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Xin Y.F.,Zhejiang Academy of Medical science
Chirality | Year: 2010

In the present study, we analyzed the stereospecific pharmacodynamics and inversion of N(G)-nitro-arginine by an intravenous blous injection of L-N(G)-nitro-arginine (L-NNA) or D-N(G)-nitro-arginine (D-NNA) (10 mg/kg) in beagle dogs. Significant pressor responses were observed for both substances, though a similar maximum response induced by L-NNA was reached at 120 min slower as compared with D-NNA. The rise in mean arterial pressure (MAP) of D-NNA dogs was also shown to be slower than the L-NNA group. Our data showed that D-NNA had no impact on MAP within 60 min after its injection. Plasma L-NNA started to appear after 45 min posterior to the i.v. bolus injection of D-NNA. This chiral inversion is unidirectional because no D-NNA was not produced from L-NNA. The pressor response in the D-NNA-injected dogs was well parallel to the plasma L-NNA concentration. Similar disposition of N(G)-nitro-arginine enantiomers and 4% of chiral inversion ratio from D-NNA to L-NNA was found in the beagle dogs. Given that D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is the essential enzyme in chiral inversion of D-NNA, we further compared the enzymatic activity of the renal DAAO between dogs and rats. Our data showed that dogs had a significantly lower enzymatic activity than rats, thus supported a lower inversion ratio of D-NNA in dogs. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Tang G.,Tufts University | Hu Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Yin S.-A.,China National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety | Wang Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Medical science | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Golden Rice (GR) has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene for use as a source of vitamin A. Objective: The objective was to compare the vitamin A value of β-carotene in GR and in spinach with that of pure β-carotene in oil when consumed by children. Design: Children (n = 68; age 6-8 y) were randomly assigned to consume GR or spinach (both grown in a nutrient solution containing 23 atom% 2H 2O) or [ 2H 8]β-carotene in an oil capsule. The GR and spinach β-carotene were enriched with deuterium ( 2H) with the highest abundance molecular mass (M) at M β-C+ 2H 10. [ 13C 10]Retinyl acetate in an oil capsule was administered as a reference dose. Serum samples collected from subjects were analyzed by using gas chromatography electron-capture negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the enrichments of labeled retinol: M retinol+4 (from [ 2H 8]β-carotene in oil), M retinol+5 (from GR or spinach [ 2H 10]β-carotene), and M retinol+10 (from [ 13C 10]retinyl acetate). Results: Using the response to the dose of [ 13C 10]retinyl acetate (0.5 mg) as a reference, our results (with the use of AUC of molar enrichment at days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after the labeled doses) showed that the conversions of pure β-carotene (0.5 mg), GR β-carotene (0.6 mg), and spinach β-carotene (1.4 mg) to retinol were 2.0, 2.3, and 7.5 to 1 by weight, respectively. Conclusions: The β-carotene in GR is as effective as pure β-carotene in oil and better than that in spinach at providing vitamin A to children. A bowl of ∼100 to 150 g cooked GR (50 g dry weight) can provide ∼60% of the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamin A for 6-8-y-old children. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680212. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Zhuang F.C.,Zhejiang Academy of Medical science
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2010

To evaluate the long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine (H2 strain) after one dose injection, through a 15 years' follow up observation. A total of 220 children with negative anti-HAV antibody (aged 1-3 y) were involved and followed up in Jiaojiang district, Taizhou city, Zhejiang province. Indicators would include seroconversion and geometric mean titer (GMT) levels after inoculation the vaccine with single dose at 2 m, 12 m, 6 years, 10 years and 15 years. Epidemiological observation was carried out within the 15 years to evaluate the relationship between vaccine coverage, the incidence of HA and the overall effectiveness. In the studied population, serum was tested by ELISA (calibrated by WHO international reference) and ABBOTT Axsym HAVAB mEIA. Seroconversion rates were found to be 98.6% and 81.3% after 2 months and 15 years of inoculation and slowly decreased. GMT level was 128 mIU/ml after 15 years, significantly higher than the required protective level of 20 mIU/ml, recommended by WHO experts. Effectiveness through the 15-year follow up program showed a significant correlation between vaccine coverage and incidence of HA in 1-15 years aged group (Kendall-Rank test, τ =-0.931, P<0.01). There was no HA case seen among the observed accumulated 236 413 person-year vaccines, compared to 4 HA cases discovered in the 27 206 person-year of the non-vaccinees. The overall protective rate reached 100%. Through a mass vaccination program on children, the whole population established an immune-defence to enable the incidence of HA decreased by 96.7%. The long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2 strain) after one dose injection could last as long as 15 years. Source


Chen J.Q.,Zhejiang Academy of Medical science
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2012

To study the consistency between DR and high-kV chest radiographs in diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and to explore the feasibility of DR chest radiograph in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. Twenty five coal miners were examined with DR and high-kV chest radiographs at the same time. Image post-processing parameters (density, contrast, etc.) were set to ensure the quality of DR chest radiograph in Philips Essenta DR machine. In order to avoid the repetitive numbers, 50 chest radiographs were numbered at random. Pneumoconiosis diagnosis was conducted by six independent certified occupational physicians of pneumoconiosis by blind method. The consistency between 2 kinds of chest films was assessed. All chest radiographs (25 cases, 50 chest films) were excellent. The diagnosis results of six readers on the 15 pairs of DR and high-kV chest radiographies were summarized. For high-kV chest radiographs, the consistency of pneumoconiosis classification for 12 pairs of readers was more than 68%, the consistency of total density for 11 pairs of readers was more than 68%. For DR chest radiographs, the consistency of pneumoconiosis classification for 13 pairs of readers was more than 60%, the consistency of total density for 14 pairs of readers was more than 60%. The consistency of pneumoconiosis classification between two chest radiographs was 72% (value: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.46-0.92), the consistency of total density between two chest radiographs was 80% (value: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61-0.95). When the chest radiograph quality was good and the difference of reading films was low, there was a good consistency of pneumoconiosis diagnosis between DR chest radiographs and high-kV chest radiographs. Source


Chen J.Q.,Zhejiang Academy of Medical science
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2012

To explore the effects of image post-processing parameters on DR chest radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. Eighty three coal miners were examined with high-kV and DR chest radiographs at the same time. Image post-processing parameters (density, contrast and so on) were designed in a Philips Essenta DR machine were designed, then differences of image quality between high-kV and DR chest radiographs were compared. After regulating image and proceeding the parameters, the OD (optical density) values of high density areas in the upper-middle lung fields, subphrenic and direct exposure areas were 1.58 +/- 0.10, 0.23 +/- 0.02 and 2.80 +/- 0.21, respectively. The quality of chest films met the requirements of diagnostic criteria of pneumoconiosis. The rate of excellent chest films for DR chest radiograph was 95.18%, which was significantly higher than that (80.72%) for high-kV chest radiograph (P < 0.01). Appropriate parameters of image post-processing can make DR chest radiograph to meet the requirements of chest radiograph quality for the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. Source

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