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Seco-Martorell C.,University of Barcelona | Lopez-Dominguez V.,University of Barcelona | Arauz-Garofalo G.,University of Barcelona | Redo-Sanchez A.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2013

In this paper we use a Terahertz (THz) time-domain system to image and analyze the structure of an artwork attributed to the Spanish artist Goya painted in 1771. The THz images show features that cannot be seen with optical inspection and complement data obtained with X-ray imaging that provide evidence of its authenticity, which is validated by other independent studies. For instance, a feature with a strong resemblance with one of Goya's known signatures is seen in the THz images. In particular, this paper demonstrates the potential of THz imaging as a complementary technique along with X-ray for the verification and authentication of artwork pieces through the detection of features that remain hidden to optical inspection. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Redo-Sanchez A.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation | Laman N.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation | Schulkin B.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation | Tongue T.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

This paper illustrates the non-destructive application of a compact and portable Terahertz (THz) system to analyze the structure of an old painting and to measure the layers of composite plastic samples. THz images from the painting reveal features that resemble the signature of the artist that is not visible in the optical or X-ray channels, which support the authenticity of the painting. On the other hand, data from a composite plastic sample is analyzed to measure the thickness of each layer and determine the presence or absence of adhesive bonding between them. The presence and position of the adhesive is clearly visible in the THz images and the measured thickness shows an excellent agreement with nominal thickness. These applications demonstrate the capabilities of THz technology for unique non-destructive inspection applications. Furthermore, available compact and portable THz systems enable to perform these inspections onsite without the need to bring the sample to the laboratory, increasing the utility and convenience of THz technology. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Wilmink G.J.,Air Force Research Lab | Wilmink G.J.,National Academy of science | Ibey B.L.,Air Force Research Lab | Tongue T.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2011

Terahertz spectrometers and imaging systems are currently being evaluated as biomedical tools for skin burn assessment. These systems show promise, but due to their size and weight, they have restricted portability, and are impractical for military and battlefield settings where space is limited. In this study, we developed and tested the performance of a compact, light, and portable THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) device. Optical properties were collected with this system from 0.1 to 1.6 THz for water, ethanol, and several ex vivo porcine tissues (muscle, adipose, skin). For all samples tested, we found that the index of refraction (n) decreases with frequency, while the absorption coefficient (μ a) increases with frequency. Muscle, adipose, and frozen/thawed skin samples exhibited comparable n values ranging between 2.5 and 2.0, whereas the n values for freshly harvested skin were roughly 40% lower. Additionally, we found that the freshly harvested samples exhibited higher μ a values than the frozen/thawed skin samples. Overall, for all liquids and tissues tested, we found that our system measured optical property values that were consistent with those reported in the literature. These results suggest that our compact THz spectrometer performed comparable to its larger counterparts, and therefore may be a useful and practical tool for skin health assessment. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Redo-Sanchez A.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation | Laman N.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation | Schulkin B.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation | Tongue T.,Zomega Terahertz Corporation
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves | Year: 2013

Technological progress in Terahertz (THz) instrumentation in recent years has produced commercial THz systems with excellent performance, smaller footprint, easier to use operation and more reliable than their homemade laboratory predecessors. Form factor, weight, and data rate are, perhaps, the parameters that have shown the highest improvements in recent years. These parameters also have a major impact on practical application outside the laboratory environment. However, gaps still exists between proof of concepts demonstrated in the laboratory and application requirements in a real environment. The readiness of a technology can be assessed using the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) criterion, which considers nine readiness levels starting from basic concepts at TRL=1 up to full deployment at TRL=9. Applications of THz technology in spectroscopic characterization score high in TRL (7-9) because most of the progress of THz technology has been mainly focused in developing THz instrumentation for spectroscopy. Applications of THz for non-destructive evaluation applications score lower (TRL 5-6) due to higher requirements in terms of performance, especially data rate and form factor in imaging applications. Applications in the medical field have been studied with promising results but they are still in early stages of development, thus, TRL is low (1-4). The progress in THz technology is generating systems with better performance (faster acquisition rates, higher signal-to-noise ratio, bandwidth), broader availability of form factors and configurations, and tighter integration with particular applications. This progress will reduce the gap between the capabilities of the technology and the high-demanding requirements of applications in environments such as quality control and in-line production control in the manufacturing industry. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Zomega Terahertz Corporation, University of Barcelona and Unidad University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology | Year: 2016

Drug permeation through skin, or a synthetic membrane, from locally acting pharmaceutical products can be influenced by the permeation behaviour of pharmaceutical excipients.Terahertz time-domain technology is investigated as a non-invasive method for a direct and accurate measurement of excipients permeation through synthetic membranes or human skin.A series of in-vitro release and skin permeation experiments of liquid excipients (e.g. propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400) has been conducted with vertical diffusion cells. The permeation profiles of excipients through different synthetic membranes or skin were obtained using Terahertz pulses providing a direct measurement. Corresponding permeation flux and permeability coefficient values were calculated based on temporal changes of the terahertz pulses.The influence of different experimental conditions, such as the polarity of the membrane and the viscosity of the permeant, was assessed in release experiments. Specific transmembrane flux values of those excipients were directly calculated with statistical differences between cases. Finally, an attempt to estimate the skin permeation of propylene glycol with this technique was also achieved. All these permeation results were likely comparable to those obtained by other authors with usual analytical techniques.Terahertz time-domain technology is shown to be a suitable technique for an accurate and non-destructive measurement of the permeation of liquid substances through different synthetic membranes or even human skin.


Echchgadda I.,National Academy of science | Echchgadda I.,General Dynamics Corporation | Grundt J.A.,Air Force Research Lab | Tarango M.,General Dynamics Corporation | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2013

Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy systems permit the measurement of a tissue's hydration level. This feature makes THz spectrometers excellent tools for the noninvasive assessment of skin; however, current systems are large, heavy and not ideal for clinical settings. We previously demonstrated that a portable, compact THz spectrometer permitted measurement of porcine skin optical properties that were comparable to those collected with conventional systems. In order to move toward human use of this system, the goal for this study was to measure the absorption coefficient (μa) and index of refraction (n) of human subjects in vivo. Spectra were collected from 0.1 to 2 THz, and measurements were made from skin at three sites: the palm, ventral and dorsal forearm. Additionally, we used a multiprobe adapter system to measure each subject's skin hydration levels, transepidermal water loss, and melanin concentration. Our results suggest that the measured optical properties varied considerably for skin tissues that exhibited dissimilar hydration levels. These data provide a framework for using compact THz spectrometers for clinical applications. © 2013 The Authors.


Patent
Zomega Terahertz Corporation | Date: 2012-04-25

A solution for analyzing characteristics of compounds and materials (e.g., chemical composition, specific quantity, thickness, etc.) via THz time domain spectrometry is disclosed. In one embodiment, a spectrometry system includes: a portable housing including: a portable power source; a laser source connected to the portable power source; a terahertz (THz) emitter located within the portable housing and optically connected to the laser source via an optical array including a rotary delay stage, the THz emitter configured to emit THz radiation directed to interact with a material sample; a detector optically connected to the optical array and configured to obtain waveform data from the interaction between the THz radiation and the material sample; and a computing device communicatively connected to the detector and configured to process the waveform data to determine a characteristic of the material sample.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 744.88K | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: The emergence of a diverse selection of new high-power terahertz sources has highlighted the critical need for a calibrated, independent, broadband terahertz spectrum analyzer. Present spectrum analyzers work at either microwave frequencies or in the far infrared, and only source specific detection mechanisms are available, limiting broad comparison and classification. The characterization of high power sources is essential as the health impact (if any) of such devices is investigated, and the classification of these devices based on power frequency distribution by an independent and common spectrum analyzer is essential for side-by-side comparison. We propose to implement a true THz spectrum analyzer using a rapidly scanning circular involute delay line coupled with a high speed broadband pyroelectric detector in a modified Michelson interferometer configuration. During phase I, we demonstrated the feasibility of this approach coupled with both pulsed and CW THz sources. In phase II, we will realize a compact (12"x8"x5"), real-time (>5 Hz), broadband (>10THz), high resolution (<10GHz) THz spectrum analyzer. Development will include several field tests at high power THz sources of interest to the Air Force, and a calibration process will be established to insure robust source classification, regardless of emission mechanism or output power. BENEFIT: The resulting THz spectrum analyzer will be a useful diagnostic tool for new THz sources and as a calibration tool for existing sources. We anticipate as commercial applications become available for THz systems, this will be an essential tool for the calibration, lifecycle measurement and maintenance of THz sources and systems.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2011

ABSTRACT: We propose to demonstrate a THz spectrum analyzer using a innovative, high speed involute delay stage in a Michelson interferometer configuration coupled to a Glow Discharge Detector (GDD). Compared to traditional linear stages, the involute stage offers a superior linear response, 1,000 times faster than traditional linear stages, and a more compact footprint. The involute interferogram measured by the GDD is converted via fourier transform to the spectral distrubution of the externally supplied unknown THz source. The spectral sensitivity of the system is determined by the GDD, which has the potential to be a broadband (>10 THz), fast (~MHz), and sensitive (Noise Equivalent Power NEP-<10^-10 W/Hz1/2). The GDD THz detector works at room temperature, and is also compact and inexpensive to fabricate. Zomega Terahertz Corp., in cooperation with the Center for Terahertz Research at RPI, has experience in the development and commercialization of compact THz devices. Zomega will integrate the GDD and the circular involute with the necessary control and display electronics in order to provide a compact, robust, user-friendly spectrum analyzer. BENEFIT: The resulting THz spectrum analyzer will be a useful diagnostic tool for new THz sources and as a calibration tool for existing sources. We anticipate as commercial applications become available for THz systems, this will be an essential tool for the calibration, lifecycle measurement and maintenance of THz sources and systems.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Defense Threat Reduction Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2010

We propose a new active optical method to measure time-domain waveform of THz pulse in the vicinity of the target in an omni-directional manner. This method utilizes the THz radiation-enhanced-emission-of-fluorescence from laser-induced air plasma to detect the THz field, which enables the standoff sensing for low volatility chemicals using THz spectroscopy. We have demonstrated its capability of broadband high resolution spectroscopic recognition by detecting the explosive molecules and some other molecules. The handheld sensing device using this method is featured with several advantages such as: high safety, point detection capability, broadband sensing range, real-time monitoring, unlimited collection angel and remote sensing ability.

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