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Cao Y.,Jiangnan University | Xie G.,Zhejiang Guyuelongshan Shaoxing Wine Company | Xie G.,Tech Lab Group | Wu C.,Jiangnan University | Lu J.,Jiangnan University
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2010

The objective of the study was to systematically investigate flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine (CRW) using chromatography technology. In twelve CRW samples, 93 different flavor compounds were detected and identified including 16 alcohols in addition to ethanol, 29 esters, 9 aldehydes, 9 organic acids, 19 amino acids and 11 fatty acids. Statistical analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that seventeen flavor compounds in Guyue Longshan rice wine made a large contribution to its special flavor. These compounds were benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate, ethyl butyrate, phenyl ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl phenylacetate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl oleate, ethyl dedecanoate, 1-butanol, 3-ethoxyl-1-propanol, 1-enanthol, dodecanol, lactic acid, fumaric acid and lauric acid. © 2010 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

Zhao X.,Jiangnan University | Zou H.,Zhejiang Guyuelongshan Shaoxing Wine Company | Du G.,Jiangnan University | Chen J.,Jiangnan University | Zhou J.,Jiangnan University
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2015

The quality of rice wine is highly dependent on the content of the flavour compounds produced by the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the effects of three amino acids (arginine, glutamate and glutamine) related to nitrogen catabolite repression on the formation of flavour compounds were investigated. Each of these amino acids could promote the growth of S. cerevisiae, and a total of 83 flavour compounds were found in a model system of rice wine production. The effects of arginine, glutamate and glutamine on the content of the higher alcohols, amino acids and esters were significant, whereas the effects on the aldehydes and organic acids were slight. The results of this study could facilitate the development of new strategies to control the flavour pattern and improve the quality of rice wine. © 2015 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

Zhao X.,Jiangnan University | Zou H.,Zhejiang Guyuelongshan Shaoxing Wine Company | Fu J.,Zhejiang Guyuelongshan Shaoxing Wine Company | Zhou J.,Jiangnan University | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Rice wine has been one of the most popular traditional alcoholic drinks in China. However, the presence of potentially carcinogenic ethyl carbamate (EC) in rice wine has raised a series of food safety issues. During rice wine production, the key reason for EC formation is urea accumulation, which occurs because of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NCR represses urea utilization by retaining Gln3p in the cytoplasm when preferred nitrogen sources are present. In order to increase the nuclear localization of Gln3p, some possible phosphorylation sites on the nuclear localization signal were mutated and the nuclear localization regulation signal was truncated, and the disruption of URE2 provided an additional method of reducing urea accumulation. By combining these strategies, the genes involved in urea utilization (DUR1,2 and DUR3) could be significantly activated in the presence of glutamine. During shake flask fermentations of the genetically modified strains, very little urea accumulated in the medium. Furthermore, the concentrations of urea and EC were reduced by 63% and 72%, respectively, in a model rice wine system. Examination of the normal nutrients in rice wine indicated that there were few differences in fermentation characteristics between the wild-type strain and the genetically modified strain. These results show that metabolic engineering of the NCR regulators has great potential as a method for eliminating EC during rice wine production. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Zhao X.,Jiangnan University | Du G.,Jiangnan University | Zou H.,Zhejiang Guyuelongshan Shaoxing Wine Company | Fu J.,Zhejiang Guyuelongshan Shaoxing Wine Company | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a potentially carcinogenic compound that is widely found in alcoholic beverages. Because of its toxicity, carcinogenicity, and universality, EC is currently one of the biggest challenges in the alcoholic beverages industry. Many methods for reducing the EC level have been investigated, incorporating physical, chemical, enzymatic, and metabolic engineering technologies. This review focuses on the traditional methods as well as several new methods. Furthermore, by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, various issues are addressed relating to the development of measures to eliminate EC in alcoholic beverages on a laboratory scale and an industrial scale. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhao S.,Jiangnan University | Zhao X.,Jiangnan University | Zou H.,Zhejiang Guyuelongshan Shaoxing Wine Company | Fu J.,Zhejiang Guyuelongshan Shaoxing Wine Company | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2014

In cultures containing multiple sources of nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a sequential use of nitrogen sources through a mechanism known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). To identify proteins differentially expressed due to NCR, proteomic analysis of S. cerevisiae S288C under different nitrogen source conditions was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), revealing 169 candidate protein spots. Among these 169 protein spots, 121 were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins were closely associated with four main biological processes through Gene Ontology (GO) categorical analysis. The identification of the potential proteins and cellular processes related to NCR offer a global overview of changes elicited by different nitrogen sources, providing clues into how yeast adapt to different nutritional conditions. Moreover, by comparing our proteomic data with corresponding mRNA data, proteins regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level could be distinguished. Biological significance. In S. cerevisiae, different nitrogen sources provide different growth characteristics and generate different metabolites. The nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) process plays an important role for S. cerevisiae in the ordinal utilization of different nitrogen sources. NCR process can result in significant shift of global metabolic networks. Previous works on NCR primarily focused on transcriptomic level. The results obtained in this study provided a global atlas of the proteome changes triggered by different nitrogen sources and would facilitate the understanding of mechanisms for how yeast could adapt to different nutritional conditions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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