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Greenbaum L.,Sheba Medical Center | Greenbaum L.,The Joseph Sagol Neuroscience Center | Springer R.R.,The Joseph Sagol Neuroscience Center | Springer R.R.,The Medical Memory | And 12 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

The variable length poly-T, rs10524523 ('523') located within the TOMM40 gene, was recently associated with several phenotypes of cognitive function. The short (S) allele is associated with later AD onset age and better cognitive performance, compared to the longer alleles (long and very-long (VL)). There is strong linkage disequilibrium between variants in the TOMM40 and APOE genes. In this study, we investigated the effect of '523' on cognitive performance in a sample of cognitively normal Jewish elderly with type 2 diabetes, a group at particularly high risk for cognitive impairment. Using a MANCOVA procedure, we compared homozygous carriers of the S/S allele (N=179) to carriers of the VL/VL allele (N=152), controlling for demographic and cardiovascular covariates. The S/S group performed better than the VL/VL group (p=0.048), specifically in the executive function (p=0.04) and episodic memory (p=0.050) domains. These results suggest that previous findings of an association of the TOMM40 short allele with better cognitive performance, independently from the APOE variant status, are pertinent to elderly with diabetes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

Lyall D.M.,University of Edinburgh | Royle N.A.,University of Edinburgh | Harris S.E.,University of Edinburgh | Bastin M.E.,University of Edinburgh | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The APOE ε and TOMM40 rs10524523 ('523') variable length poly-T repeat gene loci have been significantly and independently associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) related phenotypes such as age of clinical onset. Hippocampal atrophy has been significantly associated with memory impairment, a characteristic of AD. The current study aimed to test for independent effects of APOE ε and TOMM40 '523' genotypes on hippocampal volumes as assessed by brain structural MRI in a relatively large sample of community-dwelling older adults. As part of a longitudinal study of cognitive ageing, participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 underwent genotyping for APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 status and TOMM40 '523' poly-T repeat length, and detailed structural brain MRI at a mean age of 72.7 years (standard deviation = 0.7, N range = 624 to 636). No significant effects of APOE ε or TOMM40 523 genotype were found on hippocampal volumes when analysed raw, or when adjusted for either intracranial or total brain tissue volumes. In summary, in a large community-dwelling sample of older adults, we found no effects of APOE ε or TOMM40 523 genotypes on hippocampal volumes. This is discrepant with some previous reports of significant association between APOE and left/right hippocampal volumes, and instead echoes other reports that found no association. Previous significant findings may partly reflect type 1 error. Future studies should carefully consider: 1) their specific techniques in adjusting for brain size; 2) assessing more detailed sub-divisions of the hippocampal formation; and 3) testing whether significant APOE-hippocampal associations are independent of generalised brain atrophy. © 2013 Lyall et al.

Lyall D.M.,University of Edinburgh | Lyall D.M.,MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine | Harris S.E.,University of Edinburgh | Harris S.E.,MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine | And 16 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2014

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε genotype has previously been significantly associated with cognitive, brain imaging, and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes (e.g., age of onset). In the TOMM40 gene, the rs10524523 ("523") variable length poly-T repeat polymorphism has more recently been associated with similar ph/enotypes, although the allelic directions of these associations have varied between initial reports. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography, the present study aimed to investigate whether there are independent effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and TOMM40 genotypes on human brain white matter integrity in a community-dwelling sample of older adults, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (mean age= 72.70years, standard deviation= 0.74, N approximately= 640-650; for most analyses). Some nominally significant effects were observed (i.e., covariate-adjusted differences between genotype groups at p < 0.05). For APOE, deleterious effects of ε4 "risk" allele presence (vs. absence) were found in the right ventral cingulum and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. To test for biologically independent effects of the TOMM40 523 repeat, participants were stratified into APOE genotype subgroups, so that any significant effects could not be attributed to APOE variation. In participants with the APOE ε3/ε4 genotype, effects of TOMM40 523 status were found in the left uncinate fasciculus, left rostral cingulum, left ventral cingulum, and a general factor of white matter integrity. In all 4 of these tractography measures, carriers of the TOMM40 523 "short" allele showed lower white matter integrity when compared with carriers of the "long" and "very-long" alleles. Most of these effects survived correction for childhood intelligence test scores and vascular disease history, though only the effect of TOMM40 523 on the left ventral cingulum integrity survived correction for false discovery rate. The effects of APOE in this older population are more specific and restricted compared with those reported in previous studies, and the effects of TOMM40 on white matter integrity appear to be novel, although replication is required in large independent samples. © 2014 The Authors.

Takeda Pharmaceutical and Zinfandel Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2015-06-15

Provided herein are drug products with low dose pioglitazone for use in the treatment (e.g., delay of onset) of cognitive impairment of the Alzheimers type. Methods of manufacture thereof are also provided. Further provided are methods of treatment for Alzheimers disease including administering a drug product with low dose pioglitazone. The methods may include determining whether the subject is at risk of developing Alzheimers disease based upon the subjects age and TOMM40 523 genotype.

Zinfandel Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2014-08-21

Provided herein are genetic variants associated with development of a condition of interest (e.g., Alzheimers disease). Methods of treatment with an active agent (e.g., with a particular active agent and/or at an earlier age) is also provided, upon detecting a genetic variant described herein. In some embodiments, the genetic variant is a deletion/insertion polymorphism (DIP) of the TOMM40 gene.

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