Li J.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Li J.,Taizhou University |
Yang B.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Yang B.,Taizhou University |
And 6 more authors.
AoB PLANTS | Year: 2015
Understanding changes in the interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts in relation to ontogenetic changes in the hosts is crucial for successful use of parasitic plants as biological controls. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and chemical defences in different-aged Bidens pilosa plants in response to infection by Cuscuta australis. We were particularly interested in whether plant responses to parasite infection change with changes in the host plant age. Compared with the non-infected B. pilosa, parasite infection reduced total host biomass and net photosynthetic rates, but these deleterious effects decreased with increasing host age. Parasite infection reduced the concentrations of total phenolics, total flavonoids and saponins in the younger B. pilosa but not in the older B. pilosa. Compared with the relatively older and larger plants, younger and smaller plants suffered from more severe damage and are likely less to recover from the infection, suggesting that C. australis is only a viable biocontrol agent for younger B. pilosa plants. © The Authors 2014.
Li J.-M.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Li J.-M.,Taizhou University |
Jin Z.-X.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Jin Z.-X.,Taizhou University |
And 2 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014
Native parasitic plants may be used to infect and control invasive plants. We established microcosms with invasive Mikania micranthaand native Coix lacryma-jobigrowing in mixture on native soils, with M. micranthabeing infected by parasitic Cuscuta campestris at four intensity levels for seven weeks to estimate the top-down effects of plant parasitism on the biomass and functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Parasitism significantly decreased root biomass and altered soil microbial communities. Soil microbial biomass decreased, but soil respiration increased at the two higher infection levels, indicating a strong stimulation of soil microbial metabolic activity (1180%). Moreover, a Biolog assay showed that the infection resulted in a significant change in the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that microbial biomass declined significantly with decreasing root biomass, particularly of the invasive M. micrantha. Also, the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities were positively correlated with soil microbial biomass. Therefore, the negative effects on the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial community by the seven week long plant parasitism was very likely caused by decreased root biomass and root exudation of the invasive M. micrantha.
Zuo W.,Shanghai Normal University |
Zuo W.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Zuo W.,Taizhou University |
Song W.,Taizhou University |
And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015
Fine-scale spatial genetic structure, which indicates nonrandom spatial distribution of genotypes or genetic diversity, has important consequences for population biology. The study of fine-scale spatial genetic structure can provide an understanding of the key processes and mechanisms involved in the maintenance of plant populations. Glechoma longituba is a perennial herbaceous clonal plant species that belongs to the Labiatae family. Glechoma longituba is a herb of medicinal importance that is widely distributed in China, and its phenotypic characteristics vary among different habitats. The genetic diversity, clonal diversity, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure of Glechoma longituba plants collected from three different patches (Shuiqubian, Pinggecun, and Zhulinxia) with different habitats were analyzed using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. In addition, the correlation with habitat heterogeneity, propagule propagation, and human disturbance were also examined in the study. The results indicated the following: 1) Genetic diversity of Glechoma longituba at the species level was relatively low (percentage of polymorphic loci, P = 31. 15%; Shannon informative index, I =0.1601; Nei’s index, h =0.1096). Genetic diversity of Glechoma longituba was highest in Shuiqubian Zhulinxia patch (P =3.28%, I =0.0120, h =0.0073). 2) Clonal diversity of Glechoma longituba at the species level was relatively high (number of genets, G =73; ratio of genets to ramets, G / N =0.2332; Simpson忆s diversity index, D =0.8843; genotypic evenness, E =0.8192). The clonal diversity of Glechoma longituba was highest in Shuiqubian patch (G =60, G /N =0.5660, D =0.9693, E =0.8747), followed by Pinggecun patch (G = 10, G / N = 0.1087, D = 0.8430, E = 0.9075), and Zhulinxia patch (G = 3, G / N = 0.0260, D = 0.2642, E = 0.3599). 3) Genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst) was 0.7129, which indicated that most of the genetic variation existed among patches, whereas little genetic variation existed within patches. The estimated gene flow was as low as 0. 2004. 4) Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the autocorrelation coefficient of Glechoma longituba in Zhulinxia patch was significantly positive at a distance of 100 cm with an X-intercept of 205.994 cm but significantly negative at a distance of 350 cm. The autocorrelation coefficient in Pinggecun patch was significantly positive at a distance of 200 cm with an X-intercept of 235.388 cm but significantly negative at a distance of 450 cm. The autocorrelation coefficient in Shuiqubian patch was significantly positive at a distance of 150 cm with an X-intercept of 240.336 cm but significantly negative at a distance of 350 cm. Analysis with SPAGeDi 1.2 software showed that the strength of spatial genetic structure in Pinggecun patch was greater than those in Shuiqubian and Zhulinxia patches. The Sp ratio (used to compare the extent of spatial genetic structure among populations) for Pinggecun, Shuiqubian, and Zhulinxia patches was 0.0944, 0.0558, and 0.0556, respectively. The genetic diversity, clonal diversity, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure of Glechoma longituba are affected by propagule dispersal characteristics, human disturbance, and trade-off between investment in sexual reproduction and clonal propagation and might be a consequence of adaptation to habitat heterogeneity. © 2015 Ecological Society of China. All Rights Reserved.
Peng L.-Q.,Beijing Forestry University |
Peng L.-Q.,Taizhou University |
Peng L.-Q.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Jin Z.-X.,Taizhou University |
And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014
We investigated the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on the physiological and ecological characteristics of Sinocalycanthus chinensis seedlings by adding various amounts of NH4NO3 in a pot experiment. Three levels of NH4NO3 included: low-N (2 g N m-2·a-1), medium-N (8 g N m-2·a-1), and high-N (32 g N m-2·a-1), with 0 g N m-2·a-1 as the control. After one year, we measured the photosynthetic characteristics, relative chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves of S. chinensis seedlings among the different treatments. The diurnal mean values of net photosynthetic rate at the low, medium, and high levels of N addition were 14.7%, 54.5%, and 26.4% higher than that of the control, respectively; the maximum net photosynthetic rates were 8.3%, 66.1%, and 30.9% higher than that of the control, respectively. The highest values for net photosynthetic rate and maximum net photosynthetic rate were recorded for the medium-N level. The daily mean stomatal conductance was higher in all N treatments than in the control, and the highest value was recorded for the medium-N level. However, the intercellular CO2 concentrations were lower in all N treatments than in the control; the lowest value was recorded in the medium-N treatment. The light compensation point and dark respiration rate among the four treatments were in the order of medium-N > high-N > low-N > control, with highly significant differences among the treatments. In terms of the light saturation point, the treatments were ranked as follows: medium-N > low-N > control > high-N, with highly significant differences among the treatments. The apparent quantum yield values were ranked as follows: medium-N > low-N > control; however, there was no significant difference between the high-N treatment and the control in the apparent quantum yield value. The relative chlorophyll contents in seedlings in the three N treatments were significantly higher than that in the control, with the highest values recorded in the medium-N treatment. The primary chemical efficiency and potential activity of photosystem II in S. chinensis seedlings were ranked as follows: medium-N > low-N > control > high-N, with highly significant differences among the treatments. The superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity, and malondialdehyde contents in S. chinensis seedlings in the medium- and high-N treatments were significantly higher than those in the control, but there was no significant difference in these parameters between the low-N treatment and the control. The membrane permeability of S. chinensis seedlings was ranked from most permeable to least permeable as follows: high-N > medium-N > low-N > control, with highly significant differences among the treatments. These results suggested that appropriate nitrogen levels, especially the medium-N level, can enhance the photosynthetic ability of S. chinensis seedlings, and also affect other physiological indexes to some extent.
Zong E.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
jiang J.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Liu X.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University |
Liu X.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products CAF |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2016
A series of BBL-graft-poly (l-lactide) copolymers were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of l-lactide (l-LA) with a biobutanol lignin (BBL) initiator and a triazabicyclodecene (TBD) catalyst under free-solvent at 135°C. By manipulating the mass ratio of BBL/LLA, BBL-g-PLLA copolymers with tunable number-average molecular weight (Mn) (2544-7033gmol-1) were obtained. The chemical structure of PLLA chains was identifiable by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies, in combination with UV-vis spectra to provide support for the existence of the BBL in the copolymer. This provided solid evidence for the successful synthesis of BBL-g-PLLA copolymer. The thermal properties and surface characterization of BBL-g-PLLA copolymers were different from those of linear PLLA. Furthermore, the BBL-g-PLLA copolymer film showed good absorption capacity in the UV region and high transparency in the visible light region, which was expected to find significant applications in UV-protective coating film. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Guan M.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Guan M.,Taizhou University |
Jin Z.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Jin Z.,Taizhou University |
And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2016
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and Cu on the morphological and physiological traits of Elsholtzia haichowensis grown in soils amended with four Cu concentrations (0, 50, 500, and 1000 mg kg−1) under ambient temperature and slight warming. At the same Cu concentration, the height, shoot dry weight, total plant dry weight, and root morphological parameters such as length, surface area and tip number of E. haichowensis increased due to the slight warming. The net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, light use efficiency were also higher under the slight warming than under ambient temperature. The increased Cu concentrations, total Cu uptake, bioaccumulation factors and tolerance indexes of shoots and roots were also observed at the slight warming. The shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total plant dry weight and the bioaccumulation factors of shoots and roots at 50 mg Cu kg−1 were significantly higher than those at 500 and 1000 mg Cu kg−1 under the slight warming. Therefore, the climate warming may improve the ability of E. haichowensis to phytoremediate Cu-contaminated soil, and the ability improvement greatly depended on the Cu concentrations in soils. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Bai S.,Taizhou University |
Bai S.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Jiang S.,Taizhou University |
Li H.,Taizhou University |
Guan Y.,Taizhou University
Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2015
The catalytic activity of carbon nanotubes-supported vanadium oxide (V2O5/CNTs) catalysts in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at low temperatures (≤ 250 °C) was investigated. The effects of V loading, reaction temperature, and presence of SO; on the SCR activity were evaluated. The results show that V/CNTs catalysts exhibit high activity for NO reduction with NH at low-temperatures. The catalysts also show very high stability in the presence of SO More interestingly, their activities are significantly promoted instead of being poisoned by SO The promoting effect of SO is distinctly associated with V loading, particularly maximized at low V loading, which indicated the role of CNTs support in this effect. The promoting effect of SO at low temperatures suggests that V/CNTs catalysts are promising catalytic materials for low-temperature SCR reactions. © 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. All rights reserved.
Wang X.Y.,Taizhou University |
Wang X.Y.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation |
Peng L.Q.,Taizhou University |
Jin Z.X.,Taizhou University |
Jin Z.X.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016
The global climate warming is affecting ecosystems, especially endangered plant species whose distribution is mostly restricted to few areas. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbiotic associations with many plant species, supplying mineral nutrients to their host plants. Sinocalycanthus chinensis is a national second-class protected plant species, distributed in only a few areas in Zhejiang and Anhui provinces in China. Preliminary investigation has revealed higher infection rate of natural populations of S. chinensis by AMF. The role of AMF in S. chinensis under global warming has remained unknown. To reveal the effects of AMF on S. chinensis under the conditions of global climate warming, the pot experiment was conducted with one-year-old S. chinensis seedlings inoculated with AMF (inoculation of rhizosphere soil at a rate of 5%, v/ v; soil without AMF was used as control) and temperature increase was simulated by an electric radiant infrared heater (+ 2°C measured around the leaves; normal temperature was used as control). Growth rate, morphogenesis, photosynthetic physiological characteristics, antioxidant activities, membrane lipid peroxide level, nutrient content of S. chinensis seedlings were compared under four treatments: AMF, simulated warming (SW), both AMF inoculation and simulated warming (AMF + SW), and control (CK). The results showed that: (1) AMF inoculation had a significant positive effect on plant height and average root diameter, and a negative effect on the width-to-length ratio of mature leaves, total root length, total number of root tips, special root length (root length/ root biomass), and special root surface area (root surface area/ root biomass). Double-factor variance analysis showed that the average root diameter and total number of root tips was significantly correlated with AMF and SW. This showed that symbiotic association between AMF and S. chinensis may modify the nutrient absorption strategy of S. chinensis through modification in root morphology. (2) The diurnal change in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of leaves in S. chinensis seedlings under AMF + SW treatment had a typical bimodal curve that was determinately regulated by stomatal conductance. AMF affected significantly the daily mean Pn. After fitting the photosynthesis light response using modified models of rectangular hyperbola, we found that Pn in plants with AMF + SW and AMF treatments were distinctly higher than that of CK when light intensity was more than 50 µmol m-2 s-1. The double-factor variance analysis showed that AMF significantly affected the daily mean Pn, maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point (LSP), and dark respiration rate, whereas SW had a significant effect on LSP. Fitting of the CO2 response by using modified models of rectangular hyperbola revealed that Pn in plants under AMF + SW and AMF treatments was significantly higher than that in the CK with increasing the concentration of CO2. Initial carboxylation efficiency under AMF + SW treatment and photosynthetic capacity under AMF treatment were significantly higher than that of the CK. The CO2 compensation point after the treatment by AMF + SW or AMF was significantly lower than that of the CK. (3) The content of soluble sugars in leaves after the treatment with AMF was significantly higher than that in other treatments. The content of soluble proteins in leaves of plants treated with AMF + SW or AMF was distinctly higher than that of the CK. The double-factor variance analysis showed that SW and AMF + SW interaction had significant effect on the content of soluble sugars in leaves, and both AMF and SW had significant effect on the content of soluble proteins in leaves. The results provided the theoretical foundation for conservation and artificial cultivation of S. chinensis under conditions of global climate change. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.