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Sokale A.O.,Mississippi State University | Zhai W.,Mississippi State University | Pote L.M.,Mississippi State University | Williams C.J.,Zoetis Animal Health | Peebles E.D.,Mississippi State University
Poultry Science | Year: 2017

Effects of the in ovo injection of a commercial coccidiosis vaccine on the hatchability and hatching chick quality variables of Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. Four treatment (TRT) groups were represented on each of 7 replicate tray levels of a single-stage incubator (28 TRT-replicate groups). Each TRT-replicate contained 63 eggs (1,764 total eggs). On d 18.5 of incubation, eggs were subjected to one of 4 TRT using a commercial multi-egg injector. Three control groups (non-injected, dry-punch, and diluentinjected) and one TRT group (injected with diluent containing Inovocox EM1 vaccine) were used. On d 18.5 of incubation, the site of injection and stage of embryo development were determined. On d 21.5 of incubation (d zero post hatch), hatchability of injected eggs (HI), chick BW, and yolk sac, intestine, and liver weights were determined. On d zero post hatch, 20 chicks from each of the 28 TRT-replicate groups (560 total birds) were placed in corresponding isolated wire-floored battery cages. On a daily basis, from d zero to 14 post hatch, pooled fecal samples from each individual replicate cage were collected for oocyst output determination. There was no significant difference among TRT for HI or chick BW on d 21.5 of incubation. In the noninjected control and vaccine-treated groups, mean HI was 93.1 and 89.4%, respectively, and chick BW were 43.4 and 43.8 g, respectively. The mean embryonic stage score was 2.09, and 84.8 and 15.3% of in ovo injections were in the amnion and embryo, respectively. Oocyst shedding began 4 d post hatch (d 6 post injection), and reached a peak at d 7 post hatch (d 10 post injection). It was concluded that the in ovo injection of Inovocox EM1 vaccine did not have a significant detrimental effect on broiler embryogenesis or hatching chick quality. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Gaze W.H.,University of Exeter | Krone S.M.,University of Idaho | Joakim Larsson D.G.,Gothenburg University | Li X.-Z.,Health Canada | And 8 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

The clinical failure of antimicrobial drugs that were previously effective in controlling infectious disease is a tragedy of increasing magnitude that gravely affects human health. This resistance by pathogens is often the endpoint of an evolutionary process that began billions of years ago in non-disease-causing microorganisms. This environmental resistome, its mobilization, and the conditions that facilitate its entry into human pathogens are at the heart of the current public health crisis in antibiotic resistance. Understanding the origins, evolution, and mechanisms of transfer of resistance elements is vital to our ability to adequately address this public health issue.


Fairley R.A.,Gribbles Veterinary Pathology | Knesl O.,Zoetis Animal Health | Pesavento P.A.,University of California at Davis | Elias B.C.,Rangiora West Veterinary Clinic
New Zealand Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

Abstract: CASE HISTORY: One 4.5-month-old male Border Collie cross presented with aggression and seizures in October 2006. A 16-month-old, female, spayed Border Collie cross presented with hypersalivation and a dropped jaw and rapidly became stuporous in September 2007. The dogs were littermates and developed acute neurological signs 5 and 27 days, respectively, after vaccination with different modified live vaccines containing canine distemper virus. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: Sections of brain in both dogs showed evidence of encephalitis mainly centred on the grey matter of brainstem nuclei, where there was extensive and intense parenchymal and perivascular infiltration of histiocytes and lymphocytes. Intra-nuclear and intra-cytoplasmic inclusions typical of distemper were plentiful and there was abundant labelling for canine distemper virus using immunohistochemistry. DIAGNOSIS: Post-vaccinal canine distemper. CLINCIAL RELEVANCE: Post-vaccinal canine distemper has mainly been attributed to virulent vaccine virus, but it may also occur in dogs whose immunologic nature makes them susceptible to disease induced by a modified-live vaccine virus that is safe and protective for most dogs. © 2015, © 2015 New Zealand Veterinary Association.


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Notes:  Production, means the output of Swine Vaccine  Revenue, means the sales value of Swine Vaccine This report studies Swine Vaccine in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with Production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering  Boehringer Ingelheim  Merck Animal Health  Zoetis Animal Health  Merial  CE-VA  Bayer  Virbac  Hile Bio  Tecon Group  Jinyu Group  Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of Swine Vaccine in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like Europe  China  Japan  Southeast Asia  India  Split by product type, with production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into  Porcine Circovirus Inactivated Vaccines  Swine Fever Vaccine  Foot-and-Mouth Disease(FMD) Vaccine  Swine Pseudorabies Inactivated Vaccine  Swine Escherichia Coli Disease Vaccine  Porcine Infectious Pleuropneumonia Vaccine  Split by application, this report focuses on consumption, market share and growth rate of Swine Vaccine in each application, can be divided into  Application 1  Application 2  Application 3 Global Swine Vaccine Market Research Report 2016  1 Swine Vaccine Market Overview  1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Swine Vaccine  1.2 Swine Vaccine Segment by Type  1.2.1 Global Production Market Share of Swine Vaccine by Type in 2015  1.2.2 Porcine Circovirus Inactivated Vaccines  1.2.3 Swine Fever Vaccine  1.2.4 Foot-and-Mouth Disease(FMD) Vaccine  1.2.5 Swine Pseudorabies Inactivated Vaccine  1.2.6 Swine Escherichia Coli Disease Vaccine  1.2.7 Porcine Infectious Pleuropneumonia Vaccine  1.3 Swine Vaccine Segment by Application  1.3.1 Swine Vaccine Consumption Market Share by Application in 2015  1.3.2 Application 1  1.3.3 Application 2  1.3.4 Application 3  1.4 Swine Vaccine Market by Region  1.4.1 North America Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.2 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.3 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.5 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.6 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Swine Vaccine (2011-2021) Wise Guy Reports is part of the Wise Guy Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. Wise Guy Reports understand how essential statistical surveying information is for your organization or association. Therefore, we have associated with the top publishers and research firms all specialized in specific domains, ensuring you will receive the most reliable and up to date research data available.


Pedroso A.A.,University of Georgia | Hurley-Bacon A.L.,Merial | Zedek A.S.,Zoetis Animal Health | Kwan T.W.,University of Georgia | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more "natural" and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no statistically significant differences with regards to usage. Bacterial diversity was higher in litter when probiotics or prebiotics were administered to flocks but as the litter aged, diversity decreased. No statistically signficant differences were detected in the abundance of class 1 integrons where 3%-5% of the community was estimated to harbor a copy. Abundance of pathogenic Clostridium species increased in aging litter despite the treatment while the abundance of tetracycline-resistant coliforms was unaffected by treatment. However some treatments decreased the prevalence of Salmonella. These findings suggest that withdrawing antibiotics or administering alternatives to antibiotics can change the litter bacterial community and reduce the prevalence of some pathogenic bacteria, but may not immediately impact the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Toni F.,Zoetis Animal Health | Vincenti L.,University of Turin | Ricci A.,University of Turin | Schukken Y.H.,Cornell University
Theriogenology | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and the impact of postpartum uterine diseases in postpartum cows on future uterine status and reproductive performance in large Italian dairy herds. This study provides an important quantitative estimate of uterine and postpartum diseases incidence that afflict high-producing Italian dairy cows. The total number of cows included in the study was 1498 on three farms; all cows were followed from the dry period until 300days postpartum. All farms used high-quality data collection systems and standard operating procedures: weekly herd health visits, monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association visits, and, due to cheese-making milk quality requirements, a supplementary milk sample collected at 7±3days postpartum evaluated for milk components. Clinical metritis in primiparous cows did not change the time to the first artificial insemination (AI) or days open; conversely, clinical metritis in multiparous cows had impact on the time to first AI (hazard ratio: 0.66, P<0.01) and resulted in a lower conception rate at first insemination and a increase in days open (odds ratio: 0.64, P<0.05). Clinical endometritis had a strong deleterious effect on first AI conception rate (odds ratio: 0.34, P<0.05) and days open across all lactations (hazard ratio: 0.68, P<0.05). Persistent metritis, defined as the presence of both clinical metritis and clinical endometritis in the same animal in the same lactation, caused low conception rate both in the first-lactation and in older cows and had a strong negative effect on the proportion of pregnant cows at 300days (P<0.05). In conclusion, the impact of endometritis on fertility was true across lactation groups. A good management and precocious diagnosis of the pathologies is not resolutive to restore good fertility parameters, and understanding the immune response in first-lactation cows may be of value for developing alternative intervention protocols for older-lactation cows. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Wageningen University, Cornell University and Zoetis Animal Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramammary immunization with UV-killed Escherichia coli ECC-Z on prevention of intramammary colonization after a challenge with a dose of the homologous E. coli ECC-Z live bacteria. A total of 10 cows were included in a study to evaluate the efficacy of intramammary immunization. All 10 cows received an intramammary immunization of 100 cfu of UV-killed E. coli ECC-Z bacteria into one hind quarter at the time of dry off. Approximately 2wk before the anticipated calving date, both hind quarters of all cows were challenged with 100 cfu of live E. coli ECC-Z bacteria. Five of the cows were vaccinated parenterally with a commercial J5 bacterin, and 5 cows served as controls with no parenteral vaccination. The cows were then followed over time and infection risk, clinical scores, somatic cell count, and milk production were observed over time. The results of these 10 cows showed partial protection of intramammary immunization on the outcome of a subsequent homologous intramammary challenge. Immunization resulted in a lower probability of infection, a lower bacteria count, lower somatic cell counts and milk conductivity, a lower clinical mastitis score, and increased milk production compared with unimmunized control quarters. Once the analysis was corrected for immunization, parenteral J5 vaccination had no significant effect on any of the measured parameters. These results provide the first evidence that intramammary immunization may improve the outcome of an intramammary E. coli infection in late gestation and onset of mastitis immediately following parturition. Unlike systemic vaccination, which generally does not reduce the intramammary infection risk, the intramammary immunization did show a 5-times reduced odds of an established intramammary infection after challenge. Cytokine profiles indicated a local return of proinflammatory response after challenge as the data showed a more pronounced increase in in IFN- with a subsequent negative feedback due to a spike in the level of IL-10 in immunized quarters relative to nonimmunized quarters. Although these results are preliminary and obtained on only 10 cows, the results provide insight into the biological benefits of triggering mucosal immunity in the mammary gland.


PubMed | Zoetis Animal Health and Mississippi State University
Type: | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2016

Effects of the in ovo injection of a commercial coccidiosis vaccine on the hatchability and hatching chick quality variables of Ross Ross 708 broilers were examined. Four treatment (TRT) groups were represented on each of 7 replicate tray levels of a single-stage incubator (28 TRT-replicate groups). Each TRT-replicate contained 63 eggs (1,764 total eggs). On d 18.5 of incubation, eggs were subjected to one of 4 TRT using a commercial multi-egg injector. Three control groups (non-injected, dry-punch, and diluent-injected) and one TRT group (injected with diluent containing Inovocox EM1 vaccine) were used. On d 18.5 of incubation, the site of injection and stage of embryo development were determined. On d 21.5 of incubation (d zero post hatch), hatchability of injected eggs (HI), chick BW, and yolk sac, intestine, and liver weights were determined. On d zero post hatch, 20 chicks from each of the 28 TRT-replicate groups (560 total birds) were placed in corresponding isolated wire-floored battery cages. On a daily basis, from d zero to 14 post hatch, pooled fecal samples from each individual replicate cage were collected for oocyst output determination. There was no significant difference among TRT for HI or chick BW on d 21.5 of incubation. In the non-injected control and vaccine-treated groups, mean HI was 93.1 and 89.4%, respectively, and chick BW were 43.4 and 43.8g, respectively. The mean embryonic stage score was 2.09, and 84.8 and 15.3% of in ovo injections were in the amnion and embryo, respectively. Oocyst shedding began 4 d post hatch (d 6 post injection), and reached a peak at d 7 post hatch (d 10 post injection). It was concluded that the in ovo injection of Inovocox EM1 vaccine did not have a significant detrimental effect on broiler embryogenesis or hatching chick quality.


PubMed | Zoetis Animal Health and Federal University of Mato Grosso
Type: | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2016

We evaluated the effect of different treatment protocols against gastrointestinal nematodes in Nelore beef cattle during the growing phase in the municipality of Terenos, MS, in central Brazil from May 2013 to April 2014 and from May 2014 to April 2015. Ninety-six Nelore calves were kept on Brachiaria brizantha grass during each trial period and were distributed into six experimental groups (replicate paddocks for each group) based on live weight and the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG): T1 (control)-treated in May, July and September with a saline solution; T2-treated in May and November with 700 g/kg doramectin; T3-treated in May (doramectin), July (4.7 mg/kg levamisole phosphate) and September (doramectin); T4-treated in May (doramectin), July (200 g/kg moxidectin) and September (doramectin); T5-treated in May (doramectin), August (levamisole phosphate) and November (doramectin) and T6-treated in May (doramectin), August (moxidectin) and November (doramectin). The calves were weighed and feces were collected (for faecal culture and EPG counts) from calves every 28 days, concomitantly with the collection of forage samples. The efficacies of doramectin, moxidectin and levamisole were low, at 69.2, 65.9 and 69.4% in the first and 13.8, 92.6, and 76.5% in the second experimental periods, respectively, but only the untreated animals lost weight during the dry season. Final weight gains did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the animals in T2 (120.8 kg), T3 (131.4 kg), T4 (131.2 kg) and T5 (134.4 kg). T6 was the only group with a significantly higher final weight gain (140.9 kg) compared to the protocol with two annual dosages (T2). The weight gain was 31.9% higher in T6 than in the untreated animals (T1). None of the protocols affected the number of larvae on the pasture. Body weight was significantly and negatively (r=-0.65) correlated with EPG counts, which were significantly lower in June (T2, T3, T4 and T6), August (T3), September (T5 and T6), October (T5) and November (T5 and T6). Haemonchus, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum were identified. Treatments in May and November, the most common practice in Brazil, did not increase the final weight gain, so an additional and intermediate treatment during the dry season (August) is recommended.


PubMed | Zoetis Animal Health and Arizona State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI | Year: 2014

Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum is the etiological agent of fowl typhoid, which constitutes a considerable economic problem for poultry growers in developing countries. The vaccination of chickens seems to be the most effective strategy to control the disease in those areas. We constructed S. Gallinarum strains with a deletion of the global regulatory gene fur and evaluated their virulence and protective efficacy in Rhode Island Red chicks and Brown Leghorn layers. The fur deletion mutant was avirulent and, when delivered orally to chicks, elicited excellent protection against lethal S. Gallinarum challenge. It was not as effective when given orally to older birds, although it was highly immunogenic when delivered by intramuscular injection. We also examined the effect of a pmi mutant and a combination of fur deletions with mutations in the pmi and rfaH genes, which affect O-antigen synthesis, and ansB, whose product inhibits host T-cell responses. The S. Gallinarum pmi mutant was only partially attenuated, and the ansB mutant was fully virulent. The fur pmi and fur ansB double mutants were attenuated but not protective when delivered orally to the chicks. However, a pmi fur strain was highly immunogenic when administered intramuscularly. All together, our results show that the fur gene is essential for the virulence of S. Gallinarum, and the fur mutant is effective as a live recombinant vaccine against fowl typhoid.

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