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Mao C.,Shanghai Ocean University | Zhong J.,Shanghai Ocean University | Jiang R.,Zhejiang Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Ge K.,Marine Fisheries Research Institute of Jiangsu | Lin N.,CAS East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

FAII (fish assemblage integrity index) is used extensively to assess environmental quality of fish habitat in the world. The method was first raised as IBI (index of biotic integrity) by Karr, then improved and developed by Deegan et al., Kleynhans, Kesminas et al. and Lin Xinhui. However, this method is not yet commonly used in China. Appled the FAII to the environmental assessment of fish habitat, specifically, the nursery ground in the estuarine waters of theYangtze River. Field work was conducted monthly during the high tide from November 2006 to October 2007 at 13 stations of the Yangtze River estuary, in the surf zone (0. 5 1. 5 meter water depth) using small trawls (1 m x 4 m, mesh size 1 mm). A total of 6734 fish larvae and juveniles, representing 78 species from 29 families were collected. The fish collection consists of marine, estuarine, diadromous and freshwater species. All species are grouped accordingly to the trophic levels, tolerance and the water layer of the habit, only one exotic and one hybrid species. No fish were collected in St. 1 and St. 13 between November 2006 and March 2007, neither in St. 12 between November 2006 and May 2007. Ten FAII indices are selected to analyze our data based on the fact that our research focus on the surf zone of theYangtze River estuary, and the fish collected are mainly larvae and juveniles. Karr defined nine categories of environment quality based on the FAII values, i. e. 57 60 as ''excellent'', 45 47 as ''general'' and less than 24 as ''very poor'', et al. The FAII value in our 13 stations ranged from 0 to 46 with an average value of 21. 08. The maximum FAII value is detected at St. 12 in the month of July. The St. 4 has an annual average value of 28, the highest among all 13 stations. The result indicates that the environmental quality of the surf zone in the Yangtze River estuary falls into fair to very poor categories. The hierarchical clustering (based on monthly FAII) shows that the stations could be classified into 4 groups, [group one consists of St. 1, Sts. 12-13; Sts. 2-3 and St. 5 are in group two; St. 6 and St. 11 are in group three; group four consists of St. 4, Sts. 7-10.]. FAII of station in poor categories are more fluctuating than that in fair categories. Besides, there is a noticeable seasonal fluctuation of the FAII that is higher in the summer months and lower in the winter months. The average FAII value reaches the ''general'' category in eight stations (St. 1, St. 4 and St. 8 to St. 13) during the months from May to August, while this value remains at the ''poor'' or the ''very poor'' categories even in the summer months. The seasonal variation of FAII was similar to that of Margalef richness index, but was significantly different from that of Shannon-Wiener diversity index. Results of the study suggest that environmental monitoring and remediation of the surf zone of the Yangtze River estuary are necessary for the recruitment of the fish larvae and juveniles. Source

Gao T.,Ocean University of China | Gao T.,Zhejiang Ocean University | Wan Z.,Ocean University of China | Song N.,Ocean University of China | And 4 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2014

A number of evolutionary mechanisms have been suggested for generating significant genetic structuring among marine fish populations in Northwestern Pacific. We used mtDNA control region to assess the factors in shaping the genetic structure of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, an anadromous and estuarine coastal species, in Northwestern Pacific. Sixty seven individuals from four locations in Northwestern Pacific were sequenced for mitochondrial control region, detecting 61 haplotypes. The length of amplified control region varied from 677 to 754 bp. This length variability was due to the presence of varying numbers of a 38-bp tandemly repeated sequence. Two distinct lineages were detected, which might have diverged during Pleistocene low sea levels. There were strong differences in the geographical distribution of the two lineages. Analyses of molecular variance and the population statistic ΦST revealed significant genetic structure between China and Ariake Bay populations. Based on the frequency distribution of tandem repeat units, significant genetic differentiation was also detected between China and Ariake Bay populations. Isolation by distance seems to be the main factor driving present genetic structuring of C. nasus populations, indicating coastal dispersal pattern in this coastal species. Such an evolutionary process agrees well with some of the biological features characterizing this species. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Zhang X.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Zhang X.,Zhejiang Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Zheng B.,Zhejiang Marine Development Research Institute | Zhang H.,Zhejiang GongShang University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2011

Methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) is the last major remaining detectable metabolite of Olaquindox in animal tissue. A rapid, sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the detection and quantification of MQCA in fish tissue using deuterated quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (d 4-QCA) as internal standard. Various parameters affecting sample preparation, LC separation and MS/MS detection were investigated, and the optimal conditions concerned were determined. Fish tissue samples were subject to hydrochloric acid hydrolysis followed by Oasis MAX solid-phase extraction clean-up; analysis was performed using UPLC coupled to electrospray MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was achieved in less than 5 min. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.1 and 0.25 ng/g, respectively. The average recoveries of MQCA, spiked at levels of 0.25-50.0 ng/g, were from 92.7 to 104.3%. The relative standard deviation values were <6%. The validated method was successfully applied to analyze 60 batch samples collected from the local market. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Zhang X.,Zhejiang Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Zhang X.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Xu H.,Zhejiang Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Zhang H.,Zhejiang GongShang University | And 3 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

A rapid, specific, and sensitive method utilizing ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated to determine albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole sulfone, and albendazole 2-aminosulfone in fish muscle tissue. The fish samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, then the organic phase was evaporated to dryness, and the residue was reconstituted in methanol-water solution and cleaned up by n-hexane. Reversed-phase separation of target compounds was achieved using a BEH C18 column and a gradient consisting of 0.2% (v/v) formic acid and methanol. Tandem mass spectrometry analyses were performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. In the whole procedure, the isotope-labeled internal standards were used to correct the matrix effect and variations associated with the analysis. The method was validated with respect to linearity, specificity, accuracy, and precision. The method exhibited a linear response from 0.1 to 20 ng mL -1 (r 2∈>∈0.9985). The limit of quantitation for albendazole (ABZ), albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), albendazole sulfone (ABZSO 2), and albendazole 2-aminosulfone (ABZ-2-NH 2SO 2) was 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, and 0.2 ng g -1, respectively. The mean recoveries of ABZ, ABZSO, ABZSO 2, and ABZ-2-NH 2SO 2 spiked at a level of 0.2-5.0 ng g -1 were 95.3-113.7%, and the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day measurements were less than 6.38%. The method was later successfully applied to the determination of albendazole and its three metabolites in 60 fish samples collected from local markets. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Wang L.,Zhejiang Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Wang L.,Zhejiang Ocean University | Lu Q.,Zhejiang Ocean University | Luo S.,Zhejiang Ocean University | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture Reports | Year: 2016

A feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on body composition, plasma biochemical parameters and liver fatty acids content in juvenile yellow drum Nibea albiflora. Six animal groups (initial weights, 17.7 ± 0.20 g) were fed isonitrogenous diets formulated with increasing lipid levels (52, 70, 94, 111, 129 and 153 g kg-1, labeled as L50, L70, L90, L110, L130, L150, respectively) using menhaden oil, twice daily to apparent satiation, for 8 weeks. The results showed that the weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed L130 and L150 lipid diets were significantly higher than those of the animals on the L50 lipid diet. The feed conversion rate (FCR) of fish fed the L130 lipid diet was significantly lower compared with the values obtained for the other groups. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) of fish fed the L90 lipid diet was significantly higher than that of animals on L150 lipid. Whole body and muscle lipid contents increased with increasing dietary lipid level, and the dietary fatty acid profile was reflected in liver tissue. Liver eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents in fish fed with the L150 diet were significantly higher compared with the values recorded in the other groups. Total highly-unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) content in liver showed an increasing trend, whereas total saturated fatty acid (SFA) and mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents in liver tended to decrease with increasing dietary lipid levels. The plasma triglyceride and cholesterol contents of juvenile N. albiflora increased with the increasing dietary lipid level. Analysis by the broken-line model of percent weight gain indicated the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile N. albiflora to be 120 g kg-1 of the diet. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

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