Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural Science

Zhangjiakou, China

Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural Science

Zhangjiakou, China
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Gao L.,Agricultural University of Hebei | Zhang W.-H.,Agricultural University of Hebei | Du X.,Agricultural University of Hebei | Guo J.,Hebei North University | And 3 more authors.
Acta Agronomica Sinica | Year: 2017

Hybrid millet is a new type of foxtail millet and widely planted in semi-arid plateau area in North China. However, drought is one of the major limited factors for increasing grain yield effectively. So we conducted field experiments in 2013 (wet year) and 2014 (dry year) to examine the effect of supplementary irrigation with plastic-film mulching on yield formation and water use efficiency of hybrid millet. For hybrid millet, 40-80 days after sowing was the critical period of water requirement, the supplementary irrigation at jointing stage helped to increase seed heads quantity, from jointing to heading not less than 110 mm of evapotranspiration (ET) was the sufficient condition for producing enough biomass. Achieving a higher grain yield needed an ET of 400 mm during whole growing season. The biomass at heading stage determined the subsequent grain yield with a characteristic of "stage hierarchy determination", supplementary irrigation with plastic-film mulching increased biomass at heading stage significantly. Under mulching of wet year or in dry year, supplementary irrigation increased dry matter production after flowering. In dry year under rainfed condition dry matter after flowering accumulated in vegetative organs, supplementary irrigation promoted to translocate the dry matter from vegetative organs into grains. Under supplementary irrigation, plastic-film mulching increased grain yield by 10.1%-18.6% and WUE by 10.7%-19.4% compared with un-mulching, respectively. In dry year, because of the persistent drought before heading, under rainfed condition plastic-film mulching resulted in a grain yield lower than un-mulching, supplementary irrigation was a necessary condition for increasing yield and WUE. In wet year, supplementary irrigation decreased WUE, plastic-film mulching increased grain yield and improved the yield-increasing effect of supplementary irrigation. In dry year, the yield-increasing effect of supplementary irrigation was better than that of plastic-film mulching. In conclusion, plastic-film mulching combined with suit irrigation at jointing and/or heading is an effective way to increase yield and WUE of hybrid millet.

Lu H.B.,Hebei North University | Qiao Y.M.,Hebei North University | Gong X.C.,Hebei North University | Li H.Q.,Hebei Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Photosynthetica | Year: 2015

In order to elucidate the drought resistance and high-yield mechanism of hybrid millet, we studied the influence of drought stress on the photosynthetic characteristics and dry matter accumulation. Our results revealed that drought stress caused lesser reduction in the net photosynthetic rate, maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, excitation energy capture efficiency of PSII reaction centers and in the yield of hybrid millet compared to normal millet. When drought stress occurred in the jointing stage, the percentage decrease of PN, Fv/Fm, Fv′/Fm′, and the yield of Zhangzagu3 cultivar compared to control were 27.9%, 2.6%, 25. 5%, and 1.9%, respectively, the percentage decrease of Zhangzagu5 were 37.6%, 3.9%, 28.3%, and 16.7%, respectively, the decrease percentage of Datong29 were 60.1%, 6.4%, 4%, and 23.4%, respectively. Hybrid millet showed the similar reduction in the parameters referred above, when drought stress occurred at the heading stage, but the percentage decrease was much higher than that at the jointing stage. We concluded that hybrid millet showed higher drought resistance than normal millet. © 2015, The Institute of Experimental Botany.

Wang J.,BGI Shenzhen | Wang J.,Key Laboratory of Genomics | Zhang G.,BGI Shenzhen | Zhang G.,Key Laboratory of Genomics | And 49 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C 4 biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb) anchored onto nine chromosomes and annotated 38,801 genes. Key chromosome reshuffling events were detected through collinearity identification between foxtail millet, rice and sorghum including two reshuffling events fusing rice chromosomes 7 and 9, 3 and 10 to foxtail millet chromosomes 2 and 9, respectively, that occurred after the divergence of foxtail millet and rice, and a single reshuffling event fusing rice chromosome 5 and 12 to foxtail millet chromosome 3 that occurred after the divergence of millet and sorghum. Rearrangements in the C 4 photosynthesis pathway were also identified. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Liu H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou H.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural Science | Ren G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

Naked oat is an important grain cereal that originated in, and is cultivated mostly in, China. Naked oat grain has a good processing performance because it is hulless. Its products are important sources of good nutritional protein, dietary fibre, unsaturated fatty acid and polyphenol, all of which have demonstrable benefits for human health. To select the appropriate industry material and develop genotypes with a high nutrient content more efficiently, a fast screening method is needed. In the present study, calibration models were developed from Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectra of whole grain and milled grain samples for the estimation of protein, starch, lipid, β-glucan and avenanthramides content in naked oats from an initial set. The optimised models of protein, starch, lipid, β-glucan and avenanthramides in whole grain/milled samples indicated coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.98/0.98, 0.97/0.98, 0.97/0.97, 0.98/0.98 and 0.90/0.90 and root mean square errors of cross-validation of 0.40/0.35%, 0.59/0.52%, 0.27/0.24%, 0.09/0.06% and 60.4/59.2 mg kg-1. Test validations yielded root mean square errors of prediction of 0.46/0.40%, 0.68/0.63%, 0.26/0.26%, 0.10/0.09% and 47.7/46.3 mg kg-1 with residual predictive deviations of 5.38/6.30, 5.07/5.15, 6.06/6.24, 5.13/6.17 and 3.37/3.56. These findings showed that FT-NIR could be used as a rapid and accurate method for selecting higher-quality naked oats in a breeding programme as well as for quality control by the food industry. © IM Publications LLP 2014.

Yang C.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural science | Zhou H.T.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural science | Shi X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang X.J.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2016

A dominant male-sterile mutant of naked oat (Avena nuda L. ‘Zbs1’) was identified in a plant breeding program for accession A. nuda ‘Pin5’, a widely cultivated naked oat variety in northwest China. No significant differences were detected between Zbs1 and wild-type plants during the vegetative growth stage. However, at the reproductive stage Zbs1 was significantly different from wild-type in terms of spikelet morphology and anther development. Iodine-potassium iodide staining, fluorescein diacetate staining, and germination tests showed that more than 95% of the Zbs1 pollen grains were not viable. Aniline blue staining showed that callose was absent or degraded during the dyad and tetrad stages of microsporogenesis. Furthermore, genetic and histological analyses revealed that Zbs1 is a dominant male-sterile mutant with a stable, heritable phenotype that is not affected by cytoplasmic or environmental factors (e.g., location and photoperiod). These results indicate that Zbs1 is a novel, stable male-sterile mutant of naked oat that can be used in breeding programs to facilitate recurrent selection and multi-crossing schemes. © Crop Science Society of America | 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved.

Xie Y.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop Science | Xie Y.,Gansu Agricultural University | Niu J.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop Science | Niu J.,Gansu Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2014

Improving nutrient management is critical to increase nutrient use efficiency, promote translocation of photoassimilates to sinks, and increase crop yield. In this study, we determined the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilization on dry matter (DM) and P accumulation, partitioning and remobilization from vegetative tissues to the grains in oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). We hypothesized that P accumulation and remobilization depended on the level of P supply and varied with vegetative tissues. The cultivar Baxuan 3 was sown under low P (LP, 15 kg P ha-1), moderate P (MP, 30 kg P ha-1), and high P (HP, 45 kg P ha-1) conditions along with a zero P control in a randomized complete block design, with three replicates, in 2011 and 2012. At mid-anthesis, leaf DM (average 1970 kg ha-1) and stem DM (average 1826 kg ha-1) were more than 20 times that of the nongrain reproductive DM (77 kg ha-1); as plants grew to maturity, the DM in the stem and nongrain reproductive parts increased but leaf DM decreased. Compared with the control, oilseed flax grown under the LP, MP, and HP conditions increased leaf DM by 76%, stem DM by 46%, nongrain reproductive DM by 39%, and improved grain yield by an average of 45%. The fertilized oilseed flax increased the P translocation from vegetative tissues to the grains by 150% in 2011 and 201% in 2012. The P content in leaves reached the peak at anthesis and then decreased rapidly to maturity, whereas P contents in the stem and nongrain reproductive parts increased gradually and reached the peak at maturity, showing that leaves are the major contributor to the grain P, whereas the stem and nongrain reproductive parts are stronger P-demanding organs in oilseed flax. We suggest that advanced techniques, such as 32P labeling, may be used to further quantify the amount of P remobilized from the stems and nongrain reproductive parts to the grain. © Crop Science Society of America.

Sun S.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu Z.-D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu D.-X.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural science
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

In July 2014, brown lesions similar to Ascochyta blight were observed on all aerial parts of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants growing in a field located at Zhangjiakou (41.16° N; 114.72° E), Hebei Province, North China. Symptoms were severe, with more than 80% of the plants infected and almost complete yield loss. Infected leaves and pods displayed circular lesions with brown margins and gray-white centers containing numerous pycnidia arranged in concentric rings. Lesions on petioles, stems, and branches were elongated. At later stages of disease, lesions enlarged and girdled the stem, causing it to break and leading to plant death. Diseased pods produced shriveled and discolored seeds or failed to develop seeds. To isolate the causal agent, diseased tissues were collected and cut into 2-mm sections, surface-disinfested in 1% NaOCl solution for 1 min, rinsed three times in sterile distilled water, placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing streptomycin sulfate, and incubated at 25°C with a 12-h photoperiod for 2 weeks. Four isolates (CAr01, CAr02, CAr03, and CAr04) were obtained from diseased tissue. All colonies were dark-gray to black with sparse hyphae and grew to 25 to 32 mm in diameter after 14 days on PDA. All isolates produced abundant pycnidia on the colonies after 10 days of incubation. Pycnidia were dark-brown to black, globose or pear shaped, and ostiolate. Pycnidia released abundant conidia after 2 weeks. Conidia (6.1 to 10.8 × 3.2 to 4.7 μm) were cylindrical to ellipse, hyaline, aseptate, and one-celled with several guttules at both ends. These morphological features are consistent with those of Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labrousse (teleomorph Didymella rabiei) (Punithalingam and Holliday 1972). Sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of all four isolates were determined and deposited as GenBank Accession Nos. KP859583, KP859584, KP859585, and KP859586. Sequences showed 97 to 100% identity to several reported A. rabieistrains according to BLAST analysis. Morphological identification and molecular analysis confirmed the isolates as A. rabiei. Pathogenicity tests of four isolates were performed on 12-day-old seedlings of chickpea cv. ‘Muying 1’ inoculated with a conidial suspension of 1.0 × 106 conidia/ml. Inoculated plants were incubated at 20°C and 100% relative humidity for 3 days, and then moved to a greenhouse at 22°C for 11 days. Control plants were treated in the same way with sterile distilled water. Five days after inoculation, lesions on stems and leaves of inoculated plants were observed. At 10 days after inoculation, inoculated seedlings showed wilting and death. By 2 weeks after inoculation, numerous pycnidia with sporulating masses of conidia were produced on the stems. There were no disease symptoms on control plants. The pathogen was reisolated from inoculated plants, thus fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Previously, only one province (Xinjiang) in China had reported Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Bai et al. 2011). To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. rabiei inducing Ascochyta blight on chickpeas in North China. A. rabiei is a seed-borne pathogen; therefore, the outbreak of Ascochyta blight might have been facilitated by frequent exchange of seeds. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society.

Shi X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu J.-X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou H.-T.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural science | Yang X.-H.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2016

During meiosis in flowering plants, degradation of the callose wall in tetrads releases newly produced microspores, which develop into mature pollen grains. In this study, we identified zbs1, a male-sterile mutant of naked oat (Avena nuda L.) that displayed complete spikelet sterility due to inviable mature pollen. The abnormal pollen grains originated from microspores with a defective callose wall and cell plate during meiosis. The defective callose wall and cell plate of the zbs1 mutant were detected by the labeling of cell wall epitopes (β-1,3-glucan) with immunogold during meiosis, and an abnormal chromosome configuration was observed by propidium iodide staining. The mature pollen grains of the zbs1 mutant were irregular in shape, and abnormal germination was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Together, our results indicate that the cause of male sterility in zbs1 is abnormal meiosis. © 2016 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Sun H.-X.,Northwest University, China | Wang W.,Northwest University, China | Wang W.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang P.,Northwest University, China | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

To explore the effects of straw mulching on soil moisture and yield of watermelon, corn straw was used as mulching materials, and three straw mulch treatments were performed, i. e., whole mulch (WM), rows mulch (SM) and root domain mulch (RM), and non-mulching as control. The results indicated that WM and RM treatments increased significantly soil water storage in 0-120 cm of soil layer under root domain and rows compared with the control during watermelon growth period, and soil water storage of RM was higher than that of SM after growing tendril. Effects of all straw mulch treatments on soil moisture were most obvious from watermelon post-growing tendril to pre-swelling and maturity. With the growth and development of watermelon, the three straw mulch treatments improved soil moisture around root domain, resulting in increased watermelon yields. Compared with the CK, the WM, SM and RM treatments significantly improved the yield and the water use efficiency of watermelon by 24.8%, 11.5% and 15.1%, and 42.7%, 24.3% and 29.4%. The WM with 13500 kg·hm-2 straw was recommended for watermelon production in arid areas due to its favorable effect on soil storage moisture, yield and water use efficiency.

Dong B.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Liu M.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Jiang J.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Jiang J.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2014

In order to analyze the effect of plastic mulching on water use efficiency of spring hybrid millet (Setaria italica), field experiments were conducted during the 2012 growing season, at an experimental station located in a semi-arid region of North China. Four treatments were applied: (i) plastic mulching of ridges and furrow sowing (T1), (ii) ridges and furrows without plastic mulch (T0), (iii) flat soil with plastic mulch (A1), and (iv) flat soil with no plastic mulch (A0) (control). Dynamics of soil moisture and soil temperature, together with crop growth, were monitored continuously in both mulched and unmulched fields. Changes in water consumption, soil temperature, and plant growth and development were analyzed. Results indicated that plastic mulching produced a 2-5-day advance in emergence of each growth stage. Soil temperature at 0-15. cm depth increased by 1.25. °C and 0.84. °C under mulched treatments A1 and T1, respectively, while soil water content at a depth of 0-10. cm increased by 1.42% and 1.29% in the same treatments. Leaf area index and plant height were also significantly higher in plastic-mulched treatments, except in later growth stages. Because plastic mulching improved tiller and ear numbers significantly, grain yield increased by 13.25% and 6.64%, in Al and T1 treatments, respectively. Water use efficiency at yield levels of plastic-mulched A1 and T1 plots was 24.44% and 3.6% higher than in unmulched flat and furrowed plots, respectively. Plastic mulching significantly reduced water consumption, retained soil water content, and increased soil temperature, to promote spring hybrid millet germination, and increased tiller numbers, and consequently, aboveground dry matter; it eventually significantly improved grain yield and water use efficiency. Plastic film mulching produced greater grain yield, water use efficiency, and benefits when used in flat planting patterns. © 2014.

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