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Zhang J.-M.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu Y.-L.,Ningbo Academy of Agricultural science | Lu Y.-B.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2013

A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 22 carbamate insecticides and 17 mycotoxins in cereals by ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Carbamates and mycotoxins were extracted from cereal samples using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) procedure without any further clean-up step. The extract was diluted with water containing 0.1% formic acid and 5.0mM ammonium acetate, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with water (0.1% formic acid, 0.50mM ammonium acetate)/methanol as mobile phase with gradient elution. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification. Blank samples (rice, wheat and corn) were fortified at 5, 10 and 50μg/kg except for five zearalenonic compounds at 25, 50 and 250μg/kg, and recoveries were in the range of 70-120%. Relative standard deviations were lower than 20% in all cases. The LOQ values were in the range of 0.20-29.7μg/kg. The method is suitable for the simultaneous determination of carbamate insecticides and mycotoxins in cereals. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 35min. © 2013.

Zhang J.-M.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chai W.-G.,The Ningbo Academy of Agricultural science | Wu Y.-L.,The Ningbo Academy of Agricultural science
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

The fate of chlorantraniliprole was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of chlorantraniliprole in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice. Chlorantraniliprole residues were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. The extract was cleaned up with QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The average recoveries were 76.9-82.4% from soil, 83.6-89.3% from rice straw, 95.2-103.1% from paddy water and 84.9-87.7% from brown rice. The relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The limits of detection (LODs) of chlorantraniliprole calculated as a sample concentration (S/N ratio of 3) were 0.012μgL -1 for paddy water, 0.15μgkg -1 for soil, brown rice and rice straw. The results of the kinetics study of chlorantraniliprole residue showed that chlorantraniliprole degradation in soil, water and rice straw coincided with C=0.01939e -0.0434t, C=0.01425e -0.8111t, and C=1.171e -0.198t, respectively; the half-lives were about 16.0 d, 0.85 d and 3.50d, respectively. The degradation rate of chlorantraniliprole in water was the fastest, followed by rice straw. The final residues of chlorantraniliprole on brown rice were lower than maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02mgkg -1 after 14d Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI). Therefore, a dosage of 150mL a.i.hm -2 was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang S.Y.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Gao H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Gao H.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The severity of decay in strawberries stored at either 5 °C or 10 °C was significantly reduced and the shelf-life was extended by immersing fruits in chitosan solutions of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100 mL for 5 min at 20 °C as compared to the control. Strawberries treated with chitosan also maintained better fruit quality with higher levels of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids (ellagic acid, ellagic acid glucoside, p-coumaroyl glucose, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-glucuronide, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside-succinate, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside-succinate), antioxidant enzyme activity [catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-POD), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR)], and oxygen radical absorbance capacity for peroxyl radicals (ROO.), hydroxyl radical radicals (OH; HOSC) and 2,2-Di (4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) than the untreated fruits. Chitosan treatments retarded the decrease of ascorbic acid (ASA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content and β-1,3-glucanase activities compared to control. The high contents of antioxidants, antioxidant activity, ASA and GSH and high activity of β-1,3-glucanase in the treated strawberries reinforced the microbial defense mechanism of the fruit and accentuated the resistance against fungal invasion. Therefore, the application of chitosan coating could be favorable in extending shelf-life, maintaining quality and controlling decay of strawberries. © 2012.

Liu Y.-H.,University of Newcastle | Liu Y.-H.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Offler C.E.,University of Newcastle | Ruan Y.-L.,University of Newcastle
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013

A large body of evidence shows that sugars function both as nutrients and signals to regulate fruit and seed set under normal and stress conditions including heat and drought. Inadequate sucrose import to, and its degradation within, reproductive organs cause fruit and seed abortion under heat and drought. As nutrients, sucrose-derived hexoses provide carbon skeletons and energy for growth and development of fruits and seeds. Sugar metabolism can also alleviate the impact of stress on fruit and seed through facilitating biosynthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and non-enzymic antioxidants (e.g., glutathione, ascorbic acid), which collectively maintain the integrity of membranes and prevent programmed cell death (PCD) through protecting proteins and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). In parallel, sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), also exert signaling roles through cross-talk with hormone and ROS signaling pathways and by mediating cell division and PCD. At the same time, emerging data indicate that sugar-derived signaling systems, including trehalose-6 phosphate (T6P), sucrose non-fermenting related kinase-1 (SnRK), and the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase complex also play important roles in regulating plant development through modulating nutrient and energy signaling and metabolic processes, especially under abiotic stresses where sugar availability is low. This review aims to evaluate recent progress of research on abiotic stress responses of reproductive organs focusing on roles of sugar metabolism and signaling and addressing the possible biochemical and molecular mechanism by which sugars regulate fruit and seed set under heat and drought. © 2013 Liu.

Liu Q.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Zhang H.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Arsenic is highly toxic to living organisms including humans and plants. To investigate the responsive functions of miRNAs under arsenite stress, an indica rice, Minghui 86, has been deeply sequenced, and a total of 67 arsenite-responsive miRNAs were identified in rice seedling roots, of which 5 were further validated experimentally. The potential targets of those differential miRNAs include some transcription factors, protein kinases, and DNA- or metal ion-binding proteins that are associated with cellular and metabolic processes, pigmentation, and stress responses. The regulatory roles of four miRNAs on their targets in response to arsenite were further confirmed by real time RT-PCR. Interestingly, osa-miR6256 was originally characterized as a putative exonic miRNA, supporting the notion that miRNAs may also originate from some exons in plants. The first identification of arsenite-responsive miRNAs at the whole genome-wide level will broaden the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of arsenite responses in rice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Song X.M.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) has important roles in regulating food intake, energy balance, and body weight in mammals. In pigs and cattle, MC4R mutations have been identified as genetic markers for growth and traits. Compared with abundant research conducted on other livestock species, little is known about mutations of the ovine MC4R gene. We investigated the effect of MC4R polymorphisms on birth weight and on 45-day weaning weight in 144 Hu sheep. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; g.1016 G/A, g.1240 T/C, g.1264 G/A, and g.1325 A/G) were identified in the 3-untranslated region of Hu sheep MC4R by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. A haplotype block, containing g.1240 T/C, g.1264 G/A, and g.1325 A/G, was constructed within the Hu sheep MC4R gene. Four SNPs were found to be significantly associated with 45-day weaning weight, while the haplotype block was significantly associated with birth weight. Hu sheep with the genotypes GG in g.1016 G/A or with the genotype CCAAGG in the haplotype block, had higher 45-day weaning weights. We conclude that these 4 SNPs of the MC4R gene have potential as genetic markers for early growth traits in Hu sheep.

Wang H.-J.,Jiangsu University | Chen X.-Y.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

Combination of two kinds of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is an effective approach to control wastewater pollution. In this research, a pulsed discharge plasma system with multi-point-to-plate electrode and an immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis system is coupled to oxidize target pollutant in aqueous solution. Kinetic analysis (pseudo-first order kinetic constant, k) and energy efficiency (energy yield value at 50% phenol conversion, G50) of phenol oxidation in different reaction systems (plasma alone and plasma-photocatalysis) are reviewed to account for the synergistic mechanism of plasma and photocatalysis. The experimental results show that higher k and G50 of phenol oxidation can be obtained in the plasma-photocatalysis system under the conditions of different gas bubbling varieties, initial solution pH and radical scavenger addition. Moreover, the investigation tested hydroxyl radical (OH) is the most important species for phenol removal in the synergistic system of plasma-photocatalysis as well as in the plasma alone system. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Conventional hybridization and selection techniques have aided the development of new ornamental crop cultivars. However, little information is available on the genetic divergence of bromeliad hybrids. In the present study, we investigated the genetic variability in interspecific hybrids of Aechmea gomosepala and A. recurvata var. recurvata using inflorescence characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The morphological analysis showed that the putative hybrids were intermediate between both parental species with respect to inflorescence characteristics. The 16 SRAP primer combinations yield 265 bands, among which 154 (57.72%) were polymorphic. The genetic similarity was an average of 0.59 and ranged from 0.21 to 0.87, indicating moderate genetic divergence among the hybrids. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based cluster analysis distinguished the hybrids from their parents with a genetic distance coefficient of 0.54. The cophenetic correlation was 0.93, indicating a good fit between the dendrogram and the original distance matrix. The two-dimensional plot from the principal coordinate analysis showed that the hybrids were intermediately dispersed between both parents, corresponding to the results of the UPGMA cluster and the morphological analysis. These results suggest that SRAP markers could help to identify breeders, characterize F(1) hybrids of bromeliads at an early stage, and expedite genetic improvement of bromeliad cultivars.

Xu H.-X.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen J.-W.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Modern consumers are increasingly interested in their personal health and expect the food they purchase to be tasty and attractive while being safe and healthful. The aim of this study was to determine the commercial quality, characterise the antioxidant capacity and quantify the major bioactive compounds of 12 cultivars of loquat fruits in order to establish a database for utilising these germplasm resources. RESULTS: Of the 12 cultivars, 'Guanyu' produced the biggest fruits, while 'Tianzhong' and 'Bingtangzhong' had the highest soluble solids content but the lowest titratable acidity. 'Taipinghong' was reddest in colour. Sucrose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol were the major sugars in loquat fruits, with the highest total sugar content being observed in 'Bingtangzhong' and 'Tianzhong'. Phenolics and flavonoids were the main bioactive compounds and were abundant in 'Tianzhong' and 'Zhaozhong'. 'Taipinghong' had the highest total carotenoid content, while 'Qingzhong' had the highest vitamin C content. 'Tianzhong', 'Bingtangzhong' and 'Ninghaibai' showed higher antioxidant activity than the other cultivars, as measured by assays of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). CONCLUSION: Commercial fruit quality, major bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity varied greatly among the 12 cultivars. 'Bingtangzhong' and 'Tianzhong' were the highest-ranking cultivars based on their good commercial quality and high nutritional value. The loquat fruits with higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents also had clearly higher antioxidant capacities. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Zhang G.W.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B | Year: 2013

The development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) provided a useful tool for investigating plant genetic diversity. In the present study, 22 polymorphic EST-SSRs from grain soybean were identified and used to assess the genetic diversity in 48 vegetable soybean accessions. Among the 22 EST-SSR loci, tri-nucleotides were the most abundant repeats, accounting for 50.00% of the total motifs. GAA was the most common motif among tri-nucleotide repeats, with a frequency of 18.18%. Polymorphic analysis identified a total of 71 alleles, with an average of 3.23 per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.144 to 0.630, with a mean of 0.386. Observed heterozygosity (Ho) values varied from 0.0196 to 1.0000, with an average of 0.6092, while the expected heterozygosity (He) values ranged from 0.1502 to 0.6840, with a mean value of 0.4616. Principal coordinate analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the accessions could be assigned to different groups based to a large extent on their geographic distribution, and most accessions from China were clustered into the same groups. These results suggest that Chinese vegetable soybean accessions have a narrow genetic base. The results of this study indicate that EST-SSRs from grain soybean have high transferability to vegetable soybean, and that these new markers would be helpful in taxonomy, molecular breeding, and comparative mapping studies of vegetable soybean in the future.

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