</blockquote>A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes . Two broad classes of Ziegler–Natta catalysts are employed, distinguished by their solubility: Heterogeneous supported catalysts based on titanium compounds are used in polymerization reactions in combination with cocatalysts, organoaluminum compounds such as triethylaluminium, Al3. This class of catalyst dominates the industry. Homogeneous catalysts usually based on complexes of Ti, Zr or Hf. They are usually used in combination with a different organoaluminum cocatalyst, methylaluminoxane . These catalysts traditionally include metallocenes but also feature multidentate oxygen- and nitrogen-based ligands.Ziegler–Natta catalysts are used to polymerize terminal 1-alkenes :n CH2=CHR → −n−↑ Wikipedia.
Shirley M.H.,Ziegler |
Shirley M.H.,University of Florida
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014
Accurate species delimitation is a central assumption of biology that, in groups such as the Crocodylia, is often hindered by highly conserved morphology and frequent introgression. In Africa, crocodilian systematics has been hampered by complex regional biogeography and confounded taxonomic history. We used rigorous molecular and morphological species delimitation methods to test the hypothesis that the slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus) is composed of multiple species corresponding to the Congolian and Guinean biogeographic zones. Speciation probability was assessed by using 11 mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and cranial morphology for over 100 specimens, representing the full geographical extent of the species distribution. Molecular Bayesian and phylogenetic species delimitation showed unanimous support for two Mecistops species isolated to the Upper Guinean and Congo (including Lower Guinean) biomes that were supported by 13 cranial characters capable of unambiguously diagnosing each species. Fossil-calibrated phylogenetic reconstruction estimated that the species split ± 6.5-7.5 Ma, which is congruent with intraspecies divergence within the sympatric crocodile genus Osteolaemus and the formation of the Cameroon Volcanic Line. Our results underscore the necessity of comprehensive phylogeographic analyses within currently recognized taxa to detect cryptic species within the Crocodylia. We recommend that the community of crocodilian researchers reconsider the conceptualization of crocodilian species especially in the light of the conservation ramifications for this economically and ecologically important group.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Ziegler, a specialty investment bank, is pleased to announce the successful closing of the $44,035,000 fixed-rate, tax-exempt, Series 2017 Bond issue for Miami Jewish Health rated “BBB” with a stable outlook from Fitch Ratings. Miami Jewish Health, a new client to Ziegler, is a Florida not-for-profit corporation for charitable purposes founded in 1940. Miami Jewish Health and its affiliates provide residential, healthcare, supportive and community-based services and programs to the elderly and others in need, as well as create research and educational programs designed to foster independent, active and healthy lives for seniors in the community. The Miami Jewish Health Obligated Group consists of Miami Jewish Health, which owns and operates a long-term and short-term care nursing home with 438 skilled nursing beds, a 32-bed acute care hospital, a residential housing unit with independent living rental units and assisted living rental units. It also supports an ambulatory health clinic, an advanced pain management program – Rosomoff Comprehensive Rehabilitation Center; and the Florida PACE Centers, Inc. Since 2004, the Miami Jewish Health Systems Foundation, Inc. has provided philanthropic support for patient services, facilities, program and service development, indigent care, medical education and research. Proceeds of the Series 2017 Bonds will be used to (i) refund Miami Jewish Health’s outstanding Series 2005 LOC backed Variable Rate Bonds, (ii) refund certain other outstanding debt of Miami Jewish Health, (iii) pay a swap termination payment related to an interest rate hedge agreement securing the refunded bonds, (iv) finance and refinance all or a portion of the cost of acquisition, construction and equipping of certain capital improvements to the health care facilities of Miami Jewish Health, (v) fund a debt service reserve fund, and (vi) pay for costs associated with the issuance of the Series 2017 Bonds. Jack Kelleher, chief financial officer, Miami Jewish Health, stated, “We were able to navigate through the complexities of the bond issuance process with the assistance of the Ziegler team as our partner. The efforts of all those involved resulted in a successful financing that will provide Miami Jewish Health with the needed capital for the immediate future.” “We are pleased that we were able to assist Miami Jewish Health Systems meet their financing objectives including securing a low, long-term cost of capital, flexible covenants and a ‘BBB’ Bond rating,” commented Brandon Powell, director in Ziegler’s senior living finance practice. Ziegler is one of the nation's leading underwriters of financing for not-for-profit senior living providers. Ziegler offers creative, tailored solutions to its senior living clientele, including investment banking, financial risk management, merger and acquisition services, investment management, seed capital, FHA/HUD, capital and strategic planning as well as senior living research, education, and communication. For further information on the structure and use of this issue, please see the Official Statement located on the Electronic Municipal Market Access system's Document Archive. For more information about Ziegler, please visit us at http://www.Ziegler.com. Ziegler is a privately held investment bank, capital markets, wealth management and proprietary investments firm, celebrating its 115th anniversary this year. Ziegler is ranked No. 1 in the country in healthcare/senior living underwriters by issuance and No. 4 by par amount (Thomson Reuters, 2016), and is ranked in the top 20 municipal underwriters in the country by volume (Bloomberg, 2016). Specializing in the healthcare, senior living, education and religion sectors, as well as general municipal and structured finance enables Ziegler to generate a positive impact on the communities it serves. Headquartered in Chicago with regional and branch offices throughout the United States, Ziegler provides its clients with capital raising, strategic advisory services, equity and fixed income sales & trading, wealth management and research. To learn more, visit http://www.ziegler.com. Certain comments in this news release represent forward-looking statements made pursuant to the provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. This client’s experience may not be representative of the experience of other clients, nor is it indicative of future performance or success. The forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, in particular, the overall financial health of the securities industry, the strength of the healthcare sector of the U.S. economy and the municipal securities marketplace, the ability of the Company to underwrite and distribute securities, the market value of mutual fund portfolios and separate account portfolios advised by the Company, the volume of sales by its retail brokers, the outcome of pending litigation, and the ability to attract and retain qualified employees. # # #
Fletcher Jr. R.J.,Ziegler
Nature communications | Year: 2013
For nearly a century, biologists have emphasized the profound importance of spatial scale for ecology, evolution and conservation. Nonetheless, objectively identifying critical scales has proven incredibly challenging. Here we extend new techniques from physics and social sciences that estimate modularity on networks to identify critical scales for movement and gene flow in animals. Using four species that vary widely in dispersal ability and include both mark-recapture and population genetic data, we identify significant modularity in three species, two of which cannot be explained by geographic distance alone. Importantly, the inclusion of modularity in connectivity and population viability assessments alters conclusions regarding patch importance to connectivity and suggests higher metapopulation viability than when ignoring this hidden spatial scale. We argue that network modularity reveals critical meso-scales that are probably common in populations, providing a powerful means of identifying fundamental scales for biology and for conservation strategies aimed at recovering imperilled species.
Inflammation and Allergy - Drug Targets | Year: 2011
Stings by insects of the order Hymenoptera cause systemic, sometimes life threatening allergic reactions in 1 -5% of the population in Europe and North America. Responsible for these reactions is an IgE mediated sensitization to proteins of the venoms injected during the stings of social Hymenoptera species, mainly the honey bee (Apis mellifera), vespids like Vespula sp, Polistes sp. and ants, in southern US and central America Solenopsis invicta and in Australia Myrmecia pilosula. The venoms of these insects are composed of low molecular weight substances like biogenic amines, cytotoxic and neurotoxic peptides like melittin, apamin, MCD-peptide and mastoparan, and proteins, mostly enzymes like phospholipase A and hyaluronidase, which are major venom allergens. 000Immunotherapy with Hymenoptera venoms has been shown to protect 80 to over 95% of patients with a history of systemic allergic sting reaction from further systemic reactions after re-stings. The procedure, safety and efficacy of this treatment and the immune mechanisms involved are discussed. Since ancient times honey bee venom has been used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease, especially arthritis. Anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom have been documented in animal experiments. Most clinical studies suggest an antiinflammatory effect as well, but are uncontrolled. The only few controlled studies could not confirm efficacy of treatment with bee venom so far. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013
Predation risk is widely hypothesized as an important force structuring communities, but this potential force is rarely tested experimentally, particularly in terrestrial vertebrate communities. How animals respond to predation risk is generally considered predictable from species life-history and natural-history traits, but rigorous tests of these predictions remain scarce. We report on a large-scale playback experiment with a forest bird community that addresses two questions: (i) does perceived predation risk shape the richness and composition of a breeding bird community? And (ii) can species life-history and natural-history traits predict prey community responses to different types of predation risk? On 9 ha plots, we manipulated cues of three avian predators that preferentially prey on either adult birds or offspring, or both, throughout the breeding season. We found that increased perception of predation risk led to generally negative responses in the abundance, occurrence and/or detection probability of most prey species, which in turn reduced the species richness and shifted the composition of the breeding bird community. Species-level responses were largely predicted from the key natural-history trait of body size, but we did not find support for the life-history theory prediction of the relationship between species' slow/fast life-history strategy and their response to predation risk.
Ziegler | Date: 2013-07-31
Layer structure for a seat cushion at least comprising a surface layer unit and a cushion layer unit below the surface layer unit, characterized in that the cushion layer unit comprises at least one nonwoven layer and at least one spacer crocheted-fabric and/or spacer knitted-fabric layer.
Ziegler | Date: 2016-04-20
In golf, when the teed-up ball is struck during the so-called tee shot, a conventional tee tends to get pulled out of the ground and sent flying in the direction of the swing. While this effect is of little significance in tournament play, it can become a major annoyance on the driving range. Here, an allocated bay delimits the teeing ground, preventing the player from retrieving equipment beyond the bays limits. Any breach on the side of the player of the bays boundary, traditionally marked by a red line, puts the perpetrator at risk of being injured, prosecuted, or banned from future use of the driving range. Golf teeing aid (10) comprising a tee (12) for supporting a golf ball and a base mechanically connected to the tee (12) for setting up the teeing aid (10) on a teeing ground, characterized in that the base is a wedge-shaped baseplate (14) comprising an essentially flat top face (16) inclined toward the tee (12) and the tee (12) is resiliently biased toward an upright position.
Ziegler | Date: 2012-05-29
An arrangement for automatic handling of a radioactive material includes a shielding unit, at least one handling unit arranged inside the shielding unit, and an operating unit arranged outside the shielding unit and configured to operate the at least one handling unit. Only the handling unit or parts of the handling unit are in contact with the radioactive material. The arrangement for automatic handling of radioactive materials can be used for fully automatic process control, including physical and/or chemical operations, on radioactive fluids inside shielding. Self-shielded synthesis modules or dispensers can thus be provided for handling and processing radioactive fluids.
Ziegler | Date: 2013-03-27
A cladding element is formed from chain mail for cladding forms having different radii with the chain mail. For this purpose, the chain mail has at least one cut, which is connected at the edges thereof or to the edges of a further cut in order to clad the form. The chain mail has a running direction, in which the chain mail can be stretched to a substantially smaller degree, or cannot be stretched at all, compared to a direction running transversely thereto, preferably at a right angle. Because the chain mail with the running direction is arranged along an arc of the form specified by the radius and has indentations transversely to the running direction, wherein the connection takes place particularly along the edges of the cuts, three-dimensional round forms such as spheres or annular shapes or the segments thereof are clad efficiently.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Fellowship | Program: | Phase: POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS | Award Amount: 170.00K | Year: 2011
Dr. Leah Ziegler has been granted an NSF Earth Sciences postdoctoral fellowship to carry out a research and education plan at Oregon State University. She will investigate the changing strength of the Earths magnetic field, as recorded in marine sediments over hundreds of thousands of years. This study will focus on using time series analysis, statistics, and inverse modeling to assess the interregional and intraregional consistency of data taken from dozens of separate sediment cores. Models of magnetic field strength will be made using data clustered regionally on the globe, and these different regional models will be compared with each other and with a global reference model. Additionally, she will quantify the correlation between individual cores which are geographically close together and which are geographically far apart, to test if there is a relationship between correlation and geographic separation. The overarching goal of this project is to identify global and regional field features on very long timescales, and to determine if the regional-scale features (which are more difficult to resolve) are observable above the noise which is inherent to the data source.
The Earths magnetic field is ever-changing: in strength, small scale shape, and pole location. Although the magnetic field is approximately a dipole field, it has many complexities and deviations from this generalization. Some specific non-dipole features may last hundreds or thousands of years, while others last only a few years. The full detail of todays field is readily observable from satellite and observatory measurements. However, recovering details of the ancient magnetic field is only now becoming feasible through careful analyses of growing amounts of data from magnetized sediments. This study provides a framework for understanding how well we can resolve field complexities from this noisy - yet informative - data source. The characteristic ups and downs in field strength seen in sediments often serve as a chronology tool for those sediments in a wide range of environmental applications, where the typical dipole field approximation contributes to chronological inaccuracies. This study will lead to better chronological accuracy and error bounds in these applications. The improved understanding of the ancient magnetic field produced in this work will also lead to new insights into the deep earth processes that ultimately give rise to the magnetic field. In addition to her research, the fellow will be active in education and outreach at OSU through a variety of established K-12 outreach programs. She will additionally co-teach an undergraduate level course on Earths Magnetism at OSU.