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Ye X.,Zhejiang nter for Food Technology and Equipment | Chen H.,Zhejiang nter for Food Technology and Equipment | Chen S.,Zhejiang nter for Food Technology and Equipment | Liu D.,Zhejiang nter for Food Technology and Equipment | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Water resource shorting is increasingly noticed in the world due to the limitation of the resource. Food industry, as one of the industry consumptions largest amount of water, holds great potential in developing water saving and recycling technology. However, recovery water from food industry still has great challenges due to incompletion of the laws and the limited technology specifically to treat food waster food. The present reviews summaries the principals' of water recovery and recycling technology for food industry, as well as the current challenges in reuse of food waste water. Moreover, the recent advance of reuse water in specific disciplines, such as beverage, food preservation, dairy as well as other food industries were reviewed. Furthermore, future direction for technology of food waste water saving and recycling and complete of the laws were also suggested, and the prospect of water reuse in food industry were proposed. © 2016, Editorial Office of Journal of CIFST. All right reserved.

Ma X.,Zhejiang University | Zhang L.,Zhejiang University | Zhang L.,Henan University of Technology | Wang W.,Zhejiang University | And 7 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2016

The current study aimed to investigate the synergistic effect of ultrasound and pectinase on pectin hydrolysis. Effects of ultrasound on the hydrolysis rate of pectin, enzymatic kinetics parameters and pectinase structures (determined by the DNS method, Michaelis–Menten equation, chemical reaction kinetics model, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy) were also studied in order to illuminate the mechanisms of the synergistic effect. The hydrolysis rate of pectin achieved maximum value with ultrasound treatment at 4.5 W mL−1 intensity and ultrasound time of 10 min, increasing by 32.59 % over the control. The optimum temperature for the hydrolysis reaction was 50 °C and kept unchanged with ultrasound treatment. Besides, the value of Vmax increased whereas Km decreased in the sonoenzymolysis reaction compared with that in the routine enzymolysis reaction. Results indicated that under ultrasound irradiation, pectin was hydrolyzed at an elevated rate and the pectinase exhibited stronger affinity to the substrate. Fluorescence spectra revealed that ultrasound favorably decreased the amount of tryptophan on the pectinase surface; while the far-UV circular dichroism spectra showed an increased fraction of β-sheet and a reduced fraction of random coil in the secondary conformation. Changes in the pectinase structures contributed to the enhancement of pectinase activity and the consequent promotion of the hydrolysis process. Results of pectin degradation kinetics certified the synergistic effect of ultrasound and pectinase at the temperature range of 20–50 °C, which were evidenced from the positive values of the synergistic coefficients. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Wang W.,Zhejiang University | Ma X.,Zhejiang University | Jiang P.,Zhejiang University | Hu L.,Zhejiang University | And 8 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2016

In the present study, properties of pectin from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Changshanhuyou) peel extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UP), were compared with those of pectin extracted by conventional heating extraction (CP). UP exhibited a lower molecular weight (Mw) but more concentrated Mw distribution than CP. Although both UP and CP were high-methoxyl pectin, UP showed significantly lower degree of methoxylation but higher degree of acetylation. Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that the molecular structure of UP possessed more branch chains than CP, but little difference was observed in the chemical structures between UP and CP from FT-IR and NMR spectra analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis further confirmed that UP had decreased level of crystallinity than CP. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated UP had higher thermal stability. UP exhibited lower apparent viscosity and elasticity than CP, showing that ultrasound affected the rheological properties of pectin. Besides, antioxidant activity and lipase inhibitory capacity of UP significantly enhanced compared with CP. © 2016

Ma X.,Zhejiang University | Wang W.,Zhejiang University | Wang D.,Zhejiang University | Ding T.,Zhejiang University | And 5 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2016

This study investigated the degradation kinetics and structural properties of pectin with combining ultrasound and pectinase treatment. Ultrasound at an intensity of 4.5 W mL−1 and a time of 10 min significantly enhanced the enzymatic degradation of pectin weight-average molecular weight (Mw). The degradation kinetics model of pectin followed 1/Mwt−1/Mw0=kt, suggesting the randomness of the degradation process. Synergistic effects of ultrasound and pectinase were observed at 20–60 °C and were more effective at lower temperatures. Furthermore, the degree of methoxylation (DM) of sonoenzymolysis pectin significantly decreased whereas the degree of acetylation (DAc) remained unchanged compared to the original and enzymolysis pectin. Simultaneous functions of ultrasound and pectinase caused severe decomposition in pectin homogalacturonan (HG) regions without altering the monosaccharides types, configurations and glycoside linkages of the pectin samples. The complex polymeric structures of pectin transformed into smaller units with simpler branches and shorter chains after sonoenzymolysis reactions. © 2016

Tao Y.,Zhejiang nter for Food Technology and Equipment | Wang Y.,Zhejiang nter for Food Technology and Equipment | Zhang W.,Zhejiang nter for Food Technology and Equipment | Ye X.,Zhejiang nter for Food Technology and Equipment | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The volatile aroma compounds, and their contributions to the charactristic fragrance of the pork flavor was analyzedvia gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then the pork flavor microcapsules were preparedby combining complex coacervationof gelatin and sodium alginatewith spray drying. Meanwhile, the ethanolwas used as solvent to extract the ethyl maltol (EMA) from the flavor, and EMA mass fraction of the flavor was calculated out, which was (0.447 ± 0.006)%. Then a method was set up to determine the capsulation efficiency and the percentage yield of the products, and it's average recovery was 98.678% with the average RSD of 1.378%. Besides, the best reaction conditions of complex coacervation were optimized. The optimum pH was 4.00, the mass ratio of the wall materials was 3:1 (gelatin: sodium alginate), and the mass ratio of wall and core was 1:4. Well, in this situation, the capsulation efficiency had been reached to 89.29%. © 2016, Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology. All right reserved.

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