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Hangzhou, China

Zhejiang University , sometimes referred to as Zheda, is a national university in China. Founded in 1897, Zhejiang University is one of China's oldest institutions of higher education. It is a member of the C9 League and Yangtze Delta Universities Alliance. The university campus is located in the city of Hangzhou, approximately 112 miles southwest of Shanghai. Zhejiang University Library collection contains about 7 million volumes, making it one of the largest academic libraries in the country. Wikipedia.

Zhu L.Y.,Zhejiang University
Developmental and comparative immunology | Year: 2013

Fish is considered to be an important model in comparative immunology studies because it is a representative population of lower vertebrates serving as an essential link to early vertebrate evolution. Fish immune-relevant genes have received considerable attention due to its role in improving understanding of both fish immunology and the evolution of immune systems. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of teleost immune-relevant genes for both innate and adaptive immunity, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, complement molecules, lectins, interferons and signaling factors, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adaptive immunity relevant cytokines and negative regulators, major histocompatibility complexes, immunoglobulins, and costimulatory molecules. The implications of these factors on the evolutionary history of immune systems were discussed and a perspective outline of innate and adaptive immunity of teleost fish was described. This review may provide clues on the evolution of the essential defense system in vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu T.,Zhejiang University
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS | Year: 2014

Exogenous and endogenous genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and numerous chemical agents, cause DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are highly toxic and lead to genomic instability or tumorigenesis if not repaired accurately and efficiently. Cells have over evolutionary time developed certain repair mechanisms in response to DSBs to maintain genomic integrity. Major DSB repair mechanisms include non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination (HR). Using sister homologues as templates, HR is a high-fidelity repair pathway that can rejoin DSBs without introducing mutations. However, HR execution without appropriate guarding may lead to more severe gross genome rearrangements. Here we review current knowledge regarding the factors and mechanisms required for accomplishment of accurate HR.

Ye X.,Zhejiang University
Automatica | Year: 2011

In this paper, we consider the adaptive stabilization problem for feedforward nonlinear systems with time delays. An adaptive stabilizer is proposed. Our stabilizer takes a nested saturation feedback, and a set of switching logics is designed to tune online the saturation levels in a piecewise constant or switching manner. It has been shown that under our proposed control, all closed-loop states are bounded and asymptotic regulation is achieved. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhou X.,Zhejiang University
Annual Review of Phytopathology | Year: 2013

Begomoviruses are numerous and geographically widespread viruses that cause devastating diseases in many crops. Monopartite begomoviruses are frequently associated with betasatellites or alphasatellites. Both betasatellite and alphasatellite DNA genomes are approximately half the size of begomovirus DNA genomes. Betasatellites are essential for induction of typical disease symptoms. The βC1 genes encoded by the betasatellites have important roles in symptom induction, in suppression of transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing, and they can affect jasmonic acid responsive genes. Host plants of begomoviruses have evolved diverse innate defense mechanisms against the βC1 protein to counter these challenges. Alphasatellites have been identified mainly in monopartite begomoviruses that associate with betasatellites and have no known contributions to pathogenesis of begomovirus-betasatellite disease complexes. Applications of current molecular tools are facilitating viral diagnosis and the discovery of novel species of geminiviruses and satellite DNAs and are also advancing our understanding of the global diversity and evolution of satellite DNAs. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Gao S.F.,Zhejiang University
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) | Year: 2013

Decreased function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucially involved in the pathogenesis of depression. A key role of nitric oxide (NO) has also been proposed. We aimed to determine the NO content in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, that is, NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 in the ACC in depression. In depressive patients, CSF-NOx levels (the levels of the NO metabolites nitrite and nitrate) were significantly decreased (P = 0.007), indicating a more general decrease of NO production in this disorder. This agreed with a trend toward lower NOS1-mRNA levels (P = 0.083) and a significant decrease of NOS1-immunoreactivity (ir) (P = 0.043) in ACC. In controls, there was a significant positive correlation between ACC-NOS1-ir cell densities and their CSF-NOx levels. Furthermore, both localization of NOS1 in pyramidal neurons that are known to be glutamatergic and co-localization between NOS1 and GABAergic neurons were observed in human ACC. The diminished ACC-NOS1 expression and decreased CSF-NOx levels may be involved in the alterations of ACC activity in depression, possibly by affecting glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

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