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Zhao Y.-L.,Henan Agricultural University | Zhao Y.-L.,National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science | Guo H.-B.,Henan Agricultural University | Guo H.-B.,Zhumadian Academy of Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

A two-year field study with split plot design was conducted to investigate the effects of different soil tillage (conventional tillage, CT; deep tillage, DT; subsoil tillage, ST) and straw returning (all straw retention, AS; no straw returning, NS) on microorganism quantity, enzyme activities in soil and grain yield. The results showed that, deep or subsoil tillage and straw returning not only reduced the soil bulk density and promoted the content of organic carbon in soil, but increased the soil microbial quantity, soil enzyme activities and grain yield. Furthermore, such influences in maize season were greater than that in wheat season. Compared with CT+NS, DT+AS and ST+AS decreased the soil bulk density at 20-30 cm depth by 8.5% and 6.6%, increased the content of soil organic carbon by 14.8% and 12.4%, increased the microorganism quantity by 45.9% and 33.9%, increased the soil enzyme activities by 34.1% and 25.5%, increased the grain yield by 18.0% and 19.3%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between DT+AS and ST+ AS. We concluded that retaining crop residue and deep or subsoil tillage improved soil microorganism quantity, enzyme activities and crop yield. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved. Source

Huang L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ren X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2015

Key message: SSR-based QTL mapping provides useful information for map-based cloning of major QTLs and can be used to improve the agronomic and quality traits in cultivated peanut by marker-assisted selection. Abstract: Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid species (AABB, 2n = 4× = 40), valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. Linkage mapping has been successfully conducted for most crops, and it has been applied to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of biotic and abiotic traits in peanut. However, the genetic basis of agronomic and quality-related traits remains unclear. In this study, high levels of phenotypic variation, broad-sense heritability and significant correlations were observed for agronomic and quality-related traits in an F2:3 population. A genetic linkage map was constructed for cultivated peanut containing 470 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, with a total length of 1877.3 cM and average distance of 4.0 cM between flanking markers. For 10 agronomic traits, 24 QTLs were identified and each QTL explained 1.69–18.70 % of the phenotypic variance. For 8 quality-related traits, 12 QTLs were identified that explained 1.72–20.20 % of the phenotypic variance. Several QTLs for multiple traits were overlapped, reflecting the phenotypic correlation between these traits. The majority of QTLs exhibited obvious dominance or over-dominance effects on agronomic and quality traits, highlighting the importance of heterosis for breeding. A comparative analysis revealed genomic duplication and arrangement of peanut genome, which aids the assembly of scaffolds in genomic sequencing of Arachishypogaea. Our QTL analysis results enabled us to clearly understand the genetic base of agronomic and quality traits in cultivated peanut, further accelerating the progress of map-based cloning of major QTLs and marker-assisted selection in future breeding. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

LI C.Q.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology | AI N.J.,China Institute of Technology | ZHU Y.J.,Zhumadian Academy of Agricultural science | WANG Y.Q.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a promising tool to identify genes responsible for quantitative variations underlying complex traits. The present paper presents an association mapping panel consisting of 172 upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) accessions. The panel was phenotyped for five cotton plant architecture traits across multiple environments and genotyped using 386 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Of these markers, 101 polymorphic SSR markers were used in the final analysis. There were abundant phenotypic variations within this germplasm panel and a total of 267 alleles ranging from two to seven per locus were identified in all collections. The threshold of LD decay was set to r 2 = 0·1 and 0·2, and the genome-wide LD extended up to about 13–14 and 6–7 cM, respectively, providing the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in upland cotton. A total of 66 marker–trait associations were detected based on a mixed linear model, of which 35 were found in more than one environment. The favourable alleles from 35 marker loci can be used in marker-assisted selection of target traits. Both the synergistic alleles and the negative alleles for some traits, especially plant height and fruit branch angle, can be utilized in plant architecture breeding programmes according to specific breeding objectives. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 Source

Wei S.-J.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Shi B.-C.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Gong Y.-J.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | Jin G.-H.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. © 2013 Wei et al. Source

Mu X.,Henan Agricultural University | Zhao Y.,Henan Agricultural University | Liu K.,Dalhousie University | Guo H.,Zhumadian Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2016

Crop residue removal and subsoil compaction are limiting to yield improvement in the North China Plain (NCP). We conducted a field study composed of six consecutive crop growing seasons from 2010 to 2013 in Henan province, China, to determine responses of soil properties, crop root distribution and crop yield to tillage and residue management in a wheat-maize cropping system under irrigated conditions. Tillage practices comprised mouldboard ploughing (MP) to a depth of 15-cm, deep mouldboard ploughing (DMP) to a depth of 30-cm, and chisel ploughing (CP) to a depth of 30-cm. Crop residue management included crop residue retained (CRRet) and crop residue removed (CRRem). The results indicated that yields in DMP and CP increased by 6.0% and 7.3% for wheat and by 8.7% and 9.0% for maize, respectively, relative to MP. The CRRet treatment also increased wheat yield by 6.7% and maize yield by 5.0%. The yield increases under DMP and CP were related to reduced bulk density and soil penetration resistance, increased soil water content, improved total N distribution and improved root density (0-60-cm). Compared with MP, the root mass density under DMP and CP were increased by 43.4% and 42.0% for wheat and by 40.6% and 39.4% for maize, respectively. The yield increases under CRRet were also related to increased soil water content, reduced penetration resistance and increased N status (0-40-cm). Overall, for DMP + CRRet and CP + CRRet, a more favorable soil environment alongside greater root mass density and suitable spatial distribution resulted in higher grain yields of wheat and maize. Thus, compared with conventional shallow tillage practice, DMP or CP with residue application could improve soil quality and agricultural productivity under irrigated areas with loam soil in the NCP. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

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