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Xie Y.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop Science | Xie Y.,Gansu Agricultural University | Gan Y.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop Science | Gan Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 7 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2015

Oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) yields are primarily fertilizer-limited, especially by N supply in the semiarid regions of North China. This study was conducted to determine whether N accumulation, translocation and N use efficiency (NUE) could be manipulated through N. The effects of N on N translocation, oilseed flax yield, oil content and NUE were studied at Zhangjiakou, China. Plants were grown at 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg N ha-1 (designated as the control, low N, moderate N, and high N, respectively), in 2011 and 2012. We found that N accumulation in leaves and capsule pericarps reached the maximum at anthesis and kernel developmental stage, respectively, then decreased rapidly before maturity. Averaged over 2 yr, N translocation from leaves to the seeds increased by 43, 150, and 150% under low N, moderate N, and high N, respectively, compared to the control; similarly, N translocation in capsule pericarps increased by 43, 243, and 190%, respectively. We discovered that leaves contributed the largest proportion of the seed N (averaging 80% in both years), and secondarily by the capsule pericarp N, which contributed 12% (in 2011) and 9% (in 2012) of the seed N. The highest seed yields were 2270 kg ha-1 (in 2011) and 1903 kg ha-1 (in 2012) which were obtained with the moderate N. Oil content was not affected by N. Nitrogen use efficiency decreased with progressively higher rates of N. The results suggest the moderate-N supply was adequate for promoting N translocation, and increasing N harvest index, NUE, and the productivity of oilseed flax. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Source

Wang J.,BGI Shenzhen | Wang J.,Key Laboratory of Genomics | Zhang G.,BGI Shenzhen | Zhang G.,Key Laboratory of Genomics | And 49 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C 4 biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb) anchored onto nine chromosomes and annotated 38,801 genes. Key chromosome reshuffling events were detected through collinearity identification between foxtail millet, rice and sorghum including two reshuffling events fusing rice chromosomes 7 and 9, 3 and 10 to foxtail millet chromosomes 2 and 9, respectively, that occurred after the divergence of foxtail millet and rice, and a single reshuffling event fusing rice chromosome 5 and 12 to foxtail millet chromosome 3 that occurred after the divergence of millet and sorghum. Rearrangements in the C 4 photosynthesis pathway were also identified. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Liu H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou H.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural Science | Ren G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

Naked oat is an important grain cereal that originated in, and is cultivated mostly in, China. Naked oat grain has a good processing performance because it is hulless. Its products are important sources of good nutritional protein, dietary fibre, unsaturated fatty acid and polyphenol, all of which have demonstrable benefits for human health. To select the appropriate industry material and develop genotypes with a high nutrient content more efficiently, a fast screening method is needed. In the present study, calibration models were developed from Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectra of whole grain and milled grain samples for the estimation of protein, starch, lipid, β-glucan and avenanthramides content in naked oats from an initial set. The optimised models of protein, starch, lipid, β-glucan and avenanthramides in whole grain/milled samples indicated coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.98/0.98, 0.97/0.98, 0.97/0.97, 0.98/0.98 and 0.90/0.90 and root mean square errors of cross-validation of 0.40/0.35%, 0.59/0.52%, 0.27/0.24%, 0.09/0.06% and 60.4/59.2 mg kg-1. Test validations yielded root mean square errors of prediction of 0.46/0.40%, 0.68/0.63%, 0.26/0.26%, 0.10/0.09% and 47.7/46.3 mg kg-1 with residual predictive deviations of 5.38/6.30, 5.07/5.15, 6.06/6.24, 5.13/6.17 and 3.37/3.56. These findings showed that FT-NIR could be used as a rapid and accurate method for selecting higher-quality naked oats in a breeding programme as well as for quality control by the food industry. © IM Publications LLP 2014. Source

Sun S.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu Z.-D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu D.-X.,Zhangjiakou Academy of Agricultural Science
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

In July 2014, brown lesions similar to Ascochyta blight were observed on all aerial parts of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants growing in a field located at Zhangjiakou (41.16° N; 114.72° E), Hebei Province, North China. Symptoms were severe, with more than 80% of the plants infected and almost complete yield loss. Infected leaves and pods displayed circular lesions with brown margins and gray-white centers containing numerous pycnidia arranged in concentric rings. Lesions on petioles, stems, and branches were elongated. At later stages of disease, lesions enlarged and girdled the stem, causing it to break and leading to plant death. Diseased pods produced shriveled and discolored seeds or failed to develop seeds. To isolate the causal agent, diseased tissues were collected and cut into 2-mm sections, surface-disinfested in 1% NaOCl solution for 1 min, rinsed three times in sterile distilled water, placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing streptomycin sulfate, and incubated at 25°C with a 12-h photoperiod for 2 weeks. Four isolates (CAr01, CAr02, CAr03, and CAr04) were obtained from diseased tissue. All colonies were dark-gray to black with sparse hyphae and grew to 25 to 32 mm in diameter after 14 days on PDA. All isolates produced abundant pycnidia on the colonies after 10 days of incubation. Pycnidia were dark-brown to black, globose or pear shaped, and ostiolate. Pycnidia released abundant conidia after 2 weeks. Conidia (6.1 to 10.8 × 3.2 to 4.7 μm) were cylindrical to ellipse, hyaline, aseptate, and one-celled with several guttules at both ends. These morphological features are consistent with those of Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labrousse (teleomorph Didymella rabiei) (Punithalingam and Holliday 1972). Sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of all four isolates were determined and deposited as GenBank Accession Nos. KP859583, KP859584, KP859585, and KP859586. Sequences showed 97 to 100% identity to several reported A. rabieistrains according to BLAST analysis. Morphological identification and molecular analysis confirmed the isolates as A. rabiei. Pathogenicity tests of four isolates were performed on 12-day-old seedlings of chickpea cv. ‘Muying 1’ inoculated with a conidial suspension of 1.0 × 106 conidia/ml. Inoculated plants were incubated at 20°C and 100% relative humidity for 3 days, and then moved to a greenhouse at 22°C for 11 days. Control plants were treated in the same way with sterile distilled water. Five days after inoculation, lesions on stems and leaves of inoculated plants were observed. At 10 days after inoculation, inoculated seedlings showed wilting and death. By 2 weeks after inoculation, numerous pycnidia with sporulating masses of conidia were produced on the stems. There were no disease symptoms on control plants. The pathogen was reisolated from inoculated plants, thus fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Previously, only one province (Xinjiang) in China had reported Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Bai et al. 2011). To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. rabiei inducing Ascochyta blight on chickpeas in North China. A. rabiei is a seed-borne pathogen; therefore, the outbreak of Ascochyta blight might have been facilitated by frequent exchange of seeds. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Lu H.B.,Hebei North University | Qiao Y.M.,Hebei North University | Gong X.C.,Hebei North University | Li H.Q.,Hebei Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Photosynthetica | Year: 2015

In order to elucidate the drought resistance and high-yield mechanism of hybrid millet, we studied the influence of drought stress on the photosynthetic characteristics and dry matter accumulation. Our results revealed that drought stress caused lesser reduction in the net photosynthetic rate, maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, excitation energy capture efficiency of PSII reaction centers and in the yield of hybrid millet compared to normal millet. When drought stress occurred in the jointing stage, the percentage decrease of PN, Fv/Fm, Fv′/Fm′, and the yield of Zhangzagu3 cultivar compared to control were 27.9%, 2.6%, 25. 5%, and 1.9%, respectively, the percentage decrease of Zhangzagu5 were 37.6%, 3.9%, 28.3%, and 16.7%, respectively, the decrease percentage of Datong29 were 60.1%, 6.4%, 4%, and 23.4%, respectively. Hybrid millet showed the similar reduction in the parameters referred above, when drought stress occurred at the heading stage, but the percentage decrease was much higher than that at the jointing stage. We concluded that hybrid millet showed higher drought resistance than normal millet. © 2015, The Institute of Experimental Botany. Source

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