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Wang F.,Zhejiang University | Wang F.,Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Integrative Biology | Guo Z.,Zhejiang University | Li H.,Zhejiang University | And 9 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

Light signaling and phytohormones both influence plant growth, development, and stress responses; however, cross talk between these two signaling pathways in response to cold remains underexplored. Here, we report that far-red light (FR) and red light (R) perceived by phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB positively and negatively regulated cold tolerance, respectively, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which were associated with the regulation of levels of phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) stress signaling pathway genes. A reduction in the R/FR ratio did not alter cold tolerance, ABA and JA accumulation, and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the CBF pathway genes in phyA mutant plants; however, those were significantly increased in wild-type and phyB plants with the reduction in the R/FR ratio. Even though low R/FR treatments did not confer cold tolerance in ABA-deficient (notabilis [not]) and JA-deficient (prosystemin-mediated responses2 [spr2]) mutants, it up-regulated ABA accumulation and signaling in the spr2 mutant, with no effect on JA levels and signaling in the not mutant. Foliar application of ABA and JA further confirmed that JA functioned downstream of ABA to activate the CBF pathway in light quality-mediated cold tolerance. It is concluded that phyA and phyB function antagonistically to regulate cold tolerance that essentially involves FR light-induced activation of phyA to induce ABA signaling and, subsequently, JA signaling, leading to an activation of the CBF pathway and a cold response in tomato plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Cheng F.,Zhejiang University | Cheng F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yin L.-L.,Zhejiang University | Zhou J.,Zhejiang University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2016

2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-CPs) function in the removal of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides but their precise roles in the induction of autophagy have not been characterized. Here we show that heat stress, which is known to induce oxidative stress, leads to the simultaneous accumulation of transcripts encoding 2-CPs and autophagy proteins, as well as autophagosomes, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of the tomato peroxiredoxin genes 2-CP1, 2-CP2, and 2-CP1/2 resulted in an increased sensitivity of tomato plants to heat stress. Silencing 2-CP2 or 2-CP1/2 increased the levels of transcripts associated with ascorbate biosynthesis but had no effect on the glutathione pool in the absence of stress. However, the heat-induced accumulation of transcripts associated with the water-water cycle was compromised by the loss of 2-CP1/2 functions. The transcript levels of autophagy-related genes ATG5 and ATG7 were higher in plants with impaired 2-CP1/2 functions, and the formation of autophagosomes increased, together with an accumulation of oxidized and insoluble proteins. Silencing of ATG5 or ATG7 increased the levels of 2-CP transcripts and protein but decreased heat stress tolerance. These results demonstrate that 2-CPs fulfil a pivotal role in heat stress tolerance in tomato, via interactions with ascorbate-dependent pathways and autophagy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

Hasan M.K.,Zhejiang University | Liu C.,Zhejiang University | Wang F.,Zhejiang University | Ahammed G.J.,Zhejiang University | And 7 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Glutathione (GSH) plays a critical role in plant growth, development and responses to stress. However, the mechanism by which GSH regulates tolerance to cadmium (Cd) stress still remains unclear. Here we show that inhibition of GSH biosynthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) aggravated Cd toxicity by increasing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reducing contents of nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitrosothiol (SNO) in tomato roots. In contrast, exogenous GSH alleviated Cd toxicity by substantially minimizing ROS accumulation and increasing contents of NO and SNO, and activities of antioxidant enzymes that eventually reduced oxidative stress. GSH-induced enhancement in Cd tolerance was closely associated with the upregulation of transcripts of several transcription factors such as ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 (ERF1), ERF2, MYB1 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR- AIM1 and R2R3-MYB TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR- AN2, and some stress response genes. In addition, GSH modulated the cellular redox balance through maintaining increased GSH: GSSG and AsA: DHA ratios, and also increased phytochelatins contents. Nonetheless, GSH-induced alleviation of Cd phytotoxicity was also associated with increased sequestration of Cd into cell walls and vacuoles but not with Cd accumulation. Under Cd stress, while treatment with BSO slightly decreased vacuolar fraction of Cd, combined treatment with BSO and GSH noticeably increased that fraction. Our results suggest that GSH increases tomato tolerance to Cd stress not only by promoting the chelation and sequestration of Cd but also by stimulating NO, SNO and the antioxidant system through a redox-dependent mechanism. © 2016

Li H.,Zhejiang University | Li H.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Ahammed G.J.,Zhejiang University | Zhou G.,Zhejiang University | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Photosynthesis is one of the most thermo-sensitive processes in plants. Although the severity of heat stress could be attenuated by grafting approach, the primary damaged site of photosynthesis system under heat stress and the regulatory mechanism of rootstock-mediated heat tolerance are poorly understood. In the current study, cucumber plants grafted onto their own roots and heat-tolerant luffa roots were exposed to root-zone heat (25/40°C) and aerial heat (40/25°C) individually and in combination (40/40°C) to understand the response of photosynthetic process by investigating energy absorption and distribution, electron transport in photosystem (PS) II and I, and CO2 assimilation. According to the results, root-zone heat stress inhibited photosynthesis mainly through decreasing Rubisco activity, while aerial heat stress mainly through inhibiting PSII acceptor side. The imbalance in light absorption and utilization resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen species that caused damage to photosynthetic apparatus, forming a vicious cycle. On the contrary, grafting cucumber onto heat-tolerant luffa rootstock alleviated heat-induced photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress by maintaining higher root vitality, HSP70 accumulation, and antioxidant potential. © 2016 Li, Ahammed, Zhou, Xia, Zhou, Shi, Yu and Zhou.

Ahammed G.J.,Zhejiang University | Xia X.-J.,Zhejiang University | Li X.,Zhejiang University | Li X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2015

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are ubiquitous plant steroid hormones, playing diverse roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. Defects in BRs biosynthesis or signaling result in physiologic and phenotypic abnormalities. To date, numerous studies have highlighted BRs-induced stress tolerance to various environmental extremes such as high temperature, chilling, drought, salinity and heavy metals in a range of plant species. However, the in-depth mechanisms of BRs-induced stress tolerance still remain largely unknown. It is now clear that BRs-induced stress responses are strictly concentration dependent and the optimal concentration for improving the plant adaptability may vary depending on the plant species, developmental stages and environmental conditions as well. Conflicting evidences concerning regulation of stress adaptation by BRs demand further elucidation of mechanism of BRs action in response to environmental stresses in plants. Recent advances in phytohormone research suggest that the effect of BRs on stress tolerance relies largely on its interplay with other hormones. In this review, we critically analyze the multifaceted roles of BRs in various abiotic stresses and its potential crosstalk with other hormones in stress adaptation. The discrepancy in the dose and mode of application of BRs analogues for stress management is also discussed. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

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