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Florham Park, NJ, United States

Rezac D.J.,Kansas State University | Rezac D.J.,Midwest Veterinary Services Inc. | Thomson D.U.,Kansas State University | Siemens M.G.,Cargill Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The prevalence and severity of multiple gross pathologic lesions and abnormalities in cull dairy and beef cows was evaluated at a commercial abattoir in the Great Lakes region of the United States; 1,461 cattle were examined at slaughter over the course of 3 production days and evaluated for the occurrence and severity of lung, liver, rumen, and carcass abnormalities and pathologies. Of the 1,461 cattle examined at slaughter, 87% were classified as Holstein cows and 13% were classified as other cows. Liver abscesses were observed in 32% of the population and over half were classified as severe (18.5% population prevalence). The frequency distribution of cattle observed with a liver abscess was not different among production days. Severe ruminal lesions and rumenitis scars were observed in 10.0% of the population, and 25.1% of cattle were observed to have short or denuded papillae. Severe bovine respiratory disease complex lesions were observed in 10.3% of cattle. The most common reason for USDA postmortem carcass condemnation was malignant lymphoma (9 of 41). Only 45.9% of carcasses were free from bruising. Results indicate that ruminal acidosis and bovine respiratory disease complex occur at a relatively high frequency in this population. Although cows are routinely culled for reproductive failure or low milk production, the underlying reason may be causally related to these relatively prevalent conditions. Further investigation is warranted to assess this relationship and to examine the use of specific health intervention strategies within this demographic of cattle. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.

Toni F.,Zoetis Animal Health | Vincenti L.,University of Turin | Ricci A.,University of Turin | Schukken Y.H.,Cornell University
Theriogenology | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and the impact of postpartum uterine diseases in postpartum cows on future uterine status and reproductive performance in large Italian dairy herds. This study provides an important quantitative estimate of uterine and postpartum diseases incidence that afflict high-producing Italian dairy cows. The total number of cows included in the study was 1498 on three farms; all cows were followed from the dry period until 300days postpartum. All farms used high-quality data collection systems and standard operating procedures: weekly herd health visits, monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association visits, and, due to cheese-making milk quality requirements, a supplementary milk sample collected at 7±3days postpartum evaluated for milk components. Clinical metritis in primiparous cows did not change the time to the first artificial insemination (AI) or days open; conversely, clinical metritis in multiparous cows had impact on the time to first AI (hazard ratio: 0.66, P<0.01) and resulted in a lower conception rate at first insemination and a increase in days open (odds ratio: 0.64, P<0.05). Clinical endometritis had a strong deleterious effect on first AI conception rate (odds ratio: 0.34, P<0.05) and days open across all lactations (hazard ratio: 0.68, P<0.05). Persistent metritis, defined as the presence of both clinical metritis and clinical endometritis in the same animal in the same lactation, caused low conception rate both in the first-lactation and in older cows and had a strong negative effect on the proportion of pregnant cows at 300days (P<0.05). In conclusion, the impact of endometritis on fertility was true across lactation groups. A good management and precocious diagnosis of the pathologies is not resolutive to restore good fertility parameters, and understanding the immune response in first-lactation cows may be of value for developing alternative intervention protocols for older-lactation cows. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Gaze W.H.,University of Exeter | Krone S.M.,University of Idaho | Joakim Larsson D.G.,Gothenburg University | Li X.-Z.,Health Canada | And 8 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

The clinical failure of antimicrobial drugs that were previously effective in controlling infectious disease is a tragedy of increasing magnitude that gravely affects human health. This resistance by pathogens is often the endpoint of an evolutionary process that began billions of years ago in non-disease-causing microorganisms. This environmental resistome, its mobilization, and the conditions that facilitate its entry into human pathogens are at the heart of the current public health crisis in antibiotic resistance. Understanding the origins, evolution, and mechanisms of transfer of resistance elements is vital to our ability to adequately address this public health issue.

Mavrommatis B.,Royal Veterinary College | Mavrommatis B.,UK National Institute for Medical Research | Offord V.,Royal Veterinary College | Patterson R.,Royal Veterinary College | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Compelling evidence suggests that the early interaction between porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) and the innate immune system is the key event in the pathogenesis of Post-Weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS). Furthermore, PCV2 has been detected in bone-marrow samples, potentially enabling an easy spread and reservoir for the virus. To assess the gene-expression differences induced by an in-vitro PCV2b infection in different three different myeloid innate immune cell subsets generated from the same animal, we used the Agilent Porcine Gene Expression Microarray (V2). Alveolar macrophages (AMØs), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and bone-marrow cells (BMCs) were generated from each animal, and challenged with a UK-isolate of a PCV2 genotype b-strain at a MOI of 0.5. Remarkably, analysis showed a highly distinct and cell-type dependent response to PCV2b challenge. Overall, MoDCs showed the most marked response to PCV2b challenge in vitro and revealed a key role for TNF in the interaction with PCV2b, whereas only few genes were affected in BMCs and AMØs. These observations were further supported by an enrichment of genes in the downstream NF-κB Signalling pathway as well as an up regulation of genes with pro-apoptotic functions post-challenge. PCV2b challenge increases the expression of a large number of immune-related and pro-apoptotic genes mainly in MoDC, which possibly explain the increased inflammation, granulomatous inflammation and lymphocyte depletion seen in PMWS-affected pigs. © 2014 Mavrommatis et al.

Fairley R.A.,Gribbles Veterinary Pathology | Knesl O.,Zoetis Animal Health | Pesavento P.A.,University of California at Davis | Elias B.C.,Rangiora West Veterinary Clinic
New Zealand Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

Abstract: CASE HISTORY: One 4.5-month-old male Border Collie cross presented with aggression and seizures in October 2006. A 16-month-old, female, spayed Border Collie cross presented with hypersalivation and a dropped jaw and rapidly became stuporous in September 2007. The dogs were littermates and developed acute neurological signs 5 and 27 days, respectively, after vaccination with different modified live vaccines containing canine distemper virus. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: Sections of brain in both dogs showed evidence of encephalitis mainly centred on the grey matter of brainstem nuclei, where there was extensive and intense parenchymal and perivascular infiltration of histiocytes and lymphocytes. Intra-nuclear and intra-cytoplasmic inclusions typical of distemper were plentiful and there was abundant labelling for canine distemper virus using immunohistochemistry. DIAGNOSIS: Post-vaccinal canine distemper. CLINCIAL RELEVANCE: Post-vaccinal canine distemper has mainly been attributed to virulent vaccine virus, but it may also occur in dogs whose immunologic nature makes them susceptible to disease induced by a modified-live vaccine virus that is safe and protective for most dogs. © 2015, © 2015 New Zealand Veterinary Association.

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