Rashid H.,Ziauddin University
Journal of Advanced Microscopy Research | Year: 2017
The surface properties of commercially available dental biomaterials have been extensively studied using different characterization methods. The use of tactile profilometry has been common however; with recent advancements in the field of optical microscopy, newer characterization methods have been introduced. Surface properties have an enormous effect on the success or failure of different materials used in dentistry, thus signifying the considerable importance of and the need for adequate characterization of the surfaces. Different evaluation techniques are used to for measuring the shape/surface texture; micro-mechanical and physical properties; composition; and chemical states of dental material surfaces. Since the surface of a dental biomaterial plays a vital role in success and failure of any dental restoration, the importance of surface characterization techniques in biomedical engineering is now well established. Majority of the microscopic surface characterization techniques involve electrons, photons (light), X-rays and ions as a probe beam which strikes the biomaterial that has to be analyzed. The aim of the current review paper is to provide a brief overview and understanding of common surface characterization techniques used in the field of dentistry. Copyright © 2017 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.
Aslam M.,Ziauddin University
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2016
Tail suspension test (TST) is a common behavioral paradigm used to evaluate the antidepressant activity of experimental drugs. Like the forced swimming test, in this test the animals are set in an inescapable yet modestly distressing circumstance. In the tail suspension test, the extent of immobility is thought to be associated with the depressive-like condition of the animal and is significantly diminished by antidepressant drugs. © 2016, Bangladesh Pharmacological Society. All rights reserved.
Baig S.,Ziauddin University
Ear, nose, & throat journal | Year: 2015
The danger to healthcare personnel of acquiring a blood-borne infection accidentally transmitted by a patient is well known. Such an infection can have serious and career-altering implications. Epistaxis, which is the most common emergency seen in ENT practice, poses a great risk of contaminated blood being spattered on the face of the attending medical provider. Areas of possible contamination include the mucosa of the nasal passages, oral cavity, and conjunctiva. Various strategies to prevent contamination have been described in the literature, most of which involve the wearing of protective equipment by the healthcare provider. We conducted a prospective, randomized study of 60 epistaxis patients to determine if a simple surgical mask warn by the patient over his or her mouth would protect the treating physician from aerosolized blood contamination. We found evidence of significant blood splashes on the physician in 8 of the 30 cases (26.7%) in which the patient did not wear a mask, compared with only 4 cases (13.3%) when the mouth mask was worn. We therefore conclude that a patient mouth mask is a simple, inexpensive, and effective way to minimize the risk of aerosolized blood contamination during the treatment of epistaxis.
Aslam M.,Ziauddin University
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2015
The Forced Swim Test (FST) is a rodent behavioral paradigm utilized for assessment of potential antidepressant-like medications. In this model the mice are put in a plexiglas tank. The tank is loaded with water and the behavior of the mice to escape the tank is scored. The behavioral parameter scored in this test is called immobility, resembling a behavioral state of misery, as seen in human depression. © 2015, Bangladesh Pharmacological Society. All rights reserved.
Aslam M.,Ziauddin University |
Sial A.A.,Ziauddin University
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2014
Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P < 0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. © 2014 Muhammad Aslam and Ali Akbar Sial.
Fatima N.,Ziauddin University
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2016
Objective: To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on surface micro-morphology of enamel. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The discs were prepared at Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, and surface morphology was analyzed at Centralized Science Laboratory of Karachi University, Pakistan. Duration of study was one year from January to December 2012. Methodology: Forty five sound human third molar crowns, extracted for periodontal reason, were included in the study. Longitudinal sections were made using diamond disks (0.2 mm) under water lubrication to obtain enamel slabs measuring (3 mm x 3 mm). The slabs were embedded in polystyrene resin by using 2.0 cm diameter PVC molds, leaving the outer enamel surface uncovered by the resin. Ninety dental enamel slabs were prepared. The slabs were then randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained thirty specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37°C in incubator (Memart, Germany) during whole experiment. Group 2 was treated with power whitening gel (White Smile 2011, Germany). Group 3 was treated with tooth whitening pen (White Smile 2011, Germany). The most central region or the region that was most representative of the entire surface area was used. The SEM (Jeol-Japan-JSM6380A, JAPAN) micrographs were examined to determine the type of surface presented. The enamel changes were classified as no or mild alteration, moderate alteration and severe altered surface. Results: Regarding micro-morphology, the enamel surface of control groups showed smooth surface in general with some scattered clear scratches due to the polishing procedure. The specimens bleached in group 2 and group 3, represented areas of mild erosion. Conclusion: Bleaching with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) and 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) resulted in mild changes in surface micro-morphology of enamel. © 2016 College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. All rights reserved.
Afshan A.,Ziauddin University
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2012
Triple X syndrome 47XXX is a sex chromosome abnormality characterized by presence of an extra X chromosome. Most of the girls born with triple X chromosomes have no signs or symptoms at birth. The condition often remains undiagnosed until adulthood when the genetic defect is discovered on investigation for other reasons as in this case of a young girl who presented with primary amenorrhoea. Clinical examination was unremarkable and diagnosis was made on chromosomal analysis. She later started having a spontaneous menstrual cycle but prognosis regarding future fertility is guarded.
Mahmood N.,Ziauddin University
JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2010
To evaluate association of serum visfatin with CKD secondary to diabetic nephropathy and to compare it with patients of CKD secondary to other risk factors. Seventy eight individuals including 28 healthy controls and 50 patients of CKD were included in this study. Patients with CKD were further grouped based on etiology of CKD into diabetics and non-diabetics. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, liver cirrhosis, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Measurement of Serum visfatin was done through EIA Kit (Phoenix pharmaceuticals Burlingame CA). Visfatin concentration was significantly high in patients with CKD compared to controls (8.7 +/- 4.7 vs. 5.2 +/- 3.3 p = 0.001). No significant difference in Visfatin concentrations between patients of CKD with and without diabetes was detected (9.2 +/- 5.5 vs. 8.3 +/- 3.2 p = 0.694). A significant negative correlation of visfatin with estimated GFR (r2= -0.383, p = 0.01) and a positive correlation with degree of proteinuria (p = 0.01) was observed. The present study confirms the association of visfatin with CKD, however further studies at molecular level to check its expression within renal tissue may clarify its definitive role in CKD
Bhutta Z.A.,Aga Khan University |
Hafeez A.,Health Services Academy |
Rizvi A.,Aga Khan University |
Ali N.,John Snow |
And 6 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013
Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of maternal, fetal, and child mortality. It has made slow progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 and in addressing common social determinants of health. The country also has huge challenges of political fragility, complex security issues, and natural disasters. We undertook an in-depth analysis of Pakistan's progress towards MDGs 4 and 5 and the principal determinants of health in relation to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health and nutrition. We reviewed progress in relation to new and existing public sector programmes and the challenges posed by devolution in Pakistan. Notwithstanding the urgent need to tackle social determinants such as girls' education, empowerment, and nutrition in Pakistan, we assessed the Effect of systematically increasing coverage of various evidence-based interventions on populations at risk (by residence or poverty indices). We specifi cally focused on scaling up interventions using delivery platforms to reach poor and rural populations through community-based strategies. Our model indicates that with successful implementation of these strategies, 58% of an estimated 367 900 deaths (15 900 maternal, 169 000 newborn, 183 000 child deaths) and 49% of an estimated 180 000 stillbirths could be prevented in 2015.
Paracha Q.,Ziauddin University
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2011
Objective: To determine the outcome of cataract surgery in terms of visual results, intra and postoperative complications at Marie Adelaide Leprosy Centre. Methods: The study was carried out at Marie Adelaide Leprosy Centre Karachi from May 2005 to December 2007. Surgical results of all outpatients operated for cataract from May 2005 to December 2007 were assessed. The data was collected using the CBM guidelines based on WHO monitoring systems for quality monitoring. Patients having uncomplicated cataract were included. Postoperative follow up was done at discharge, 1 week, 4 weeks and after 12 weeks, visual acuity was recorded as good (6/6-6/18), borderline (6/18-6/60) and poor (<6/60), Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also noted. Results: During the study period a total of 1457 patients underwent cataract surgery. There were 826 male patients and 631 female patients, their age ranged from 20 to over 80 years. Preoperatively 1023 (70.2%) patients had poor, 362 (24.8%) patients had borderline while only 73 (5%) patients had good visual acuity while at discharge 962 (66%) patients had good, 392 (26.9%) patients had borderline and 104 (7.1%) patients had poor visual acuity. On an average among all the best corrected visual acuity was good in 97.2%, borderline in 2.2% and poor in 0.6% patients at 1 week, 4 weeks and >12 weeks follow up respectively. A large number of patients, 565 (38.7%) did not turn up after discharge for follow up, presumed reasons were: good vision, unable to return because of socioeconomic reasons, ill health and few of the patients expired. Intraoperative complications seen were posterior capsular rent with vitreous loss 70 (4.8%), zonular dehiscence 3 (0.2%), posterior loss of cortical matter 2(0.1%) and iris prolapse in 4 (0.2%) cases. Immediate postoperative complication was striate keratopathy 157(10.7%), late were chronic anterior uveitis 3(0.2%), corneal decompensation 2(0.1%) choroidal and retinal detachment 1 (0.06%) each, Intraocular Lens (IOL) subluxation 4 (0.2%) and Posterior capsular opacification 40(2.7%). Conclusion: In our study visual outcome achieved was comparable to the standards set by World Health Organization. In complicated cases functional vision can be achieved with timely management.