Jinhua, China

Zhejiang Normal University is located at the cultural historical city of Jinhua in the central part of Zhejiang Province. The city links Shanghai and Hangzhou to the north, and Guangdong and Fujian provinces to the south. The University is next to a national scenic spot—the Shuanglong Cave, and covers a total area of more than 220 hectares with a total floor space of more than one million square meters. Its green and beautiful campus furnishes an ideal place for living, study and work. Wikipedia.


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Mo Y.,Zhejiang Normal University
IEEE Transactions on Reliability | Year: 2014

Dynamic fault trees (DFTs) have been used for many years because they can easily provide a concise representation of the dynamic failure behaviors of general non-repairable fault tolerant systems. However, when repeated failure events appear in real-life DFT models, the traditional modularization-based DFT analysis process can still generate large dynamic subtrees, the modeling of which can lead to a state explosion problem. Examples of these kinds of large dynamic subtrees abound in models of real-world dynamic software and embedded computing systems integrating with various multi-function components. This paper proposes an efficient, multiple-valued decision-diagram (MDD)-based DFT analysis approach for computing the reliability of large dynamic subtrees. Unlike the traditional modularization methods where the whole dynamic subtree must be solved using state-space methods, the proposed approach restricts the state-space method only to components associated with dynamic failure behaviors within the dynamic subtree. By using multiple-valued variables to encode the dynamic gates, a single compact MDD can be generated to model the failure behavior of the overall system. The combination of MDD and state-space methods applied at the component or gate level helps relieve the state explosion problem of the traditional modularization method, for the problems we explore. Applications and advantages of the proposed approach are illustrated through detailed analyses of an example DFT, and through two case studies. © 2014 IEEE.


He Y.,Zhejiang Normal University | Zhou W.,Center for Neutron Research | Zhou W.,University of Maryland University College | Qian G.,Zhejiang University | Chen B.,University of Texas at San Antonio
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Natural gas (NG), whose main component is methane, is an attractive fuel for vehicular applications. Realization of safe, cheap and convenient means and materials for high-capacity methane storage can significantly facilitate the implementation of natural gas fuelled vehicles. The physisorption based process involving porous materials offers an efficient storage methodology and the emerging porous metal-organic frameworks have been explored as potential candidates because of their extraordinarily high porosities, tunable pore/cage sizes and easily immobilized functional sites. In this view, we provide an overview of the current status of metal-organic frameworks for methane storage. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


He Y.,Zhejiang Normal University | Li B.,University of Texas at San Antonio | O'Keeffe M.,Arizona State University | Chen B.,University of Texas at San Antonio
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as porous coordination polymers (PCPs), are an emerging type of porous materials which are formed by the self-assembly of metallic centers and bridging organic linkers. Design and synthesis of organic linkers are very critical to target MOFs with desired structures and properties. In this review, we summarize and highlight the recent development of porous MOFs that are constructed from the multicarboxylate ligands containing m-benzenedicarboxylate moieties, and their promising applications in gas storage and separation, heterogeneous catalysis and luminescent sensing. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Zhou Y.,Zhejiang Normal University
Nonlinearity | Year: 2010

In this paper we consider a family of one-dimensional shallow water equations (the Holm-Staley b-family of equations) derived recently by Holm and Staley (2003 Phys. Lett. A 308 437-44). Analogous to the Camassa-Holm equation, these new equations admit blow-up phenomenon and infinite propagation speed. First, we establish blow-up results for this family of equations under various classes of initial data. It turns out that it is the shape instead of the size and smoothness of the initial data which influences breakdown in finite time. Then, infinite propagation speed for the Holm-Staley b-family of equations is proved in the following sense: the corresponding solution u(x, t) with compactly supported initial datum u0(x) does not have a compact x-support any longer in its lifespan. Moreover, we show that for any fixed time t > 0 in its lifespan, the corresponding solution u(x, t) behaves as u(x, t) = L(t)e -x for x ≫ 1 and u(x, t) = l(t)ex for x ≪ -1, with a strictly increasing function L(t) > 0 and a strictly decreasing function l(t) < 0, respectively. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd and London Mathematical Society.


Lucky S.S.,National University of Singapore | Soo K.C.,National Cancer Center Singapore | Zhang Y.,National University of Singapore | Zhang Y.,Zhejiang Normal University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2015

The application of nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been a major stride forward in resolving some of the challenges associated with classic photosensitizer (PS). These nanoparticles are very versatile due to the existence of a variety of polymers and manufacturing methods, and thus the chemical composition and architecture of the nanoparticles can be customized to accommodate PSs with varying degrees of hydrophobicity, molecular weight, or charge. Furthermore, the surface properties, morphologies, and compositions of polymeric matrices can be easily optimized to achieve controlled degradation of the polymer and drug release kinetics. PDT using upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) doped with PS is becoming the new sensation in the field with clear advantages over most other nanoparticles. UCNs act both as carriers of PS as well as enables indirect excitation of the accompanying PS with upconverted light upon excitation with low energy NIR light. The future of PDT lies in the development of a single versatile and efficient nanoparticle that encompasses its applicability in both bioimaging as well as PDT.


Zhang X.-J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Qian H.,University of Washington | Qian M.,Peking University
Physics Reports | Year: 2012

The concepts of equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady states are introduced in the present review as mathematical concepts associated with stationary Markov processes. For both discrete stochastic systems with master equations and continuous diffusion processes with Fokker-Planck equations, the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is characterized in terms of several key notions which are originated from nonequilibrium physics: time irreversibility, breakdown of detailed balance, free energy dissipation, and positive entropy production rate. After presenting this NESS theory in pedagogically accessible mathematical terms that require only a minimal amount of prerequisites in nonlinear differential equations and the theory of probability, it is applied, in Part I, to two widely studied problems: the stochastic resonance (also known as coherent resonance) and molecular motors (also known as Brownian ratchet). Although both areas have advanced rapidly on their own with a vast amount of literature, the theory of NESS provides them with a unifying mathematical foundation. Part II of this review contains applications of the NESS theory to processes from cellular biochemistry, ranging from enzyme catalyzed reactions, kinetic proofreading, to zeroth-order ultrasensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


We investigate valley-dependent electron transport properties of a gapped graphene film modulated by a ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripe with magnetization along the current direction. The antisymmetric stray field of the FM stripe alone does not generate a valley-polarized current due to an intrinsic symmetry. The inclusion of an electric barrier breaks this symmetry. It is shown that highly valley-polarized electron transport can be achieved in this magnetic-electric barrier structure, which results from a valley-dependent phase mechanism. The valley polarization can be tuned by the barrier parameters. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zhao R.,Zhejiang Normal University
European Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2013

Background: The role of T helper (Th) 17 cells in autoimmune diseases has been extensively studied recently, but its function in oestrogen-deficient osteoporosis remains undefined. This review aimed to explore the role of Th17 cells in regulating bone loss induced by oestrogen deficiency. Materials and methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Biosis up to 1 February 2013 for immune regulation of oestrogen-deficient osteoporosis by Th17 cells. Terms relevant to immunity, oestrogen deficiency, osteoporosis and Th17 cells were used for database searching. Seventy-five papers met the predetermined searching criteria. Results: Studies indicate Th17 lineage to be a potent osteoclastogenic mediator in oestrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Oestrogen deficiency promotes osteoclastogenesis by up-regulating Th17 cell populations in bone marrow and IL-17 levels in peripheral blood. Meanwhile, transcription factors involved in Th17 cell differentiation, such as RORγt and RORα, are highly expressed in ovariectomized animals. Treatment with IL-17 significantly promotes production of RANKL, TNF and IL-6 as well as TRAP+ cells in culture; blocking IL-17 pathway significantly reduces abundance of Th17 cells and effectively prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice. Conclusions: The main body of literatures suggests Th17 to be a critical modulator in the pathogenesis of oestrogen-deficient osteoporosis, which supports the notion that oestrogen-deficient osteoporosis is a complex interplay between oestrogen, osteoclastogenic cytokines and osteoclasts. In addition, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-17 networks may be clinically useful in treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Fu G.,Zhejiang Normal University
PloS one | Year: 2012

It is well established that individuals show an other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition: they recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. The present study tested the hypothesis that individuals would also scan own- and other-race faces differently. We asked Chinese participants to remember Chinese and Caucasian faces and we tested their memory of the faces over five testing blocks. The participants' eye movements were recorded with the use of an eye tracker. The data were analyzed with an Area of Interest approach using the key AOIs of a face (eyes, nose, and mouth). Also, we used the iMap toolbox to analyze the raw data of participants' fixation on each pixel of the entire face. Results from both types of analyses strongly supported the hypothesis. When viewing target Chinese or Caucasian faces, Chinese participants spent a significantly greater proportion of fixation time on the eyes of other-race Caucasian faces than the eyes of own-race Chinese faces. In contrast, they spent a significantly greater proportion of fixation time on the nose and mouth of Chinese faces than the nose and mouth of Caucasian faces. This pattern of differential fixation, for own- and other-race eyes and nose in particular, was consistent even as participants became increasingly familiar with the target faces of both races. The results could not be explained by the perceptual salience of the Chinese nose or Caucasian eyes because these features were not differentially salient across the races. Our results are discussed in terms of the facial morphological differences between Chinese and Caucasian faces and the enculturation of mutual gaze norms in East Asian cultures.


Miao Y.,Zhejiang Normal University | He N.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhu J.-J.,Nanjing University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2010

Biosensors based on ChE inhibition have been developed for monitoring pesticides in food and water samples. AChE hydrolyzes acetylcholine at a higher rate than butyrylcholine but is inhibited by excess substrate. On the other hand, although BChE hydrolyzes butyrylcholine at a higher rate than acetylcholine, it is not inhibited by excess substrate. A ChE inhibitor is known to suppress the activity of the enzyme. AChE inhibitors are traditionally divided into two groups: reversible and irreversible inhibitors. ChE-based assays give a sum parameter of ChE inhibition, and they are not usually capable of discriminating various toxic compounds in a multicomponent sample. Although laboratory testing is generally considered to provide more accurate results, field testing is often an effective alternative since it is faster and less expensive with simpler handling procedures amenable to both mass production and instrument miniaturization.

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