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Wu J.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Pan H.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Yang S.,Zhejiang West Tianmushan National Nature Reserve Management Bureau | Niu X.,Zhejiang West Tianmushan National Nature Reserve Management Bureau
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

The conservation of saproxylic insects and their habitats has caused growing concerns in modern forest management. In order to optimize the conservation strategies, substrate requirements of saproxylic insects should be fully addressed. However, relevant knowledge is still rather poor in subtropical forests. In this study, we tested the effects of host tree species, elevation, snag diameter and canopy cover on the composition of saproxylic beetle assemblages in a subtropical forest of east China. Saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with snags of different tree species were surveyed in two forest types each with different elevation range (low elevation forest, LEF: 400-850. m; high elevation forest, HEF: 950-1200. m). A total of 21,546 individuals belonging to 510 saproxylic beetle species were collected from 87 snags (11 tree species) using flight intercept traps in six periods from May to October 2010. Results indicated that beetle species richness was not significantly different between most sampled tree species. Canopy cover had significant and negative effects on species richness of saproxylic beetles. Comparatively, elevation and snag diameter showed no significant effects on species richness. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested saproxylic assemblages associated with different trees were more similar to each other in HEF than in LEF. Even when snags belonging to the same tree species were examined, beetle assemblage compositions were clearly different between LEF and HEF. Elevation was the most important variable affecting assemblage composition. Relatively, the effect of tree species on assemblage of saproxylic beetles was more pronounced in LEF. Furthermore, there was a significant linear increase in proportions of generalist species collected from each snag with elevation. More beetle species preferring to live in LEF were prone to develop a narrower host use range than those living in HEF. To conclude, our results demonstrate that the availability of sun-exposed habitat patches in subtropical forests is important to maintain saproxylic beetle diversity. Increasing tree-species diversity is important to increase saproxylic beetle diversity in managed and plantation forests of subtropical China, and appears to be particularly important in low elevation forests. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Wu J.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Pan H.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Zhang J.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Yang S.,Zhejiang West Tianmushan National Nature Reserve Management Bureau | Zhao M.,Zhejiang West Tianmushan National Nature Reserve Management Bureau
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2015

Sun exposure is an important determinant of diversity and distribution of saproxylic beetles. However, the sun requirement of saproxylic beetles in forests outside of Europe is still poorly known. In this study, we explored the effect of sun exposure on the biodiversity of saproxylic beetles in a subtropical forest of east China. Beetles were sampled from 64 newly cut boles of Pinus taiwanensis and Cryptomeria fortunei which were equally distributed across high-exposed and low-exposed sites on a warm south-facing and a cold north-facing slope (×4 replicates) during 2 years by, respectively, using flight intercept and emergence traps. It was suggested that sun exposure had no significant effect on species richness of saproxylic beetles. Its effect on beetle abundance changed over the season and significantly varied with topoclimate in the colder months of April and May. Species richness and abundance of beetles associated with different trees did not respond differently to sun exposure. Significantly more beetle individuals were trapped on the warm south-facing slope than on the cold north-facing slope, but aspect had no detectable effect on beetle species richness. Beetle assemblages were significantly affected by sun exposure, but tended to be more similar among low-exposed sites across different slopes. In general, our results indicated that sun exposure is not a sufficient indicator of species richness of saproxylic beetles, but may play an important role in retaining the integrity of saproxylic fauna in subtropical forests. The effect of sun exposure on biodiversity of saproxylic beetles is affected by topoclimate variations. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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