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Li C.-Q.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology | Song L.,Huanghuai University | Zhu Y.-J.,Zhumadian Academy of Agricultural science | Zhai Y.-J.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology | Wang Q.-L.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology
Crop Science | Year: 2017

Evaluating germplasm resources comprehensively and accurately is of great significance to their efficient utilization. To comprehensively characterize the genetic relationships among upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, the genetic diversity of 172 upland cotton varieties in China was assessed using 18 phenotype traits and 154 polymorphic simple sequence repeat molecular markers. According to the variation analysis of phenotype traits, the variation coefficient, which reflects the level of phenotypic genetic diversity, varied widely among traits. The analysis of marker polymorphism showed that the average allele number, gene diversity index, and polymorphism information content were 2.62, 0.3985 and 0.3343, respectively, indicating a relatively low level of genetic diversity. All varieties grouped into five clusters (I–V) based on phenotypic data. Among the five clusters, clusters III and IV further grouped into four (III- 1, III-2, III-3, and III-4) and two subclusters (IV-1 and IV-2), respectively. Cluster I and subclusters III-1, III-3, III-4, and IV-1 displayed prominent values in some of the 18 traits. Then, all varieties grouped into nine clusters (A–I) based on molecular marker data. Clusters C, D, E, F, H, and I displayed prominent values in some of the 18 traits. Clustering based on phenotype traits and/or molecular markers was largely congruent with varietal pedigree information, but the clustering of varieties was independent of the varietal ecological sources. Results in this study suggest that varieties with prominent complementary traits in different phenotype and/or marker- based clusters can be selected as parents in breeding. © Crop Science Society of America.


Zhao Y.-L.,Henan Agricultural University | Zhao Y.-L.,National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science | Guo H.-B.,Henan Agricultural University | Guo H.-B.,Zhumadian Academy of Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

A two-year field study with split plot design was conducted to investigate the effects of different soil tillage (conventional tillage, CT; deep tillage, DT; subsoil tillage, ST) and straw returning (all straw retention, AS; no straw returning, NS) on microorganism quantity, enzyme activities in soil and grain yield. The results showed that, deep or subsoil tillage and straw returning not only reduced the soil bulk density and promoted the content of organic carbon in soil, but increased the soil microbial quantity, soil enzyme activities and grain yield. Furthermore, such influences in maize season were greater than that in wheat season. Compared with CT+NS, DT+AS and ST+AS decreased the soil bulk density at 20-30 cm depth by 8.5% and 6.6%, increased the content of soil organic carbon by 14.8% and 12.4%, increased the microorganism quantity by 45.9% and 33.9%, increased the soil enzyme activities by 34.1% and 25.5%, increased the grain yield by 18.0% and 19.3%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between DT+AS and ST+ AS. We concluded that retaining crop residue and deep or subsoil tillage improved soil microorganism quantity, enzyme activities and crop yield. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved.


Zhao Y.,Henan Agricultural University | Zhao Y.,National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science | Xue Z.,Henan Agricultural University | Guo H.,Henan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

In Huang-Huai-Hai area in China, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)/summer maize (Zea mays) rotation is the dominant two-crop-per-year cropping system. Crop residue removal and subsoil compaction have become limiting factors for yield improvement in the area. Tillage and crop residue retained are two effective ways to improve soil properties and increase crop yield. Soil tillage and crop residue retained can reduce soil bulk density, improve water storage and aeration in the soil, increase soil microorganism and enzyme activities, improve soil biological properties, thus promote plant root growth and increase crop production. However, studies in the past mainly focused on the effects of single tillage or single crop residue retained on soil respiration. There is a need currently for research in the effects of tillage, crop residue retained and their interaction on soil respiration under the two-crop-per-year cropping system. A two-year field study from 2010 to 2012 was conducted to determine effects of tillage practice and crop residue management on soil respiration, soil temperature, soil water content, soil compaction, soil organic carbon content, dry matter accumulation of plant and root in the wheat-corn double crop cropping system. The study was conducted at the Wen County Experimental Station, Henan, China. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with three replications. Tillage practice and crop residue management were two factors of interest. The tillage treatment was randomly assigned to main plots and crop residue treatment was randomly assigned to sub-plots. The tillage practice treatments were: moldboard plough (MP) to a maximum depth of 15 cm, deep moldboard plough (DMP) to a maximum depth of 30 cm, and chisel plough (CP) to a maximum depth of 30 cm. All three tillage treatments were implemented after corn harvested in October of 2010 and 2011. In addition to different plough treatments, all plots were disc harrowed before wheat planting. There were no direct tillage implements for corn as corn was seeded using a no-till planter. Crop residue management included two levels: crop residue retained (CRRet) and crop residue removed (CRRem). For the CRRet treatment, the wheat straw produced in 2011 and 2012 remained in fields as straw mulching for the following no-till corns, and the 2010 and 2011 corn stover was also incorporated into soil by tillage implements. For the CRRem treatment, both wheat straw and corn stover were removed from the field. The results indicated that there were significant (P<0.05) effects of tillage and crop residue management on soil respiration. Both soil tillage and crop residue retained significantly (P<0.05) increased soil respiration. Crop residue retained increased soil respiration during winter wheat season, but decreased soil respiration during summer maize season. During the growth period of winter wheat, DMP and CP increased soil respiration by 31.8% and 21.9%, respectively, relative to MP. The CRRet increased soil respiration by 14.3% compared with CRRem. On average, DMP+CRRet and CP+CRRet treatments increased soil respiration by 45.5% and 38.2%, respectively, as compared with MP+CRRem treatment. During the growth period of summer maize, DMP and CP increased soil respiration by 47.6% and 47.8%, respectively, relative to MP, and CRRet decreased soil respiration by 18.0% compared with CRRem. On average, DMP+CRRet and CP+CRRet treatments increased soil respiration by 19.7% and 22.2%, respectively, compared with MP+CRRem treatment. The soil respiration was significantly positively correlated with soil temperature and soil carbon, while negatively correlated with soil compaction. The correlation coefficient of soil respiration and soil temperature was highest among the correlation coefficients that affected soil respiration. Compared with the MP+CRRem treatment, the dry matter accumulation of the DMP+CRRet and CP+CRRem treatments increased by 34.9% and 38.2%, the root dry weight density increased by 45.0% and 39.4%, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that deep moldboard plough or chisel plough with crop residue retained was the most appropriate tillage practice in Huang-Huai-Hai area.


Mu X.,Henan Agricultural University | Zhao Y.,Henan Agricultural University | Liu K.,Dalhousie University | Guo H.,Zhumadian Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2016

Crop residue removal and subsoil compaction are limiting to yield improvement in the North China Plain (NCP). We conducted a field study composed of six consecutive crop growing seasons from 2010 to 2013 in Henan province, China, to determine responses of soil properties, crop root distribution and crop yield to tillage and residue management in a wheat-maize cropping system under irrigated conditions. Tillage practices comprised mouldboard ploughing (MP) to a depth of 15-cm, deep mouldboard ploughing (DMP) to a depth of 30-cm, and chisel ploughing (CP) to a depth of 30-cm. Crop residue management included crop residue retained (CRRet) and crop residue removed (CRRem). The results indicated that yields in DMP and CP increased by 6.0% and 7.3% for wheat and by 8.7% and 9.0% for maize, respectively, relative to MP. The CRRet treatment also increased wheat yield by 6.7% and maize yield by 5.0%. The yield increases under DMP and CP were related to reduced bulk density and soil penetration resistance, increased soil water content, improved total N distribution and improved root density (0-60-cm). Compared with MP, the root mass density under DMP and CP were increased by 43.4% and 42.0% for wheat and by 40.6% and 39.4% for maize, respectively. The yield increases under CRRet were also related to increased soil water content, reduced penetration resistance and increased N status (0-40-cm). Overall, for DMP + CRRet and CP + CRRet, a more favorable soil environment alongside greater root mass density and suitable spatial distribution resulted in higher grain yields of wheat and maize. Thus, compared with conventional shallow tillage practice, DMP or CP with residue application could improve soil quality and agricultural productivity under irrigated areas with loam soil in the NCP. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


LI C.Q.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology | AI N.J.,China Institute of Technology | ZHU Y.J.,Zhumadian Academy of Agricultural science | WANG Y.Q.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a promising tool to identify genes responsible for quantitative variations underlying complex traits. The present paper presents an association mapping panel consisting of 172 upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) accessions. The panel was phenotyped for five cotton plant architecture traits across multiple environments and genotyped using 386 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Of these markers, 101 polymorphic SSR markers were used in the final analysis. There were abundant phenotypic variations within this germplasm panel and a total of 267 alleles ranging from two to seven per locus were identified in all collections. The threshold of LD decay was set to r 2 = 0·1 and 0·2, and the genome-wide LD extended up to about 13–14 and 6–7 cM, respectively, providing the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in upland cotton. A total of 66 marker–trait associations were detected based on a mixed linear model, of which 35 were found in more than one environment. The favourable alleles from 35 marker loci can be used in marker-assisted selection of target traits. Both the synergistic alleles and the negative alleles for some traits, especially plant height and fruit branch angle, can be utilized in plant architecture breeding programmes according to specific breeding objectives. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015


Huang L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ren X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2015

Key message: SSR-based QTL mapping provides useful information for map-based cloning of major QTLs and can be used to improve the agronomic and quality traits in cultivated peanut by marker-assisted selection. Abstract: Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid species (AABB, 2n = 4× = 40), valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. Linkage mapping has been successfully conducted for most crops, and it has been applied to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of biotic and abiotic traits in peanut. However, the genetic basis of agronomic and quality-related traits remains unclear. In this study, high levels of phenotypic variation, broad-sense heritability and significant correlations were observed for agronomic and quality-related traits in an F2:3 population. A genetic linkage map was constructed for cultivated peanut containing 470 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, with a total length of 1877.3 cM and average distance of 4.0 cM between flanking markers. For 10 agronomic traits, 24 QTLs were identified and each QTL explained 1.69–18.70 % of the phenotypic variance. For 8 quality-related traits, 12 QTLs were identified that explained 1.72–20.20 % of the phenotypic variance. Several QTLs for multiple traits were overlapped, reflecting the phenotypic correlation between these traits. The majority of QTLs exhibited obvious dominance or over-dominance effects on agronomic and quality traits, highlighting the importance of heterosis for breeding. A comparative analysis revealed genomic duplication and arrangement of peanut genome, which aids the assembly of scaffolds in genomic sequencing of Arachishypogaea. Our QTL analysis results enabled us to clearly understand the genetic base of agronomic and quality traits in cultivated peanut, further accelerating the progress of map-based cloning of major QTLs and marker-assisted selection in future breeding. © 2015, The Author(s).


Wei S.-J.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Shi B.-C.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Gong Y.-J.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Jin G.-H.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. © 2013 Wei et al.

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