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Tübingen, Germany

Lemonidis K.,University of Strathclyde | Gorleku O.A.,University of Strathclyde | Sanchez-Perez M.C.,University of Strathclyde | Grefen C.,ZMBP Developmental Genetics | Chamberlain L.H.,University of Strathclyde
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2014

S-acylation, the attachment of fatty acids onto cysteine residues, regulates protein trafficking and function and is mediated by a family of zDHHC enzymes. The S-acylation of peripheral membrane proteins has been proposed to occur at the Golgi, catalyzed by an S-acylation machinery that displays little substrate specificity. To advance understanding of how S-acylation of peripheral membrane proteins is handled by Golgi zDHHC enzymes, we investigated interactions between a subset of four Golgi zDHHC enzymes and two S-acylated proteins-synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) and cysteine-string protein (CSP). Our results uncover major differences in substrate recognition and S-acylation by these zDHHC enzymes. The ankyrin-repeat domains of zDHHC17 and zDHHC13 mediated strong and selective interactions with SNAP25/CSP, whereas binding of zDHHC3 and zDHHC7 to these proteins was barely detectable. Despite this, zDHHC3/zDHHC7 could S-acylate SNAP25/CSP more efficiently than zDHHC17, whereas zDHHC13 lacked S-acylation activity toward these proteins. Overall the results of this study support a model in which dynamic intracellular localization of peripheral membrane proteins is achieved by highly selective recruitment by a subset of zDHHC enzymes at the Golgi, combined with highly efficient S-acylation by other Golgi zDHHC enzymes. © 2014 Lemonidis et al.

Karnik R.,University of Glasgow | Zhang B.,University of Glasgow | Waghmare S.,University of Glasgow | Aderhold C.,University of Glasgow | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2015

SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins drive vesicle fusion in all eukaryotes and contribute to homeostasis, pathogen defense, cell expansion, and growth in plants. Two homologous SNAREs, SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) and SYP122, dominate secretory traffic to the Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane. Although these proteins overlap functionally, differences between SYP121 and SYP122 have surfaced, suggesting that they mark two discrete pathways for vesicular traffic. The SNAREs share primary cognate partners, which has made separating their respective control mechanisms difficult. Here, we show that the regulatory protein SEC11 (=KEULE) binds selectively with SYP121 to affect secretory traffic mediated by this SNARE. SEC11 rescued traffic block by dominant-negative (inhibitory) fragments of both SNAREs, but only in plants expressing the native SYP121. Traffic and its rescue were sensitive to mutations affecting SEC11 interaction with the N terminus of SYP121. Furthermore, the domain of SEC11 that bound the SYP121 N terminus was itself able to block secretory traffic in the wild type and syp122 but not in syp121 mutant Arabidopsis. Thus, SEC11 binds and selectively regulates secretory traffic mediated by SYP121 and is important for recycling of the SNARE and its cognate partners. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Zhang B.,University of Glasgow | Karnik R.,University of Glasgow | Wang Y.,University of Glasgow | Wallmeroth N.,ZMBP Developmental Genetics | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2015

SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein attachment protein receptor) proteins drive vesicle traffic, delivering membrane and cargo to target sites within the cell and at its surface. They contribute to cell homeostasis, morphogenesis, and pathogen defense. A subset of SNAREs, including theArabidopsis thaliana SNARE SYP121, are known also to coordinate solute uptake via physical interactions with K+ channels and to moderate their gating at the plasma membrane. Here, we identify a second subset of SNAREs that interact to control these K+ channels, but with opposing actions on gating. We show that VAMPs (vesicle-associated membrane proteins), which target vesicles to the plasma membrane, also interact with and suppress the activities of the inward-rectifying K+ channels KAT1 and KC1. Interactions were evident in yeast split-ubiquitin assays, they were recovered in vivo by ratiometric bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and they were sensitive to mutation of a single residue, Tyr-57, within the longin domain of VAMP721. Interaction was also recovered on exchange of the residue at this site in the homolog VAMP723, which normally localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and otherwise did not interact. Functional analysis showed reduced channel activity and alterations in voltage sensitivity that are best explained by a physical interaction with the channel gates. These actions complement those of SYP121, a cognate SNARE partner of VAMP721, and lead us to propose that the channel interactions reflect a “hand-off” in channel control between the two SNARE proteins that is woven together with vesicle fusion. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

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