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Vinichuk M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Vinichuk M.,Zhytomyr State Technological University | Martensson A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Rosen K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

Methods for cleaning up radioactive contaminated soils are urgently needed. In this study we investigated whether the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can improve 137Cs uptake by crops. Barley, cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower were inoculated with AM fungi and grown in low-level radionuclide contaminated soils in a field experiment 70km southwest of Chernobyl, Ukraine, during two successive years (2009-2010). Roots of barley, cucumber and sunflower plants were slightly or moderately infected with AM fungus and root infection frequency was negatively or non-correlated with 137Cs uptake by plants. Roots of ryegrass were moderately infected with AM fungus and infection frequency was moderately correlated with 137Cs uptake by ryegrass. The application of AM fungi to soil in situ did not enhance radionuclide plant uptake or biomass. The responsiveness of host plants and AM fungus combination to 137Cs uptake varied depending on the soil, although mycorrhization of soil in the field was conditional and did not facilitate the uptake of radiocesium. The total amount of 137Cs uptake by plants growing on inoculated soil was equal to amounts in plant cultivated on non-inoculated soil. Thus, the use of AM fungi in situ for bioremediation of soil contaminated with a low concentration of 137Cs could not be recommended. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Vinichuk M.M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Vinichuk M.M.,Zhytomyr State Technological University
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2013

Ectomycorrhizal fungi profoundly affect forest ecosystems through mediating nutrient uptake and maintaining forest food webs. The accumulation of metals in each transfer step from bulk soil to fungal sporocarps is not well known. The accumulation of three metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest were compared. Concentrations of all three metals increased in the order: bulk soil < soil-root interface (or rhizosphere) < fungal mycelium < fungal sporocarps. The uptake of Cu, Zn and Cd during the entire transfer process in natural conditions between soil and sporocarps occurred against a concentration gradient. In fungal mycelium, the concentration of all three metals was about three times higher than in bulk soil, and the concentration in sporocarps was about two times higher than in mycelium. In terms of accumulation, fungi (mycelium and sporocarps) preferred Cd to Zn and Cu. Zinc concentration in sporocarps and to a lesser extent in mycelium depended on the concentration in soil, whereas, the uptake of Cu and Cd by both sporocarps and mycelium did not correlate with metal concentration in soil. Heavy metal accumulation within the fungal mycelium biomass in the top forest soil layer (0-5 cm) might account for ca. 5-9% of the total amount of Cu, 5-11% of Zn, and 16-32% of Cd. As the uptake of zinc and copper by fungi may be balanced, this implied similarities in the uptake mechanism. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Rosen K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Vinichuk M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Vinichuk M.,Zhytomyr State Technological University
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2014

Fertilization of soils contaminated by radionuclides with potassium (K) and its effect on 137Cs transfer from soil to crops is well studied in field conditions; however experiments over many years are few.The effects of potassium fertilization on cesium-137 (137Cs) transfer to hay, pasture grass, and barley growing on organic rich soils and mineral sand and loam soils in a number of field experimental sites situated in different environments in Sweden are summarized and discussed. The basic experimental treatments were control (no K fertilizers were applied), 50, 100, and 200kgKha-1. In the experiment, which lasted over 3-6 years, 137Cs transfer factors in control treatments ranged between 0.0004m2kg-1 (barley grain on sand soil) and 0.07m2kg-1 (pasture grass on organic rich soil). Potassium application on soils with low clay content i.e. mineral sand and organic rich soils was effective at the 50-100kgha-1 level. Application of 200kgKha-1 resulted in a five-fold reduction in 137Cs transfer for hay and up to four-fold for barley grain. The effects of potassium application were generally greater on sand than organic rich soil and were observed already in the first cut. After K application, the reduction in 137Cs transfer to crops was correlated with 137Cs:K ratios in plant material. Additional application of zeolite caused a 1.4 reduction of 137Cs transfer to hay on sand and 1.8-fold reduction on organic rich soil; whereas, application of potash-magnesia and CaO had no effect. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Sazhin S.S.,University of Brighton | Al Qubeissi M.,University of Brighton | Kolodnytska R.,Zhytomyr State Technological University | Elwardany A.E.,Alexandria University | And 2 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2014

Biodiesel fuel droplet heating and evaporation is investigated using the previously developed models, taking into account temperature gradient, recirculation, and species diffusion within droplets. The analysis is focused on four types of biodiesel fuels: Palm Methyl Ester, Hemp Methyl Esters, Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, and Soybean oil Methyl Ester. These fuels contain up to 15 various methyl esters and possibly small amounts of unspecified additives, which are treated as methyl esters with some average characteristics. Calculations are performed using two approaches: (1) taking into account the contribution of all components of biodiesel fuels (up to 16); and (2) assuming that these fuels can be treated as a one component fuel with averaged transport and thermodynamic coefficients. It is pointed out that for all types of biodiesel fuel the predictions of the multi-component and single component models are rather close (the droplet evaporation times predicted by these models differ by less than about 5.5%). This difference is much smaller than observed in the case of Diesel and gasoline fuel droplets, and is related to the fact that in the case of Diesel and gasoline fuel droplets the contribution of components in a wide range of molar masses and enthalpies of evaporation needs to be taken into account, while in the case of biodiesel fuels the main contribution comes from the components in a narrow range of molar masses, boiling temperatures and enthalpies of evaporation. As in the case of Diesel and gasoline fuel droplets, the multi-component model predicts higher droplet surface temperature and longer evaporation times than the single component model. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Vinichuk M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Vinichuk M.,Zhytomyr State Technological University | Martensson A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ericsson T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Rosen K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

The potential use of mycorrhiza as a bioremediation agent for soils contaminated by radiocesium was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The uptake of 137Cs by cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower after inoculation with a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) product in soils contaminated with 137Cs was investigated, with non-mycorrhizal quinoa included as a "reference" plant. The effect of cucumber and ryegrass inoculation with AM fungi on 137Cs uptake was inconsistent. The effect of AM fungi was most pronounced in sunflower: both plant biomass and 137Cs uptake increased on loamy sand and loamy soils. The total 137Cs activity accumulated within AM host sunflower on loamy sand and loamy soils was 2.4 and 3.2-fold higher than in non-inoculated plants. Although the enhanced uptake of 137Cs by quinoa plants on loamy soil inoculated by the AM fungi was observed, the infection of the fungi to the plants was not confirmed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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