more frequently. A possible reason for these highly escalated conflicts among closely related species may be higher competition over resources as the resource needs of closely related species are likely to be similar. In conclusion, we recommend that closely related species should not be put together in mixed species exhibits to prevent serious injuries or fatal attacks. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Drbalova J.,Central European Institute of Technology | Musilova P.,Central European Institute of Technology | Kubickova S.,Central European Institute of Technology | Sebestova H.,Central European Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2014

The T cell receptor (TCR) genes (TRA, TRB, TRD and TRG) reside in 3 different chromosomal regions. During the maturation of T lymphocytes, the TCR genes are rearranged by site-specific recombination, a process that also predisposes T cells to aberrant rearrangements. Illegitimate recombination between the TCR genes occurs at a low level in healthy individuals, but this frequency may correlate with the risk of lymphoma. The aim of this work was to investigate interlocus recombination in equids. Illegitimate rearrangements were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes by FISH with painting and BAC probes and by sequencing of PCR products, and the frequencies of recombination were assessed in horses and 4 other equids. The presence of several trans-rearrangement products between the TRA and TRG genes was verified by PCR in all investigated equids. Frequencies of trans-rearrangements in horses are higher than in humans, and colocalization of the TCR genes on the same chromosome increases the incidence of trans-rearrangements between them. The orientation of the TCR genes does not impact interlocus recombination itself but does affect the viability of cells carrying its products and consequently the number of trans-rearrangements observed in lymphocytes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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