Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co.

Zhuzhou, China

Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co.

Zhuzhou, China
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Mei F.,Central South University | Mei F.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co. | Qin K.,Central South University | Yuan T.,Central South University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2017

Due to the considerable influence of oxygen flow on the resistivity and transmittance of ITO films, the study on the effects of oxygen flow velocity on the sintering properties of ITO targets has a positive role in promoting their use in large output industries. In the work, ITO targets of three sintering conditions were used to reveal the action mechanism of oxygen flow velocity on the phase and elemental composition, micro-morphology, density, mass loss ratio, oxide content, resistivity and elemental chemical states by XRD, BSE, EPMA, SEM, XRF and XPS et al. ITO target sintered under oxygen flow velocity of 10 L/min owns super high relative density of 99.83%, mass loss ratio of 1.417% and the minimum resistivity of 1.583 × 10−4 Ω·cm. It can conclude that the increase of oxygen flow velocity can increase the oxygen pressure within the sintering furnace, which can influence the mass transport mechanism throughout the whole sintering process, improve the density of ITO targets, and decrease the InO formation of the target interior as a result of maintaining the mass content ratio of indium to tin and decreasing the resistivity of ITO targets. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC


Zhang W.,South China Normal University | Zhang W.,Power-battery | Li A.,South China Normal University | Li A.,Zhejiang Tianneng Battery Co. | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012

The effect of the rare earth element lanthanum (La) on the microstructure of lead-calcium grid alloys was studied by the metallographic microscope. A comparison of the electrochemical corrosion behavior of the new and traditional grid alloys was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), A.C. impedance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the surface morphology of anodic films of Pb-Ca-Sn-Al-Re alloys formed in sulfuric acid solution at 1.3 and 0.9 V for 2 h. The morphology of the corrosion layer was analyzed by SEM after the constant current corrosion test. The results show that an appropriate content of La can effectively (1) increase the fineness of the grain of Pb-Ca-Sn-Al alloys, (2) increase the growth of PbO 2 film, and (3) make the anodic film formed at 1.3 V become fine and compact. Alloys with contents of 0.01 wt.%, 0.03 wt.% and 0.1 wt.% La were shown satisfactory results. La also can decrease the growth of Pb(II) film, purify and increase the density of the anodic film at 0.9 V, especially for La content of 0.03 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%. Moreover, La can improve the corrosion resistance of Pb-Ca-Sn-Al alloys, particularly for a La content of 0.01 wt.%. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhou P.,Central South University | Cheng W.,Central South University | Ma J.,Central South University | Xia Z.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co. | Liao Z.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co.
Zhongnan Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of Central South University (Science and Technology) | Year: 2016

The investigation on the bubble departure characteristics and gas penetration behavior was performed by using the experimental model method and the imaging method for the immersion side-blowing model. The experimental feature parameter f was extracted by the imaging processing method. The results show that the bubble departure frequency of the bubbles nonlinear decreases with the increase of the modified Froude number Fr' and liquid viscosity υ when the nozzle diameter D and liquid temperature T are constant. The dimensionless penetration depth H/D increases with the increase of the modified Froude number Fr' and decreases with the increase of the nozzle diameter D and liquid viscosity υ. © 2016, Central South University Press. All right reserved.


Zhou P.,Central South University | Li H.-L.,Central South University | Wei W.-W.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Company | Su Y.-B.,Central South University
Dongbei Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Northeastern University | Year: 2015

The gas-liquid two-phase flows in zinc electrolytic cells with single plate and multiple plates were respectively numerically simulated with the commercial software of FLUENT. Based on the mechanism of the generation and movement of oxygen bubbles, the rising velocity of a single bubble was calculated. The results indicate that the rising velocity is 0.017 m/s. With the effect of bubbles from the anode, the electrolyte near the anode flows upward and oppositely flows downward near the cathodes, forming a large recirculation zone in the cell. The average velocity of bubble cluster is 0.021 m/s, which is consistent with the experimental data from the literature. In practical operation, with the joint action of the differential pressure and the bubble drag force, the recirculation of electrolyte flow can be enhanced remarkably. The average velocity of interelectrode fluid is 1.5 times higher than that under the bubble-free condition. This phenomenon indicates that the bubble movement can promote the refreshing of zinc electrolyte and restrain the dilution of zinc ions. ©, 2015, Northeastern University. All right reserved.


Yao T.-M.,Central South University | Tan J.,Central South University | Liu C.-Q.,Central South University | Li J.,Central South University | And 4 more authors.
Zhongguo Youse Jinshu Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals | Year: 2013

The components of Pb-S-O system were analyzed with phase rule, and four coexisting points of three condensed phases were determined. The relation-diagrams among coexisting points of three condensed phases for the Pb-S-O system, which were denoted as α plane topological diagram and β plane-topological diagram, were plotted based on topological rules and thermodynamic calculation of related equilibrium reactions. The results show that the β plane- topological diagram is in accordance with the predominance area diagram of Pb-S-O system calculated by traditional methods, indicating that this method is feasible to plot predominance area diagram of Pb-S-O system. Meanwhile, α plane-topological diagram can be used to elucidate the phenomenon of which crude lead is generated under high oxygen and sulfur pressures during Kivcet process.


Yu K.,Central South University | Li S.-J.,Central South University | Chen L.-S.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co. | Zhao W.-S.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co. | Li P.-F.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co.
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition) | Year: 2012

The rapid solidified process and hot press method were performed to produce three hypereutectic 55Si-Al, 70Si-Al and 90Si-Al alloys for heat dissipation materials. The results show that the atomization is an effective rapid solidified method to produce the Si-Al alloy and the size of atomized Si-Al alloy powder is less than 50 μm. The rapid solidified Si-Al alloy powder were hot pressed at 550 °C with the pressure of 700 MPa to obtain the relative densities of 99.4, 99.2 and 94.4 for 55Si-Al, 70Si-Al and 90Si-Al alloys, respectively. The typical physical properties, such as the thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and electrical conductivity of rapid solidified Si-Al alloys are acceptable as a heat dissipation material for many semiconductor devices. The 55Si-Al alloy changes greatly (CTE) with the increase of temperature but obtains a good thermal conductivity. The CTE of 90Si-Al alloy matches with the silicon very well but its thermal conductivity value is less than 100 W/(m·K). Therefore, the 70Si-Al alloy possesses the best comprehensive properties of CTE and thermal conductivity for using as the heat sink materials. © 2012 The Nonferrous Metals Society of China.


Mu W.,Northeastern University China | Zhang H.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Company Ltd | Su Z.,Yunnan Chihong Zn & Ge Co. | Song P.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Company Ltd
Xiyou Jinshu/Chinese Journal of Rare Metals | Year: 2015

Molybdenum is an important strategic metal. Currently, molybdenum ore resources in China are becoming shortage increasingly as the continuous exploitation of mines and the increasing demand for molybdenum. Therefore, low-grade molybdenum will become the key object of exploitation, and the economic development and reasonable utilization of it will become the focus of research. According to the characteristics and the properties of low-grade molybdenum ore, such as low grade and high gangue content, the process of low-temperature roasting by sodium carbonate was used, and the molybdate generated during roasting could dissolve into water by leaching method, realizing the separation from gangue minerals. The results of thermodynamic analysis showed that when the temperature was in the range of 523~873 K, the Gibbs free energy of molybdate formation was less than 0, and the formation trend detracted with the temperature increasing gradually. In addition, the reaction activity of silica and alumina was very low. The effects and regulation of powder particle size, roasting temperature, roasting time and the mass ratio of alkali to ore on the conversion of molybdenum and the control of impurity silicon introduction were investigated. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of ore samples, clinker and leaching residue, the transformation process of molybdenum were studied. The results showed that under the roasting conditions of ore particle size of 80~96 μm, roasting temperature of 550℃, roasting time of 3 h and the alkali/ore mass ratio of 2, the conversion rates of molybdenum and silicon reached 93.9% and less than 1.3%, respectively. It would provide theoretical guidance and technical reference for the development and the utilization of low-grade molybdenum ore. ©, 2015, Editorial Office of Chinese Journal of Rare Metals. All right reserved.


Li H.-L.,Central South University | Hu J.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Company | Zhou P.,Central South University | Wei W.-W.,Zhuzhou Smelter Group Company | Su Y.-B.,Central South University
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition) | Year: 2014

The physical and mathematical model of an operating electrowinning cell was established, and the flow of electrolyte was numerically simulated by the commercial software Fluent. The results indicate that there are two circulations at the surface flow where part of electrolyte backflows to the inlet from the side of cell, and the rest flows directly to the outlet, and the separation of two circulations with opposite direction occurs at the 20th pair of anode-cathode. This phenomenon was observed in the real operation. The electrolyte flows into the space between anode and cathode from the side portion of the cell. Meanwhile, the interelectrode effective flow rate (IEFR) is put forward to describe quantitively the flow field characteristics and is defined as the ratio of electrolyte flow between the anode and cathode to the total flow area. The influences of structure parameters and operating conditions on IEFR, such as the inlet angle, the volumetric flow rate, the inlet position and the height of steel baffles were simulated. The inlet position has a significant influence on the IEFR and its optimal value is 0.9 m below free surface. The inlet angle should be in the range from -10° to 10°. IEFR is in linear proportion with the volumetric flow rate, and the height of the steel baffle has little influence on the flow field. © 2014 The Nonferrous Metals Society of China.


Tang L.,South China Normal University | Li A.,South China Normal University | Chen H.,South China Normal University | Li H.,South China Normal University | And 8 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2011

A series of Pb-Na alloys were synthesized by adding sodium to lead. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP), and other analytical methods were used to investigate the electrochemical performances of the Pb-Na alloys in 1.28 g cm-3 H2SO4 solution. The results indicate that the addition of sodium reduces the generation of PbO and PbSO 4 greatly during anodic process, inhibits the oxygen evolution reaction and accelerates the evolution of hydrogen, and the Pb-Na alloys have good cycle performance and corrosion resistance properties. The alloys retain the merits, whilst removing the flaws, of the pure grid, thereby providing a promising positive grid alloy for spirally wound lead acid batteries. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li H.,Central South University | Yao X.,Central South University | Wang M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wu S.,Central South University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association | Year: 2014

Recovery of elemental sulfur from zinc concentrate direct leaching residue (DLR) using atmospheric distillation was systematically investigated on a pilot-scale system for the first time. Batch operating mode was suggested for recovery of elemental sulfur from water-rich DLR using atmospheric distillation. Elemental sulfur with purity higher than 99% was obtained under certain conditions in batch operating mode. With an appropriate feed amount of 1,200 kg, batch experiment conducted at 460°C resulted in sulfur purity of 96.22% and a recovery rate higher than 85%. Only 0.59 and 1.24 kWh power was needed to handle 1.0 kg DLR and produce 1.0 kg elemental sulfur, respectively. The results suggest that recovery of elemental sulfur from zinc concentrate DLR using atmospheric distillation is technologically and economically feasible. Moreover, other metal elements such as zinc were enriched in the distillation concentrate, which could be used for metal refining. Technologies could effectively lower the moisture content of DLR, and lowering the distillation temperature would be of great value for recovery of elemental sulfur from DLR using a distillation method. Distillation is a promising solution for recovery of elemental sulfur from DLRs. This work revealed the possibility of separation of elemental sulfur from zinc concentrate DLR using atmospheric distillation. Such knowledge is of fundamental importance in developing field-scale separation and purification technologies and devices in which simultaneous sulfur recovery and precious metal enrichment are possible. Important tasks for follow-up research are also suggested. © 2014 Copyright 2014 A&WMA.

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