Milius R.P.,National Marrow Donor Program |
Mack S.J.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute |
Hollenbach J.A.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute |
Pollack J.,National Marrow Donor Program |
And 13 more authors.
Tissue Antigens | Year: 2013
Knowledge of an individual's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype is essential for modern medical genetics, and is crucial for hematopoietic stem cell and solid-organ transplantation. However, the high levels of polymorphism known for the HLA genes make it difficult to generate an HLA genotype that unambiguously identifies the alleles that are present at a given HLA locus in an individual. For the last 20years, the histocompatibility and immunogenetics community has recorded this HLA genotyping ambiguity using allele codes developed by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). While these allele codes may have been effective for recording an HLA genotyping result when initially developed, their use today results in increased ambiguity in an HLA genotype, and they are no longer suitable in the era of rapid allele discovery and ultra-high allele polymorphism. Here, we present a text string format capable of fully representing HLA genotyping results. This Genotype List (GL) String format is an extension of a proposed standard for reporting killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotype data that can be applied to any genetic data that use a standard nomenclature for identifying variants. The GL String format uses a hierarchical set of operators to describe the relationships between alleles, lists of possible alleles, phased alleles, genotypes, lists of possible genotypes, and multilocus unphased genotypes, without losing typing information or increasing typing ambiguity. When used in concert with appropriate tools to create, exchange, and parse these strings, we anticipate that GL Strings will replace NMDP allele codes for reporting HLA genotypes. © 2013 The Authors. Tissue Antigens published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bochtler W.,Zentrales Knochenmarkspender Register fur Deutschland ZKRD |
Maiers M.,National Marrow Donor Program NMDP |
Bakker J.N.A.,Europdonor Foundation |
Baier D.M.,German Bone Marrow Donor Center |
And 8 more authors.
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2013
For more than two decades, international cooperation and information technology have been playing key roles in the identification of suitable unrelated donors and cord blood units for hematopoietic SCT. To ensure consistent coding and interpretation of HLA data among the linked computer systems, the World Marrow Donor Association has standardized the extensions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system applied in practice. The first version of this report published in 2007 has become the reference for the technical validation of HLA information on donors and patients in the context of search and matching and is used by registries of volunteer unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donors and umbilical cord blood banks throughout the world. The present update became necessary after the major revision of the WHO HLA nomenclature in April 2010. It now covers issues arising when alleles are withdrawn or renamed because of the continuous updating of the WHO HLA nomenclature. In addition, formal validation and interpretation rules for the so-called 'multiple allele codes' have been added.