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Les Mathes, France

Walzer C.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Petit T.,Zoo de la Palmyre | Stalder G.L.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Horowitz I.,Zoological Center Tel Aviv Ramat Gan | And 2 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

In a prospective, clinical, surgery study we report here for the first time, in detail, on the surgical castration of 10 captive adult male common hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius). The successful procedures, a species-specific modification of standard equine castration techniques, provide valuable insight into the spatially dynamic nature of the common hippopotamus testis. The use of ultrasonography to locate the testis before and during the procedures and species-specific positioning during surgery greatly facilitated this distinctive procedure. Additionally, this surgical method provides an important additional tool for captive management of the common hippopotamus. Castration of individual males not only facilitates population control but can potentially also be employed to limit intermale aggression. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Saragusty J.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Walzer C.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Petit T.,Zoo de la Palmyre | Stalder G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

Knowledge concerning reproduction in common hippopotamus is scarce and in particular very little is known about male reproductive physiology and sperm cryopreservation. Testes were obtained from nine castrated bulls and sperm extracted from the epididymides of eight of these individuals. Mean ± SEM values of reproductive parameters were: testicular weight (including epididymis and tunicas)-275.9 ± 54.1 g, total sperm motility-88.1 ± 4.2%, total cells extracted-11.0 ± 3.6 × 109, intact acrosome-87.7 ± 1.8%, intact sperm morphology-51.6 ± 4.1%, and, for 3 individuals, hypoosmotic swelling test for membrane integrity-83.3 ± 1.8%. Chilled storage extenders tested were Berliner Cryomedium (BC), Biladyl®, modification of Kenney modified Tyrode's medium (KMT), and Human Sperm Refrigeration Medium (HSRM). Extender had significant effect on post-dilution motility and motility and intact morphology after 4h and 24h at 4°C (P ≤ 0.007 for all). Berliner Cryomedium and HSRM were superior to Biladyl® and KMT. Freezing extenders tested were BC with either 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), or 5%, 7%, or 10% glycerol. Post-thaw motility was < 5% in 3/7 bulls in all extenders. When frozen in BC with 6% Me2SO, one bull had 15% post-thaw motility and 3/7 had 20 to 60%. In glycerol, 3/7 had 15-30% post-thaw motility in 5%, 2/7 in 7%, and 1/7 in 10%. The extender had significant effect on post-chilling motility (P = 0.008), post-thaw morphology (P = 0.016), and motility 30 min after thawing (P = 0.015). Berliner Cryomedium with 6% Me2SO or 7% glycerol were the freezing extenders of choice. Information obtained in this study allows initiation of cryobanking of sperm from the common hippopotamus which is of particular importance for genetically valuable individuals. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Chai N.,French Natural History Museum | Petit T.,Zoo de la Palmyre | Kohl M.,French Natural History Museum | Bourgeois A.,French Natural History Museum | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015

The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate transthoracic echocardiograms from clinically healthy large felids for the presence of valvular regurgitations (VR). Physiologic VR commonly occur in normal dogs and cats, but the percentage of large felids with VR has not been previously reported. During a 5-yr study period (2008-2013), 28 healthy animals were evaluated under general anesthesia: 16 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringuii) with a mean age of 1.5 ± 0.8 yr (range 0.7-3.5 yr), 5 Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 snow leopard (Uncia uncia), and 6 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). For this study, all the leopards were gathered in one so-called "leopards group" with a mean age of 2.8 ± 3.4 yr (range 0.3-10.7 yr). All valves observed in each view were examined for evidence of regurgitant jets and turbulent blood flow using the color-flow Doppler mode. Valves were also examined for structural changes. Mitral valve and aortic cusp abnormalities were considered to be of congenital origin. Mitral valve lesions led to mitral insufficiency in all the felids. Aortic cusp abnormalities led to aortic regurgitation in 94% of the cheetahs and 67% of the leopards. Leopards showed a predominance of early systolic mitral regurgitations, whereas all the mitral regurgitation jets in cheetahs were holosystolic. Tricuspid regurgitation was found in 81% of the cheetahs and in 50% of the leopards, whereas pulmonic regurgitation was detected in 44% of the cheetahs and 33% of the leopards. Interestingly, none of these tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitations were associated with two-dimensional structural valve abnormalities, thus suggesting their physiologic origin, as described in humans, cats, and dogs. In conclusion, subclinical valvular diseases are common in apparently healthy leopards and cheetahs. Longitudinal follow-up of affected animals is therefore required to assess their clinical outcome. © 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Caignard G.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Caignard G.,McGill University | Lucas-Hourani M.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Dhondt K.P.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The capacity of a virus to cross species barriers is determined by the development of bona fide interactions with cellular components of new hosts, and in particular its ability to block IFN-α/β antiviral signaling. Tioman virus (TioV), a close relative of mumps virus (MuV), has been isolated in giant fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Nipah and Hendra viruses, which are present in the same bat colonies, are highly pathogenic in human. Despite serological evidences of close contacts between TioV and human populations, whether TioV is associated to some human pathology remains undetermined. Here we show that in contrast to the V protein of MuV, the V protein of TioV (TioV-V) hardly interacts with human STAT2, does not degrade STAT1, and cannot block IFN-α/β signaling in human cells. In contrast, TioV-V properly binds to human STAT3 and MDA5, and thus interferes with IL-6 signaling and IFN-β promoter induction in human cells. Because STAT2 binding was previously identified as a host restriction factor for some Paramyxoviridae, we established STAT2 sequence from giant fruit bats, and binding to TioV-V was tested. Surprisingly, TioV-V interaction with STAT2 from giant fruit bats is also extremely weak and barely detectable. Altogether, our observations question the capacity of TioV to appropriately control IFN-α/β signaling in both human and giant fruit bats that are considered as its natural host. © 2013 Caignard et al.

Quintard B.,Museum de Besancon | Petit T.,Zoo de la Palmyre | Ruvoen N.,Ecole Nationale Veterinaire | Carniel E.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Demeure C.E.,Institute Pasteur Paris
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Pseudotuberculosis, an infection caused by the ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, is a recurrent veterinary problem in livestock and zoo animals. The only vaccine currently available in zoos is Pseudovac (a mixture of killed strains of various serotypes), but its efficacy is not well established. We show here that Pseudovac does not protect guinea pigs against a severe Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. We thus evaluated the possibility of using a live attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain (IP32680) as an oral vaccine against animal pseudotuberculosis. We report that IP32680 is avirulent for guinea pigs and induces a strong IgG response against various serotypes of Y. pseudotuberculosis. One and two oral inoculations of IP32680 provided 50% and 83% protection, respectively against a severe infection with a highly pathogenic strain. The avirulent Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32680 is therefore much more protective than Pseudovac and may represent a valuable oral vaccine against pseudotuberculosis in zoo animals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

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