Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute

Taizhou, China

Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute

Taizhou, China
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PubMed | Agro Kanesho Co., Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute, Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization and China Jiliang University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of entomological research | Year: 2016

The invasive orange spiny whitefly (OSW) Aleurocanthus spiniferus has extended its distribution to non-native areas since the early 20th century. In a similar manner, the invasive tea spiny whitefly (TSW) A. camelliae has been expanding over East Asia in recent decades. In this study, the genetic diversity of OSW and TSW and of their important parasitoid wasp Encarsia smithi was investigated in China and Japan to enable more efficient biological control policies. We detected two phylogenetic groups (haplogroups A1 and A2) in OSW and three phylogenetic groups (haplotypes B1 and B2, and haplogroup B3) in TSW in China; however, only a single haplotype was detected in each whitefly species in Japan. Based on historical records and molecular data, OSW was considered to be native to China whereas TSW has probably expanded to China from a more southern location in the last 50 years; China appears to be the source region for OSW and TSW invading Japan. In E. smithi, two phylogenetic groups were detected in Japan: haplotype I, associated with OSW, and haplogroup II mostly associated with TSW, except in two locations. These data support the hypothesis that E. smithi parasitizing TSW in Japan did not originate from the existent population parasitizing OSW but was newly imported into Japan following the invasion of its host.


Cao X.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Fang X.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Zhao K.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Yao Z.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Li F.,Zhejiang Magic Lanbao Agricultural Technology Co.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Objective to investigate the thermal stability of anthocyanins in blueberry (Voceinium ashei) juice, the effect of temperature and ascorbic acid on anthocynin content was measured during heating. The results show that the anthocyanin in blueberry juice is instable to heat, moreover the higher heating temperature the faster degradation of anthocyanins. Ascorbic acid has shown a negative impact on anthocyanins thermal stability, the higher concentration of ascorbic acid the more rapid the decline in anthocyanins content. Analysis of kinetic data suggests a first-order reaction for the degradation of blueberry anthocyanins with the activation energy (Ea) of 63.61 kJ/mol. Adding 50 mg or 100 mg of ascorbic acid for every liter of blueberry juice enhanced the reaction rate (k) and reduced the half-lives (t1/2) and Ea, obviously. In addition, the characteristic of second-order reaction was observed when heated at 90°C.


Hou X.,Zhejiang University | Huang F.,Zhejiang University | Zhang T.-Y.,Zhejiang University | Xu J.-G.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2014

Two scab diseases are currently recognized on citrus: citrus scab, caused by Elsinoë fawcettii, and sweet orange scab, caused by E. australis. Although these pathogens are economically important, there is no molecular data on these species in China. Here we use internal transcribed spacer sequence data to report on host-specificity and genetic relationships among 46 isolates collected from the main citrus varieties grown across China. All strains isolated were E. fawcettii. Based on pathogenicity testing on 9 different citrus species, isolates were divided into 11 pathotypes (SM, FBHR, SJCR, SPOJCR, SR, SOJG, SPOJC, SRGC, Lemon and two unnamed pathotypes). SM is a new pathotype, and two isolates did not fit into any of the known pathotypes of E. fawcettii. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR-PCR) assays separated the E. fawcettii isolates into 10 subgroups; the groupings basically corresponded to the pathogenicity test. © 2014 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


Lu L.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Cheng B.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Du D.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Hu X.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2015

Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by the infection of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in citrus plants. Since Asian citrus psyllid is the primary vector of this bacterial pathogen, the spread of HLB can be mitigated by suppressing Asian citrus psyllid populations in citrus groves using entomopathogens. To expand the current data on entomopathogens infecting Asian citrus psyllids, we isolated and characterized three different entomopathogens. Strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08, and ZJLP09 infected the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Huangyan citrus groves. Based on molecular and morphological analyses, two were identified as Lecanicillium attenuatum and Lecanicillium psalliotae, and the third was recognized as an unidentified species of the genus, Lecanicillium. The corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 were 100% at 7days post-inoculation, while by ZJLP09 complete mortality occurred at 6days after inoculation, with 1.0×108conidia/ml at 25°C and a relative humidity of 90% in the laboratory. Under the same condition, the corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 and ZJLP09 were 100%, 92.55% and 100%, respectively at 9days post-inoculation in the greenhouse. Our findings also revealed that these fungal strains infected D. citri using hyphae that penetrated deep into the insect tissues. Further, all three strains secreted the enzymes proteinases, chitinases and lipases with a potential to destroy insect tissues. Interestingly, strain ZJLP09 had an earlier invasion time and the highest levels of enzyme activities when compared to the other two strains. These findings have expanded the existing pool of entomopathogenic fungi that infect D. citri and can be potentially used for the management of D. citri populations. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Jin H.,Tongji University | Huang Z.D.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Kuang C.X.,Tongji University | Wang X.K.,Tongji University
Chinese Chemical Letters | Year: 2011

An efficient and mild protocol for bromination of aryl azides with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) under FeCl 3 catalysis in 1,2-dichloroethane was developed. It is proved to be an efficient method for obtaining brominated aryl azides. © 2010 Chun Xiang Kuang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.


Zhang Y.-Q.,Southwest University | Wen M.-X.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Li X.-P.,Southwest University | Shi X.-J.,Southwest University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) loss from cropland is accelerating the eutrophication of waters around the world such as the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. We investigated whether purple paddy soil under long-term P applications was a major source of P efflux to the TGR. RESULTS: Substantial surplus P in the plough layer (0-20cm) was evident after 15-year P applications. Available P (Olsen-P) in the plough layer ranged from 1.9 to 42.4mgkg-1 and some of which will exceed the threshold of 30mgkg-1 for environmental concern within 7years of P application (inorganic NPK with or without organic fertiliser). Between 30 and 70% of Olsen-P was leached out of the 0-30cm soil layer. Surplus P resulted in high P concentrations in the surface water during the rice cropping season, and these concentrations exceeded those in most waters of the TGR and exceeded the critical level for eutrophication (0.1mgL-1) during the first 10days after rice planting. Furthermore, total P in run-off due to rainfall events exceeded the level for eutrophication, with a total loss of 43.2-147.9g P ha-1 depending on the fertilisation. CONCLUSION: Current agronomic P management in purple paddy soil is environmentally unsustainable in terms of the adverse impact on surface water quality. Integrated P management practices are urgently required to optimise crop yield while minimising P loss in order to protect surface water quality in the TGR region. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.


Cao X.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Fang X.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Zhao K.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Using the Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) as raw material, the optimum process of alcohol fermentation and acetic acid fermentation were determined by orthogonal experimental design. Then the volatile flavor components of Ponkan vinegar were identified by SPME-GC-MS. The results showed that the optimum conditions of liquid state fermentation were as follows: yeast 0.10%, temperature 28℃, appearance sugar content 18°Brix; acetic acid bacteria 8%, temperature 30℃, media amount 1/5. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in Ponkan vinegar using liquid state fermentation. Acetic acid (40.80%) was the most abundant volatile compound, and esters (25.92%) were quantitatively the dominant group, limonene (2.74%) was found to be the major aroma compound in the vinegar. ©, 2015, Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology. All right reserved.


Cheng X.-Z.,Tongji University | Liu W.,Tongji University | Huang Z.-D.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Kuang C.-X.,Tongji University | Kuang C.-X.,Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment
Chinese Chemical Letters | Year: 2013

A series of 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles are synthesized by a one-pot process from anti-3-aryl-2,3-dibromopropanoic acids and organic azides mediated by sodium hydride in dimethyl sulfoxide. The reaction is mild and simple, does not require a transition-metal catalyst, and gives products in good to excellent yields. © 2013 Chun-Xiang Kuang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.


Wen M.,Zhejiang Citrus Research Institute | Wen M.,Southwest University | Shi X.,Southwest University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

Calcium (Ca), as an important nutrition, can regulate the physiological metabolic process and is closely related to fruit quality, the shelf life of fruit and physiological diseases during storage time. It is meaningful to study the relation of Ca nutrition and fruit quality and senescence for producing fruit with high quality, alleviating economic loss from rotten fruit and prolonging the fruit storage time. At present, there were some reports about Ca nutrition and fruit quality but many reported the effect of Ca on storage property of fruit by studying the respiration intensity and electric conductivity of fruits supplementing Ca solution on fruit during maturing stage or harvest time, few reported the effect of Ca on the inherent quality and the shelf life of fruits supplying Ca nutrition during fruit growing period. In order to make clear the effect of Ca nutrition sprayed on citrus trees in different growing periods on citrus fruit quality and senescence during storage time and propose comprehensive management measures for Ca nutrition of citrus orchards, the effect of Ca on fruit quality including vitamin C, total sugar, acid, total soluble solid (TSS), some enzymes and materials related to fruit senescence including peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), polygalacturonase (PG), cellulose (CX), malonaldehyde (MDA), protopectin (PP) and soluble pectin (SP) were studied in this paper. The effects of Ca on quality and enzyme activities of citrus fruits were studied by spraying calcium nitrate in different growth periods on Beibei-447 Jincheng orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Beibei-447 orange). The results showed that Ca mass fraction in citrus fruits increased significantly, the oxygenolysis of vitamin C was restrained, total soluble solid (TSS), the ratio of sugar and acid increased and the fruit quality were maintained during storage by spraying Ca on citrus trees in different growth periods. The activities of polygalacturonase (PG), cellulase (CX) and peroxidase (POD) of different Ca treatments decreased but those of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) increased because of high Ca mass fraction in fruits. The structure of cell was protected and lipid peroxidation was alleviated so that the mass fraction of malonaldehyde (MDA) and soluble pectin decreased, the senescence of fruit was postponed and the fruit was eventually kept in good during storage. The best effect on prolonging storage time of citrus fruit was to spray Ca on citrus trees in young fruit period, then spraying Ca on citrus trees in fruit rapid growth period and the worst was in fruit mature period. Spraying Ca on citrus trees in young fruit period and fruit rapid growth period were important measures to keep citrus fruit in good quality during storage.


Ye X.-Q.,Zhejiang University | Ye X.-Q.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Chen J.-C.,Zhejiang University | Liu D.-H.,Zhejiang University | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The naturally dropped fruits of nine mandarin cultivars were collected and evaluated for their potential use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or as nutraceutical materials. The main bioactive substances were analysed, including four flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin), two polymethoxlated flavones (nobiletin and tangeretin), and another two compounds of limonoid, and synephrine. The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS assays. Hesperidin and narirutin were the main flavanones in all tested cultivars. Naringin and neohesperidin were not detected in any of the mandarin cultivars except for Ougan, which contained 10.6 ± 0.6 mg/g naringin. The highest contents of nobiletin and tangeretin were found in Zhuhong (13.7 ± 0.4 and 12 ± 0.2 mg/g, respectively), and in Ougan (11.6 ± 0.1, 10.3 ± 0.1 mg/g, respectively). High synephrine levels were found in Zhuhong (22.5 ± 1.4 mg/g) and Manju (17.6 ± 0.3 mg/g). The limonoid content varied from 104.54 to 1128.13μg/g with the highest amounts in Manju. The extractable phenolic acids (free and ester form) were more prevalent than the bound forms. Ferulic and caffeic acids were predominate in both the extractable and bound phenolics. The TPC were in order from high to low: Zhuhong>Bendizao Wenzhang Satuma>Ponkan>Manju>Ougan>Shantian Satuma>Gongchuan Satuma>Rinan No. 1 Satuma. The antioxidant capacity followed a very similar trend when assayed by the FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS procedures. The results showed that the dropped fruit from super early to medium mature Satsuma, a world famous mandarin variety, contained relatively lower bioactive substances than the other local varieties. The results also suggest that the dropped mandarin fruit, especially the local varieties such as Zhuhong, Bendizao, Ougan, Manju, and Ponkan, could serve as a good source of extractable nutraceuticals and to serve as a raw material source for crude TCM. © 2010.

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