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Aslam M.,Ziauddin University | Sial A.A.,Ziauddin University
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2014

Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P < 0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. © 2014 Muhammad Aslam and Ali Akbar Sial.


Fatima N.,Ziauddin University
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2016

Objective: To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on surface micro-morphology of enamel. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The discs were prepared at Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, and surface morphology was analyzed at Centralized Science Laboratory of Karachi University, Pakistan. Duration of study was one year from January to December 2012. Methodology: Forty five sound human third molar crowns, extracted for periodontal reason, were included in the study. Longitudinal sections were made using diamond disks (0.2 mm) under water lubrication to obtain enamel slabs measuring (3 mm x 3 mm). The slabs were embedded in polystyrene resin by using 2.0 cm diameter PVC molds, leaving the outer enamel surface uncovered by the resin. Ninety dental enamel slabs were prepared. The slabs were then randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained thirty specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37°C in incubator (Memart, Germany) during whole experiment. Group 2 was treated with power whitening gel (White Smile 2011, Germany). Group 3 was treated with tooth whitening pen (White Smile 2011, Germany). The most central region or the region that was most representative of the entire surface area was used. The SEM (Jeol-Japan-JSM6380A, JAPAN) micrographs were examined to determine the type of surface presented. The enamel changes were classified as no or mild alteration, moderate alteration and severe altered surface. Results: Regarding micro-morphology, the enamel surface of control groups showed smooth surface in general with some scattered clear scratches due to the polishing procedure. The specimens bleached in group 2 and group 3, represented areas of mild erosion. Conclusion: Bleaching with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) and 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) resulted in mild changes in surface micro-morphology of enamel. © 2016 College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. All rights reserved.


Afshan A.,Ziauddin University
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2012

Triple X syndrome 47XXX is a sex chromosome abnormality characterized by presence of an extra X chromosome. Most of the girls born with triple X chromosomes have no signs or symptoms at birth. The condition often remains undiagnosed until adulthood when the genetic defect is discovered on investigation for other reasons as in this case of a young girl who presented with primary amenorrhoea. Clinical examination was unremarkable and diagnosis was made on chromosomal analysis. She later started having a spontaneous menstrual cycle but prognosis regarding future fertility is guarded.


Mahmood N.,Ziauddin University
JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2010

To evaluate association of serum visfatin with CKD secondary to diabetic nephropathy and to compare it with patients of CKD secondary to other risk factors. Seventy eight individuals including 28 healthy controls and 50 patients of CKD were included in this study. Patients with CKD were further grouped based on etiology of CKD into diabetics and non-diabetics. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, liver cirrhosis, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Measurement of Serum visfatin was done through EIA Kit (Phoenix pharmaceuticals Burlingame CA). Visfatin concentration was significantly high in patients with CKD compared to controls (8.7 +/- 4.7 vs. 5.2 +/- 3.3 p = 0.001). No significant difference in Visfatin concentrations between patients of CKD with and without diabetes was detected (9.2 +/- 5.5 vs. 8.3 +/- 3.2 p = 0.694). A significant negative correlation of visfatin with estimated GFR (r2= -0.383, p = 0.01) and a positive correlation with degree of proteinuria (p = 0.01) was observed. The present study confirms the association of visfatin with CKD, however further studies at molecular level to check its expression within renal tissue may clarify its definitive role in CKD


Hadi N.I.,Ziauddin University | Jamal Q.,Ziauddin University
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Breast cancer is a global health issue, and as the tumor burden increases, we need to come up with newer, better technologies which are convenient, cheap, rapid, sensitive with a high specificity. Technological advancements in the field of cancer biomarker has led to the development of techniques such as mass spectrometric analysis and microarray analysis in which genes, proteins and hundreds and thousands of metabolites can be identified with the emergence of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. This research is focused on finding biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, staging, treatment response and targets for chemotherapy, generating a panel of markers which provide better clinical information compared to a single marker in the panel. This review briefly summarizes application of genomics and proteomics followed by key concepts and applications of metabolomics in breast cancer, with the conclusion that an integration of the three “OMIC” technologies may hold the key to future biomarker discovery. Sources of Data/Study Selection: The information for this review was collected by searching the Google Scholar and PubMed database for English articles published in the period from 2002 to 2015. The search terms included “biomarkers in breast cancer” along with the following search terms: “genomics”, “proteomics”, “metabolomics”, “breast cancer”, “mass spectrometry”, “molecular markers” and “cancer biomarker”. We have endeavored to quote only the primary sources. Titles and abstracts of retrieved studies were assessed first followed by selection and retrieval of selected full text articles. © 2015, Professional Medical Publications. All rights reserved.


Siddiqui G.K.,University College London | Hussein R.,Ziauddin University | Dornan J.C.,Queen's University of Belfast
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2011

Pakistan has one of the worst maternal mortality ratios worldwide: 260-490 women die for every 100 000 live births in Pakistan. The Pakistan Liaison Group (PLG) was formed to work with and through the international office of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). It works with the RCOG representative committee in Pakistan to improve the health of women. It aims to contribute to improving maternal morbidity and mortality through strategies directed at improving the education and training of health professionals. In addition, the PLG aims to promote changes in the legislature to allow for the notification of maternal deaths so that accurate figures can be obtained, and so that health parameters can be accurately assessed and, in the long term, a confidential enquiry into maternal deaths can be initiated. © 2011 RCOG.


Siddiqui I.A.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences | Jaleel A.,Ziauddin University | Al Kadri H.M.F.,King Abdulaziz Medical City
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2010

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The cause and the pathogenesis of the pregnancy-induced syndrome, preeclampsia, is still poorly understood. Published evidence of altered biomarkers for the endothelial dysfunction suggests that the initiating event in preeclampsia is the reduced placental perfusion, which leads to widespread dysfunction of the maternal vascular endothelium. This review focuses on the role of free radicals in generating the oxidative stress taking antioxidants into consideration which tend to overcome it as well as the role of placenta in preeclamptic pregnancy. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Bhutta Z.A.,Aga Khan University | Hafeez A.,Health Services Academy | Rizvi A.,Aga Khan University | Ali N.,John Snow | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of maternal, fetal, and child mortality. It has made slow progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 and in addressing common social determinants of health. The country also has huge challenges of political fragility, complex security issues, and natural disasters. We undertook an in-depth analysis of Pakistan's progress towards MDGs 4 and 5 and the principal determinants of health in relation to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health and nutrition. We reviewed progress in relation to new and existing public sector programmes and the challenges posed by devolution in Pakistan. Notwithstanding the urgent need to tackle social determinants such as girls' education, empowerment, and nutrition in Pakistan, we assessed the Effect of systematically increasing coverage of various evidence-based interventions on populations at risk (by residence or poverty indices). We specifi cally focused on scaling up interventions using delivery platforms to reach poor and rural populations through community-based strategies. Our model indicates that with successful implementation of these strategies, 58% of an estimated 367 900 deaths (15 900 maternal, 169 000 newborn, 183 000 child deaths) and 49% of an estimated 180 000 stillbirths could be prevented in 2015.


Paracha Q.,Ziauddin University
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine the outcome of cataract surgery in terms of visual results, intra and postoperative complications at Marie Adelaide Leprosy Centre. Methods: The study was carried out at Marie Adelaide Leprosy Centre Karachi from May 2005 to December 2007. Surgical results of all outpatients operated for cataract from May 2005 to December 2007 were assessed. The data was collected using the CBM guidelines based on WHO monitoring systems for quality monitoring. Patients having uncomplicated cataract were included. Postoperative follow up was done at discharge, 1 week, 4 weeks and after 12 weeks, visual acuity was recorded as good (6/6-6/18), borderline (6/18-6/60) and poor (<6/60), Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also noted. Results: During the study period a total of 1457 patients underwent cataract surgery. There were 826 male patients and 631 female patients, their age ranged from 20 to over 80 years. Preoperatively 1023 (70.2%) patients had poor, 362 (24.8%) patients had borderline while only 73 (5%) patients had good visual acuity while at discharge 962 (66%) patients had good, 392 (26.9%) patients had borderline and 104 (7.1%) patients had poor visual acuity. On an average among all the best corrected visual acuity was good in 97.2%, borderline in 2.2% and poor in 0.6% patients at 1 week, 4 weeks and >12 weeks follow up respectively. A large number of patients, 565 (38.7%) did not turn up after discharge for follow up, presumed reasons were: good vision, unable to return because of socioeconomic reasons, ill health and few of the patients expired. Intraoperative complications seen were posterior capsular rent with vitreous loss 70 (4.8%), zonular dehiscence 3 (0.2%), posterior loss of cortical matter 2(0.1%) and iris prolapse in 4 (0.2%) cases. Immediate postoperative complication was striate keratopathy 157(10.7%), late were chronic anterior uveitis 3(0.2%), corneal decompensation 2(0.1%) choroidal and retinal detachment 1 (0.06%) each, Intraocular Lens (IOL) subluxation 4 (0.2%) and Posterior capsular opacification 40(2.7%). Conclusion: In our study visual outcome achieved was comparable to the standards set by World Health Organization. In complicated cases functional vision can be achieved with timely management.


Ahmed H.,Ziauddin University
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2015

Objective: To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization.

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