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PubMed | Zhongda Hospital Affiliated with Southeast University China
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of translational research | Year: 2015

Ischemia related inflammation is the most critical factor for the survival of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and strategies for controlling excessive inflammation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are essential and necessary for cell transplantation therapy. Our present study tested the effect of decreased Ly6C(high) monocytes on mouse MSCs transplantation after AMI.BALB/c AMI mice were treated systemically with a CCR2 antagonist (RS 504393, 2 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or normal saline (control group). Next, 10(5) EdU-labeled MSCs were administered by intramyocardial injection to the mice in each group. TUNEL kits were used to identify the apoptotic cardiomyocytes in the infarct. The slides of the infarct border zone were stained with wheat germ agglutinin to measure the vessel density, and anti-myosin heavy chain eFluor 660 was used to measure the cardiac myosin-positive area. A transwell chamber was used to examine the interactions between Ly6C(high) monocytes and MSCs. The inflammatory cytokines expressed by Ly6C(high) monocytes and the SDF-1 expressed by MSCs were detected using ELISA kits. MSC viability was further examined by MTT and mitochondrial membrane potential assays by flow cytometry using JC-1 kits.We first observed the increased survival of transplanted MSCs (11.2 3.4/mm(2) vs. 3.5 1.6/mm(2), p < 0.001), and the decreased apoptosis of cardiomyocytes (11.20% 3.55% vs. 20.51% 8.17%, p < 0.001) in the infarcts at 3 days in the CCR2 antagonist group. An increased number of capillaries and small arterioles (139.6 21.7/mm(2) vs. 95.4 17.6/mm(2), p < 0.001) and an increased cardiac myosin-positive area (17.9% 6.6% vs. 11.8% 3.5%, p < 0.001) were also observed in the infarct zone at 21 days post MSC infusion in the CCR2 antagonist group. In addition, a significantly increased LvEF% (50.17 10.06 vs. 45.44 9.45, p < 0.001) was detected at the same time compared to the control mice. We further demonstrated that both the mitochondrial membrane potential of the MSCs (0.45 0.11 vs. 3.4 0.3, p < 0.001) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) secreted by the MSCs significantly decreased (80.77 39.02 pg/ml vs. 435.5 77.41 pg/ml, p < 0.001) when co-cultured with Ly6C(high) monocytes. This is possibly mediated by the over-expressed cytokines secreted by the Ly6C(high) monocytes compared to the Ly6C(low) monocytes, including IL-1 (139.45 30.44 vs. 80.05 19.33, p < 0.001), IL-6 (187.82 40.43 vs. 135.5 22.09, p < 0.001), TNF- (121.77 31.65 vs. 75.3 22.14, p < 0.001) and IFN- (142.46 27.55 vs. 88.25 19.91, p < 0.001).

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