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Yang Y.,China National Rice Research Institute | Chen R.,Zhejiang Sci-Tech University | Chen R.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Plant Secondary Metabolism and Regulation | Fu G.,China National Rice Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2016

Cadmium (Cd) pollution and phosphate (Pi) deficiency are two important problems in some Asian countries, but the researches on effects and mechanisms of Pi deficiency on Cd uptake in rice are limited. Herein, 3-week-old rice seedlings were treated with 3 Pi levels (−Pi, +Pi, and +2Pi) under Cd stress for 3 weeks. The results showed that in the hydroponics experiments, Pi deprivation (−Pi) treatment significantly decreased Cd accumulation in rice seedlings but aggravated Cd phytotoxicity symptoms with decreased tillers, root length, shoot height, and dry weight. In contrast, Pi addition (+2Pi) treatment increased Cd accumulation but alleviated Cd phytotoxicity symptoms in rice seedlings. These results indicate that Pi physiologically regulates Cd accumulation and sensitivity in rice. Furthermore, -Pi treatment not only significantly decreased carbon (C) assimilation by reducing net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate but also decreased glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) contents in rice seedlings. In addition, -Pi treatment significantly increased iron (Fe, a well-known competitive metal of Cd) accumulation in rice plantlets. Based on these results, we suggest that Pi deprivation decreases rice Cd uptake by competitively increasing Fe uptake and accumulation, Pi deprivation also enhances the sensitivity to Cd in rice plants by inhibiting biomass accumulation and reducing PCs synthesis. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Source


Chang J.-D.,Zhejiang Sci-Tech University | Chang J.-D.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Plant Secondary Metabolism and Regulation | Mantri N.,RMIT University | Sun B.,Zhejiang Normal University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

Recently, an important topic of research has been how climate change is seriously threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. However, there is surprisingly little experimental data regarding how elevated temperature and CO2 will affect the growth of medicinal plants and production of bioactive compounds. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the photosynthetic process, biomass, total sugars, antioxidant compounds, antioxidant capacity, and bioactive compounds of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Two different CO2 concentrations [360 and 720 μmol mol-1] were imposed on plants grown at two different temperature regimes of 23/18 and 28/23 °C (day/night) for 60 days. Results show that elevated CO2 and temperature significantly increase the biomass, particularly in proportion to inflorescence total dry weight. The chlorophyll content in leaves increased under the elevated temperature and CO2. Further, electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP), actual photochemical quantum yield (Yield), instantaneous photosynthetic rate (Photo), transpiration rate (Trmmol) and stomatal conductance (Cond) also increased to different degrees under elevated CO2 and temperature. Moreover, elevated CO2 increased the level of total sugars and gypenoside A, but decreased the total antioxidant capacity and main antioxidant compounds in different organs of G. pentaphyllum. Accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids also decreased in leaves, stems, and inflorescences under elevated CO2 and temperature. Overall, our data indicate that the predicted increase in atmospheric temperature and CO2 could improve the biomass of G. pentaphyllum, but they would reduce its health-promoting properties. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Jiang Z.,Zhejiang Sci-Tech University | Jiang Z.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Plant Secondary Metabolism and Regulation | Zheng H.,Zhejiang Normal University | Mantri N.,RMIT University | And 12 more authors.
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2016

Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed for the prediction of ascorbic acid (AA) retention during storage of fresh-cut pineapple as a function of surface area, storage temperature and time. Our results demonstrate that surface area and temperature are the two most important factors influencing the degradation of AA in fresh-cut pineapple during storage. The AA in fresh-cut pineapple with a high surface area is more easily destroyed than that with a low surface area at the same storage temperature. In addition, the ANFIS model with triangular-shaped membership function (trimf) (RMSE=7.88%; R2=0.95) provides the best prediction accuracy than models with other membership functions (RMSE=8.97-10.19%; R2=0.91-0.93). Therefore, the high-surface-area fresh-cut fruit should be stored at a relatively low temperature as compared with the low-surface-area produce. The ANFIS model with trimf is an adequate model for the prediction of AA retention during storage of fresh-cut pineapple. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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