Zhangzhou, China
Zhangzhou, China

Zhangzhou Normal University is a public university located in Zhangzhou, Fujian, China. Wikipedia.


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Li A.,Xiamen University | Zhang A.,Zhangzhou Normal University
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Due to large incremental carbon emissions, China might become an important target country of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments). To levy CBTA could reduce China's emissions. Meanwhile, China's emissions reduction could also be achieved by China's climate policies (termed as CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies). This paper contributes to the discussion on CBTA by comparing the potential regional effects of CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. The main findings are as follows: (1) CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies would result in relocations of outputs across regions and countries, affect the structure of economy and contribute to world's emissions reduction. (2) There would be significant differences in the regional effects between CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. (3) Compared to carbon tax, CBTA would be a costly and inefficient policy instrument to reduce emissions, but could function as an effective coercion strategy. (4) These policies would result in competitiveness issue and rebound effects, wherein different countries would be affected differently. China is a large economy and energy consumer with high openness to international trade. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should consider the potential interactions between China and other economies when designing tax reforms. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhu W.,Zhangzhou Normal University | Wang F.-Y.,CAS Institute of Automation
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

As a technique for granular computing, rough sets deal with the vagueness and granularity in information systems. Covering-based rough sets have been proposed to generalize this theory for wider application. Three types of covering-based rough sets have been studied for different situations. To make the theory more complete, this paper proposes a fourth type of covering-based rough sets. Compared with the existing ones, the new type shows its special characteristic in the interdependency between its lower and upper approximations. We carry out a systematical study of this new theory. First, we discuss basic properties such as normality, contraction, and monotone. Then we investigate the conditions for this type of covering-based rough sets to satisfy the properties of Pawlak's rough sets and study the interdependency between the lower and upper approximation operations. In addition, axiomatic systems for the lower and upper approximation operations are established. Lastly, we address the relationships between this type of covering-based rough sets and the three existing ones. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Yang H.,Zhangzhou Normal University
Biochemical Genetics | Year: 2013

l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GULO) catalyzes the final step in vertebrate vitamin C biosynthesis. Vitamin C-incapable vertebrates lack the GULO gene. Gene structure and phylogenetic analyses showed that vertebrate GULO genes are 64-95% identical at the amino acid level and consist of 11 conserved exons. GULO pseudogenes have multiple indel mutations and premature stop codons in higher primates, guinea pigs, and some bats. No GULO-like sequences were identified in teleost fishes. During animal GULO evolution, exon F was subdivided into F1 and F2. Additional GULO retropseudogenes were identified in dogs, cats, and giant pandas. GULO-flanking genome regions acquired frequent segment translocations and inversions during vertebrate evolution. Purifying selection was detected across vertebrate GULO genes (d N/d S = 0.069), except for some positively selected sites identified in sharks and frogs. These positive sites demonstrated little functional significance when mapped onto the three-dimensional GULO protein structure. Vertebrate GULO genes are conserved except for those that are lost. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Chen J.,Zhangzhou Normal University | Li J.,Zhangzhou Normal University
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

This paper studies the testing bipartiteness of simple undirected graphs based on generalized rough sets. A new binary relation induced from a simple undirected graph is first defined. The concept of quasi-outer definable sets is then introduced, and some of its important properties are investigated. Finally, based on the quasi-outer definable set, a new algorithm is designed for testing bipartiteness of a simple undirected graph. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than the traditional one when the graph is represented by an adjacency matrix. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Zhang J.-Y.,Zhangzhou Normal University
European Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2014

Let M=CM(G,X,p) be a regular Cayley map, and let φ be the corresponding skew-morphism. If the power function of φ assumes exactly i values in Z|X|, then M is called of skew-type i. Note that regular balanced Cayley maps are of skew-type 1, and regular t-balanced (including anti-balanced) Cayley maps are of skew-type 2. Those two classes of maps have been studied by many researchers. In this paper, some results on regular Cayley maps of skew-type 3 for abelian groups are given. As applications, many new regular Cayley maps for abelian groups are constructed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Chen X.-B.,Zhangzhou Normal University
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

The n-dimensional folded hypercube FQn is an important variant of the n-dimensional hypercube Qn, which is obtained from Q n by adding an edge between any pair of vertices with complementary addresses. The diameter of FQn is âŒ̂n/ 2⌉, about half the diameter of Qn. A set of k(≥2) spanning trees rooted at the same vertex r in a graph G is said to be independent if for each vertex x other than r, the k paths from r to x, with one path in each spanning tree, are internally disjoint. By using independent spanning trees (ISTs) one can design fault-tolerant broadcasting schemes and increase message security in a network. Recently, Yang et al. proposed an algorithm, which can be parallelized, for constructing n + 1 ISTs on FQ n with the height of each spanning tree being n. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for constructing n + 1 optimal ISTs on FQn in the sense that there is a shortest path between the only child of the root r and any other vertex in each spanning tree (therefore, the height of each spanning tree is âŒ̂n/2⌉ + 1). Moreover, the algorithm runs in time O((n + 1)N) and can be parallelized to run by using N = 2n processors on FQn in time O(n). © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Zhu W.,Zhangzhou Normal University | Wang S.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics | Year: 2011

Rough set theory is a useful tool for dealing with the vagueness, granularity and uncertainty in information systems. This paper connects generalized rough sets based on relations with matroid theory. We define the upper approximation number to induce a matroid from a relation. Therefore, many matroidal approaches can be used to study generalized rough sets based on relations. Specifically, with the rank function of the matroid induced by a relation, we construct a pair of approximation operators, namely, matroid approximation operators. The matroid approximation operators present some unique properties which do not exist in the existing approximation operators. On the other hand, we present an approach to induce a relation from a matroid. Moreover, the relationship between two inductions is studied. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Lin P.,Zhangzhou Normal University
International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics | Year: 2012

Discernibility matrices play an important role in the attribute reduction of information systems. The reduction of a family of general relations, which preserves the topological base, is an extension of the attribute reduction of information systems. In this paper, we construct a new discernibility matrix for the topological reduction of a family of general relations. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Min F.,Zhangzhou Normal University | Zhu W.,Zhangzhou Normal University
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

In data mining applications, we have a number of measurement methods to obtain a data item with different test costs and different error ranges. Test costs refer to time, money, or other resources spent in obtaining data items related to some object; observational errors correspond to differences in measured and true value of a data item. In supervised learning, we need to decide which data items to obtain and which measurement methods to employ, so as to minimize the total test cost and help in constructing classifiers. This paper studies this problem in four steps. First, data models are built to address error ranges and test costs. Second, error-range-based covering rough set is constructed to define lower and upper approximations, positive regions, and relative reducts. A closely related theory deals with neighborhood rough set, which has been successfully applied to heterogeneous attribute reduction. The major difference between the two theories is the definition of neighborhood. Third, the minimal test cost attribute reduction problem is redefined in the new theory. Fourth, both backtrack and heuristic algorithms are proposed to deal with the new problem. The algorithms are tested on ten UCI (University of California - Irvine) datasets. Experimental results show that the backtrack algorithm is efficient on rational-sized datasets, the weighting mechanism for the heuristic information is effective, and the competition approach can improve the quality of the result significantly. This study suggests new research trends concerning attribute reduction and covering rough set. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Zhu W.,Zhangzhou Normal University | Wang S.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

Rough sets provide an efficient tool for attribute reduction and rule extraction. However, many important problems in rough set theory, including attribute reduction, are NP-hard and therefore the algorithms for solving them are usually greedy. As a generalization of linear independence in vector spaces, matroids have wide applications in diverse fields, particularly in greedy algorithm design. In this paper, we propose an integration of rough sets and matroids to exploit the advantages of both theories. Specifically, we present definitions of lower and upper rough matroids based on relations from the viewpoint of approximation operators. It is interesting that lower rough matroids based on partial orders coincide with poset matroids, which are a well-known generalization of matroids. A matroid is represented by the lower rough matroid based on both a partial order and an equivalence relation. Lower and upper rough matroids based on equivalence relations coincide with each other. Finally, we present some special types of examples of rough matroids from the viewpoints of approximations and graphs. These interesting results demonstrate the potential for the combination between rough sets and matroids. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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