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Hazir A.,Zirai Mucadele Arastirma Enstitusu | Ulusoy M.R.,Zirai Mucadele Arastirma Enstitusu | Atakan E.,Cukurova University
Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to determine Thysanoptera species associated with nectarines and their damage on the fruits in Adana and Mersin provinces of Türkiye in 2005 and 2006. In the study, thrips species feed on nectarine and weed flowers and their population dynamics were found out. A total of 12 thrips species in the nectarine flowers were determined. These species were Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895), Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom, 1895), Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889, Thrips meridionalis (Priesner, 1926), Thrips major Uzel, 1895, Thrips minutissimus Linnaeus, 1758, Thrips angusticeps Uzel, 1895, Isoneurothrips australis Bagnal, 1915, Melanthrips sp., Melanthrips pallidior Priesner, 1919, Tenothrips frici (Uzel, 1895) and Tenothrips discolor (Karny, 1907). Among the identified thrips species, F. occidentalis, T. tabaci, T. meridionalis, I. australis and T. major were more common. T. tabaci and F. occidentalis were more prevailing thrips species on the weeds sampled. Thrips adults infested the flowers at the beginning of the flowering period but the larval thrips appeared at the petal fall. Thrips feedings on ovary tissue caused brown blemishes-scars on fruit and feedings on mature fruit caused whitish skin patches called silvering. The orchard in Alifakili (Mersin) district having the highest number of adult and larval thrips in the flowers had the highest ratio of damaged fruits (60,1% and 73,8% in 2005 and 2006, respectively) at the harvest while Hadirli orchard with the lowest infestations of the total thrips in flowers had the lowest ratio of damaged fruits (17,7% and 15,6% in 2005 and 2006 respectively). According to the datas obtained from the study, a positive correlation between the total number of thrips in flowers and the ratio of damaged fruits due to thrips attacks may be mentioned but further research and statistical analysis are required to establish a correlation.

The objective of this study was to identify the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) samples, by molecular and morphological methods that have been collected from different regions of Turkey. The seventy-nine root-knot nematode samples were first homogenized by inoculating susceptible tomato cultivar 'Simita F1' with single egg masses. Then, second stage larvae obtained from homogenized-egg masses were used for DNA isolation. The molecular identification of the samples were conducted with species-specific SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) and PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers. The morphological identification of the samples were carried out using dissected-fixed vulva of female and second stage larvae collected from susceptible tomatoes (homogenized samples). Results showed that four root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood and Meloidogyne chitwoodi Golden, O'Bannon, Santo et Finley, 1980 were the most common in Turkey. Of the 79 samples, 28 (35%), 22 (28%), 21 (27%), and 8 (10%) were identified molecular and morphological methods to be M. javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria and M. chitwoodi, respectively. It was determined that all the samples collected from potato crop in mid-Anatolia were belong to M. chitwoodi.

In this study, Omophlus nasreddini Reitter, 1890 (Coleoptera: Alleculidae) is recorded as a new pest for the olive orchards/trees in Gaziantep and Kilis province in Turkey. O. nasreddini was described, some of its biology and damage on olive was observed in Gaziantep and Kilis province in 2008-2009. O. nasreddini appears at the beginning in the first week of May in Gaziantep and Kilis. It was observed that this species ate flowers of olive in third week of May and the damaged flower shrivelled and fallen.

This study is conducted between the years of 2006 and 2008 in Mut District of Mersin Province. In the trial, the efficacy of the mating disruption technique (MD) was investigated by using Isonet-A (E-5-decenyl acetate 98-99.5%, E-5-decenol 0.5-2%, 140 mg) pheromone dispensers for the management of Peach twig borer [Anarsia lineatella Zeller, 1839 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)]. The pheromone dispensers were applied at 4 dispensers per tree (1000 dispensers per hectare) in 2006 and 3 dispensers per tree (800 dispensers per hectare) in 2007 and 2008. The MD technique was applied one time in a year using 3600, 2650 and 2700 dispensers in the years 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. It is determined tat the emission amounts of pheromone dispensers were 1,13 g/ha/day in the first year and 1,22 g/ha/day in the second and third years. Fruit damage was evaluated by inspecting 1000 fruit at harvest each year. In 2006, the average infestation rates were 6.17 and 4.60% in MD and chemical control (CC) orchards, whereas the rates were 5.51-1.92% and in 2007 and, 4.26-1.66% in 2008, respectively. As a result of this study, it was determined that the usage of 750-800 dispensers in apricot orchards in Mut would provide effective control of A. lineatella. Besides, the cost of MD technique was found 10.00 TL higher than the cost of CC.

Bagrada abeillei Puton, 1881 and Bagrada amoenula (Walker, 1870), belong to Strachiini tribe (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) were found in Adiyaman and Şanliurfa provinces, during the years of 2006-2007. B. amoenula was the first record for Turkish fauna. Identification key for genera of Bagrada Stål, 1862 species found in Turkey, their synonyms, distribution area in Turkey and Palearctic region were given. Morphological characteristics of B. abeillei and B. amoenula were presented.

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