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Chen Z.,Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute | Chen Z.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | Zheng S.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | Li L.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | Jiang H.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2014

Flavonoids are naturally occurring polyphenols, which are widely taken in diets, supplements and herbal medicines. Epidemiological studies have shown a flavonoid-rich diet is associated with the decrease in incidence of a range of diseases. Pharmacological evidences also reveal flavonoids display anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-diarrheal activities. Therefore, it is critical to study the biotransformation and disposition of flavonoids in human. This review summarizes the major metabolism pathways of flavonoids in human. First, lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) and human intestinal microflora mediate the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides, which is recognized as the first and determinant step in the absorption of flavonoids. Second, phase II metabolic enzymes (UGTs, SULTs and COMT) dominate the metabolism of flavonoids in vivo. UGTs are the most major contributors, followed by SULTs and COMT. By contrast, phase I metabolism pathway mediated by CYPs only plays a minor role. Third, the coupling of transporters (such as BCRP and MRPs) and phase II enzymes (UGTs and SULTs) plays an important role in the disposition of flavonoids, especially in the enteroenteric and enterohepatic circulations. Thus, all the above factors should be taken into consideration when studying pharmacokinetics of flavonoids. Here we describe a comprehensive metabolism profile of flavonoids, which will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the disposition and pharmacological effects of flavonoids in vivo. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Zheng S.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | Ma Z.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | Song F.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | Ye J.,Conba Pharmaceutical Co. | And 6 more authors.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2015

Background: Deficiency or imbalance of unsaturated fatty acids will promote the pathogenesis of many diseases. In order to monitor the exposure of unsaturated fatty acids, the method based on LC-MS/MS was developed. Results: Standard calibration curves for α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid were linear (r ≥0.99). The intra-and interbatch accuracy (RE%) ranged from -4.5 to 8.6%, while the intra- and interbatch precisions (RSD%) were ≤8.7%. The extraction recovery varied from 85.4 to 99.6%, and no obvious matrix effect was observed. Conclusion: The method offers a simple approach for measuring 4 unsaturated fatty acids in 1 μl rat plasma within 3.95 min. © 2015 Future Science Ltd. Source


Ma L.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | Qin Y.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | Shen Z.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | Hu H.,Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti cancer Drug Research | And 4 more authors.
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2015

We previously showed that anthraquinones (including rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) were inhibitors of human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) and hOAT3, causing transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions in rats. In this study, the time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of hOAT1 and hOAT3 by anthraquinones was investigated. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-hOAT1, HEK293- hOAT3 and their parental cells were used. Preincubation with chrysophanol or physcion for 30 min significantly increased the inhibition of hOAT1, but preincubation with rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin or probenecid had no effect on hOAT1 activity. By contrast, preincubation of hOAT3 with emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol or physcion for 30 min significantly increased its inhibition, but preincubation with rhein or probenecid had no effect on activity. As the incubating time lengthened, from 0 to 60 min, both the inhibition of hOAT1 by chrysophanol and physcion and the inhibition of hOAT3 by emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol and physcion were observed to increase in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results suggest that some anthraquinones contribute to the TDI of hOAT1 and hOAT3. An inhibition study without the preincubation procedure may underestimate the inhibitory potential of anthraquinones against hOAT1 and hOAT3. The underlying mechanisms of TDI of hOAT1 and hOAT3 need to be further investigated. © 2015 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. Source

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