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PubMed | Zhejiang Environmental Monitoring Center, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology and Jiaxing Environmental Monitoring Station
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

Aerosol number size distribution in the range of 10nm-10m, trace gases (O3, CO, SO2 and NO2), particular matter (PM: PM2.5 and PM10) and meteorological elements were measured from the 1st to the 31st of May, 2015, in the coastal city of Jiaxing in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). The average number concentration and surface area concentration were 19,639cm(-3) and 427m(2)cm(-3) during the observation period. The different mode particle concentrations ranked in the order of Aitken mode (12,361cm(-3))>nucleation (4926.7cm(-3))>accumulation (2349.3cm(-3))>coarse mode (1.7cm(-3)). The average concentrations of CO, SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5 and PM10 were 0.545mgm(-3), 14.7, 35.1, 89.8, 43.5 and 64.6gm(-3), respectively. Eight precipitation processes and 15 new particle formation (NPF) events (3 NPF events occurred on a rainy day) were observed. Results show that the precipitation process had greater scavenging effects on particles smaller than 120nm and larger than 2m. The spectral distributions of number concentrations were unimodal at different weather conditions, with peaks at 20nm, 40-60nm, 50-80nm on NPF days, rainy days and normal days. During the NPF events, the formation rate (FR), growth rate (GR), condensational sink (CS), vapor source rate (Q) and condensing vapor concentration (C) were in the range of 4.0-17.0cm(-3)s(-1), 2.2-15.7nmh(-1), 1.5-5.810(-2)s(-1), 0.5-7.710(6)cm(-3)s(-1) and 3.0-21.510(7)cm(-3), with mean values of 9.6cm(-3)s(-1), 6.8nmh(-1), 3.410(-2)s(-1), 3.310(6)cm(-3)s(-1) and 9.410(7)cm(-3), respectively. NPF events normally occurred under clean atmospheric conditions with low PM concentrations but high levels of trace gases. It was also found that SO2 plays an important role in NPF and growth in Jiaxing.

Wang F.-E.,Zhejiang University | Tian P.,Zhejiang University | Yu J.,Zhejiang Environmental Monitoring Center | Lao G.-M.,Hydrologic Bureau of Zheiiang Province | Shi T.-C.,Zhejiang University
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2011

The objective of this research was to estimate pollutant fluxes of rivers in Zhejiang Province as part of Taihu Lake Basin for better water quality management. Based on the water flow and water quality data of these rivers during the year of 2008, the temporal and spatial variations of water flow and water quality were analyzed. The results showed that the water quality of the rivers remained stable. The water quality parameters such as ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), COD and total phosphorus (TP) in most of the monitoring sites met National water quality standards (National Grade III). The water flow of the rivers was greatly influenced by rainfall events of Taihu Lake. The influent flow of the lake was less than that of effluent flow prior to 2008; and an opposite trend was observed in 2008 because of more rainfall events. Based on the water flow and water quality data of the rivers, the pollutant fluxes were estimated. The results showed that the flux of COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN) and TP into the lake was 10,472, 1109, 4461 and 314t/yr respectively, while the respective flux out of the lake was 10,285, 421, 2383 and 226t/yr. The pollutant netflux from the highest to the lowest was: TN>NH3-N>CODMn>TP. According to the spatial distribution of the pollutant fluxes, Tiaoxi Watershed contributed the most to the pollutant influxes into the lake. Attention should also be paid to the rivers in Changxing County, which accounted for about 30% of the pollutant load of the entire region. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Cheng Z.,Tsinghua University | Wang S.,Tsinghua University | Wang S.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | Jiang J.,Tsinghua University | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

Haze pollution caused by heavy particulate matter (PM) loading brings significant damage in eastern China. Long-term monitoring from 1980 to 2011 and 1-year field measurement in 2011-2012 are used for investigating visibility variation and the impact of PM pollution for the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). It was found that visual range in the YRD endured a sharp reduction from 13.2 km to 10.5 km during 1980-2000. Average mass extinction efficiency (MEE) for inhalable PM (PM10) is 2.25 m2/g in 2001-2011, and extinction coefficient due to PM10 is 207 Mm-1, accounting for 36.2% of total extinction coefficient. MEE of PM2.5 and PM 2.5-10 are 4.08 m2/g and 0.58 m2/g, respectively. Extinction coefficient due to PM2.5 and PM 2.5-10 is 198 Mm-1 (39.6%) and 20 Mm-1 (4.0%) in 2011-2012. Maximum daily concentration of PM10 and PM 2.5 is estimated to be 63 μg/m3 (RH: 73%) and 38 μg/m3 (RH: 70%) to keep visual range above 10 km. Fine particulate matter is the key factor for haze pollution improvement in the YRD area. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cheng Z.,Tsinghua University | Wang S.,Tsinghua University | Wang S.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex | Fu X.,Tsinghua University | And 12 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

Open biomass burning is an important source of air pollution in China and globally. Joint observations of air pollution were conducted in five cities (Shanghai, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Suzhou and Nanjing) of the Yangtze River delta, and a heavy haze episode with visibility 2.9-9.8 km was observed from 28 May to 6 June 2011. The contribution of biomass burning was quantified using both ambient monitoring data and the WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ)) model simulation. It was found that the average and maximum daily PM2.5 concentrations during the episode were 82 and 144 μgm-3, respectively. Weather pattern analysis indicated that stagnation enhanced the accumulation of air pollutants, while the following precipitation event scavenged the pollution. Mixing depth during the stagnant period was 240-399 m. Estimation based on observation data and CMAQ model simulation indicated that biomass open burning contributed 37% of PM 2.5, 70% of organic carbon and 61% of elemental carbon. Satellite-detected fire spots, back-trajectory analysis and air quality model simulation were integrated to identify the locations where the biomass was burned and the pollutants transport. The results suggested that the impact of biomass open burning is regional, due to the substantial inter-province transport of air pollutants. PM2.5 exposure level could be reduced 47% for the YRD region if complete biomass burning is forbidden and significant health benefit is expected. These findings could improve the understanding of heavy haze pollution, and suggest the need to ban open biomass burning during post-harvest seasons. © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Sun L.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Shao X.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Hu X.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Chi J.,Zhejiang University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2011

Determining ecotoxicological risks of exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) remains a daunting challenge in environmental toxicology. Recently, some studies have illustrated that transcriptional profiling of genes offers the potential to identify the chemical causation of effects that are induced by exposure to complex mixtures. In the present study, the transcriptional responses of a set of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG, or HPG[L]-liver) axis of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were systematically examined after treatment with a combination of an estrogen (17α-ethinylestradiol [EE2], 20 ng/L) and two model anti-estrogens, the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (LET) and the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen (TAM), at three concentrations (30, 100 and 300. μg/L) for 72 h. The data presented demonstrate that although gene transcription analyses increase our mechanistic understanding of the modes of action (MOAs) of EDCs, the characteristic of most genes altered by a certain single chemical exposure may not be useful for diagnostic chemical causation in a mixture exposure situation. For example, the induction of one vitellogenin gene (VTG1) transcription caused by EE2 in male fish was effectively blocked after exposure to a combination of EE2 and LET but not EE2 and TAM. Moreover, the responses in gene transcription to coexposure were elicited partially in a nonmonotonic concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, the application of transcriptional profiling of genes for screening complex environmental samples should be further evaluated until biomarker gene responses are robust and sensitive enough to properly assess the complex interactions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Sun J.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Liu J.,Zhejiang Environmental Monitoring Center | Tu W.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Xu C.,Zhejiang University of Technology
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Enantioselectivity in separation and toxicity of chiral pesticides has become important research areas in environmental science, because these studies give a deeper insight into the environmental effect of chiral pesticides. In this study, enantiomeric separation of the organophosphorus pesticide and acaricide O-ethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate (EPN) was investigated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with two chiral stationary phases. The racemate and separated enantiomers of EPN were tested for aquatic toxicities assay using Daphnia magna and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test. The enantiomers of EPN were completely separated on Chiralpak AD and Chiralpak AS columns coupled with a circular dichroism detector at 236. nm. Better separations were achieved with lower temperatures (e.g., 20 °C) and lower levels of polar modifiers (e.g., 1%). A significant difference was found between the enantiomers in their acute aquatic toxicity; the (+)-enantiomer was about 10 times more toxic than its antipode. On the contrary, the (-)-enantiomer induced crooked body, yolk sac edema and pericardial edema significantly more than (+)-enantiomer in the zebrafish embryo test. These results suggest that biological toxicity of chiral pesticides should be assessed by using their individual enantiomers with more comprehensive methods. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sun X.,Zhejiang University | Sun X.,Zhejiang Environmental Monitoring Center | Huang W.,Zhejiang University | Huang W.,Environmental Science Research and Design Institute of Zhejiang Province | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

•A novel technology to remove 2-naphthol by G-Bent was proposed.•G-Bent was easy to be separated from the treated wastewater.•G-Bent well addressed the problem faced by conventional P-Bent.•G-Bent is effective and reusable in removing 2-naphthol. The major concern limiting the industrial application of organo-bentonite in powder form (P-Bent) for wastewater treatment is that it is difficult to separate it from treated water by settlement. To address this problem, a novel approach for synthesizing immobilized organo-bentonite in globular form (G-Bent) is proposed. The G-Bent is modified using the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and immobilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The removal of 2-naphthol by G-Bent was compared with removal by P-Bent for solid/liquid separation, removal efficiency and desorption of the modifier used in its preparation. Results indicated that G-Bent was easy to recover from treated wastewater, and was effective and reusable in removing 2-naphthol. The percentage of 2-naphthol removed by G-Bent exceeded 90% with the cationic exchange capacity (CEC) loadings ranging from 100% to 150%. This was almost equivalent to the results obtained using P-Bent. In the five rounds of reuse examined, the percentage of 2-naphthol removed was maintained above 50% for 150%-G-Bent. The percentage of CPC desorption was less than 0.75% after five rounds of reuse and no PVA was detected. The results of this work provide novel information for using G-Bent in the treatment of wastewater containing organic contaminants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Chang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu S.,Zhejiang University | Zhou S.,Zhejiang Environmental Monitoring Center | Wang M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu G.,Zhejiang University
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2013

Butachlor, a chloracetamide herbicide, is widely used in China. In the present study, paired adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to various concentrations of butachlor (0, 25, 50 and 100 μg/L) for 30 days, and the effects on reproduction and endocrine disruption were evaluated using fecundity, condition factor (CF), gonadosomatic index (GSI), liver somatic index (LSI), plasma vitellogenin (VTG), sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels as endpoints. Our results showed that the mean fecundity rates were significantly decreased at 50 and 100 μg/L butachlor during the 30-day exposure period. At the end of the exposure period, no significant changes were observed in CF and LSI in both females and males, while GSI was significantly reduced in males at 50 and 100 μg/L butachlor. At 100 μg/L butachlor, plasma testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were significantly decreased in females, while plasma VTG level was significantly increased in males. Plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were significantly increased at 50 and 100 μg/L butachlor in males, and at 100 μg/L in females. This work demonstrated that butachlor adversely affected the normal reproductive success of zebrafish, and disrupted the thyroid and sex steroid endocrine systems, which provides the basis for the estimated ecological risk during butachlor exposure. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

Wang K.,Zhejiang University | Dai X.,Zhejiang University | Li Z.,Zhejiang Environmental Monitoring Center | Wei B.,Zhejiang University
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2010

Ammonia (NH3) and other air pollution emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are becoming more and more serious with the rapid development of livestock and poultry production in recent years. The ammonia emission factor is one of the effective methods for estimating ammonia emissions from CAFOs and evaluating of emission reduction technologies. A continual monitoring system of the NH3 concentration and environmental parameters is used in this research, and the ammonia emission factors and impact factors of the three types of floor systems in the pig buildings are studied. Mean daily emissions per pig fattened on the semi-slatted floor system, concrete floor system, and deep-litter system are (9.47±7.09), (11.23±4.23), (4.27±2.09)g/(d · pig), respectively.

Mou Y.,Zhejiang Environmental Monitoring Center
2012 1st International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics, Agro-Geoinformatics 2012 | Year: 2012

Noise impacts evaluation of island wind plant is significant for protecting the living environment of island residents and wildlife habitats. To analyze principle noise factor and its impacts on Zhejiang coastal area, both the distance attenuation theory and GIS spatial analysis tools were introduced in this research. Specifically, the noise distributions of different air blowers were analyzed. Different factors affecting the noise distribution were taken into account, which include distance, attenuation coefficient, topography and wind velocity. The analysis is based on 1:500 topographic map, which was further segmented into 1010 meter grids. According to the analysis, the error between research result and the on-the-spot datum of sensitive spots is 03dB (A), which proves that the method in this research is effective. © 2012 IEEE.

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