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Wang H.-B.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Mo Q.-H.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Yang Z.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2015

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic, with over 35 million people infected currently. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective HIV-1 vaccine is on top of the global health priority. In the past few years, there have been many promising advances in the prevention of HIV/AIDS, among which the RV144 Thai trial has been encouraging and suggests optimization of the current vaccine strategies or search for novel strategies. Here we reviewed the brief history of HIV-1 vaccine, analyzed key challenges existing now, and illustrated future research priority/directions for a therapeutic or prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine, with the hope of accelerating the speed of vaccine development. We believe that an effective HIV-1 vaccine, together with other prevention approaches, will bring an end to this epidemic in the near future. © 2015 Hai-Bo Wang et al. Source

Wang H.-B.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Wang Q.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Zhao J.-H.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Tu C.-N.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | And 3 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Norovirus is an important pathogen which accounts for majority of the viral related acute gastroenteritis. Recently, a variant of genotype GII.17 was reported to be predominant over GII.4 and accounted for several acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Asia. In the current study, the full genome of a norovirus strain ZHITHC-12 isolated during this outbreak period in China was identified and characterized. The viral genome was 7557 nucleotides in length and a phylogenetic analysis based on full length genome sequences indicated that ZHITHC-12 belonged to GII.17 genotype. A further phylogenetic analysis based on all available polymerase and capsid sequences showed that ZHITHC-12 was in Cluster III on both phylogenetic trees and grouped with other strains also isolated during 2013 to 2015. Moreover, homology modeling analysis based on GII norovirus capsid 5BSX template revealed that substitutions, mutations, and more importantly, deletions and insertions, occurred at or near the putative epitopes and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding sites in its protruding P2 domain, which might confer new antigenic or biological properties for this novel variant. In summary, the first full genome and capsid protein structure of a novel norovirus GII.17 variant isolated in China was extensively characterized. The data would be helpful not only for the epidemiology study, but also for the diagnostic tool development and effective vaccine design in the future. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mo Q.-H.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Wang H.-B.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Dai H.-R.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Lin J.-C.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015

Rotaviruses, noroviruses and astroviruses are the major viral pathogens leading to diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks associated with these viruses have been impeded by the lack of methods for quick diagnosis and detection. In the current study, a multiplex real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (RT-NASBA) system was developed for the simultaneous detection of rotavirus A/norovirus genogroup II/astrovirus. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were compared with multiplex RT-PCR. The results showed that the multiplex RT-NASBA assay was established successfully, and robust signals could be observed in 10 minutes with high specificity. The limit of detection of the multiplex RT-NASBA assay was 7, 100, and 200 copies per reaction for rotavirus A, norovirus genogroup II, and astrovirus, respectively. The assay was thus 10 to 100 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR. Clinical evaluation indicated that the assay was 100% concordant with multiplex RT-PCR and was reliable for the detection of both single infections and multiple infections in stool samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplex RT-NASBA assay established for the detection of three major diarrhea-causing viruses. This assay provides a valuable platform for the rapid, specific, sensitive and simultaneous diagnosis of these pathogens, especially in resource-limited countries where expensive thermocycling equipment is not available. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Mo Q.-H.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Wang H.-B.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Tan H.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | Wu B.-M.,Zhuhai International Travel Healthcare Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2015

Rotavirus is one of the major viral pathogens leading to diarrhea. Diagnosis has been conducted by either traditional cultural, serological methods or molecular biology techniques, which include RT-PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). However, their differences regarding accuracy and sensitivity remain unknown. In this study, an in-house conventional RT-PCR assay and more importantly, an in-house real-time NASBA (RT-NASBA) were established, and compared with a commercial TaqMan RT-PCR assay. The results showed that all of these methods were able to detect and distinguish rotavirus from other diarrhea viruses with a 100% concordance rate during the course of an evaluation on 20 clinical stool samples. However, RT-NASBA was much quicker than the other two methods. More importantly, the limit of detection of RT-NASBA could reach seven copies per reaction and was one to two logs lower than that of conventional RT-PCR and TaqMan RT-PCR. These results indicate that this in-house assay was more sensitive, and thus could be used as an efficient diagnosis tool for rotavirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct comparison among three different assays for the detection of rotavirus. These findings would provide implication for the rational selection of diagnosis tool for rotavirus. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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