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Luo J.,Qiqihar University | Ye Y.,Qiqihar University | Gao Z.,Zhalong National Natural Reserve
Ecological Research | Year: 2015

Arsenic (As) concentration was analyzed in four sediment-inhabiting animals (Pearsonia of Mollusca Gastropoda, Enchytraeus of Annelida Lumbricidae, Cybister japonicus Sharp of Hexapoda Dytiscidae and Chipangopaludina chinensis of Mollusca Gastropoda) from 19 sampling sites and eight carcasses of red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to examine As transfer along the typical food chain in Wuyur catchments, northeastern China. Results indicated that As concentration in the prey of the red-crowned cranes was elevated via the food chain. Geo-accumulation indices at all sites were less than 0, which suggests that this region contained background As concentration. The four aquatic animal families containing As were land snail < water snail < beetle < earthworm. The highest As concentration was found in the liver of the red-crowned cranes (145–441 ppb) followed by the kidneys (116–258 ppb) and muscles (36–94 ppb). The eggshells of red-crowned cranes contained relatively high As concentration, which varied from 35 to 235 ppb, whereas the feathers had the lowest concentration, with an average of 25 ppb. The dietary exposure level to As of the red-crowned crane population in Zhalong Wetland, Northeastern China was lower than the As toxicity threshold concentration. This study reported that eggshells are suitable indicators of As risk levels in red-crowned crane. © 2015, The Ecological Society of Japan.

Luo J.,Qiqihar University | Ye Y.,Qiqihar University | Gao Z.,Zhalong National Natural Reserve | Wang Y.,Qiqihar University | Wang W.,Qiqihar University
Soil and Sediment Contamination | Year: 2016

This study examined Tessier's fractions of Pb, Cd, and As in the sediments and their potential toxic effects on four aquatic animals, i.e., Enchytraeus of Lumbricidae, Cipangopaludina chinensis of Viviparidae, Cybister japonicus Sharp of Dytiscidae, and Perccottus glenii Dybowski of Odontobutidae in Zhalong Wetland, Northeastern China. Results show that Cd poses a high risk to the biota in Zhalong Wetland. The geo-accumulation indices indicate that the region only has background concentrations of As, although it is slightly polluted by Pb and is seriously polluted by Cd. The exchangeable fraction receives minor contributions from these metals: 0.8% for Pb, 2.8% for Cd, and 4% for As. Three reed organs and four aquatic animal groups contain detectable concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As, with the following order of increasing concentrations: stem < rhizome < root < Viviparidae < Odontobutidae < Dytiscidae < Lumbricidae. Relatively low bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of As occurred in four aquatic organisms, whereas significantly higher BAFs of Pb and Cd were found in the earthworm than other aquatic organisms (P < 0.05). The earthworms (Enchytraeus of Lumbricidae) were recommended to be used as a suitable indicator for Pb, Cd, and As toxic risk level in this region. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Luo J.,Qiqihar University | Ye Y.,Qiqihar University | Gao Z.,Zhalong National Natural Reserve | Wang W.,Zhalong National Natural Reserve | Hartup B.K.,International Crane Foundation
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2016

The dietary uptake of Cd and Pb may contribute to the decline of migratory red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) on the Asian mainland. To uncover the relevance of this hypothesis, we determined the concentrations of Pb and Cd as well as further macro and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Hg and As) in the gastric contents, gastric wall, intestinal wall, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of two individuals found dead in Zhalong Wetland in Northeastern China. Indeed, the Pb concentrations in the liver and kidney tissues was with 31.4 and 60.3 mg kg−1 dry weight (dw), respectively, above concentrations considered as potentially toxic level in common birds (i.e. 30 mg kg−1). These Pb concentration may have possibly been associated with lethal toxicosis in this endangered species suggesting Pb as major threat for G. japonensis populations. Thus, the inputs of Pb into Zhalong Wetland should be reduced to maintain and reestablish environmental conditions supporting the population development of these migratory red-crowned cranes in the Zhalong Wetland, a critical crane habitat for the long-term sustainability of this species. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Luo J.,Qiqihar University | Ye Y.,Qiqihar University | Gao Z.,Zhalong National Natural Reserve | Wang W.,Zhalong National Natural Reserve
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2015

The discovery of eight dead red-crowned cranes in Zhalong Wetland, northeastern China, allowed us to examine their digestive tracts for identifiable prey in this study. Stomach content and fecal analyses were used to determine the foraging ecology of this crane species. The stomach content mass of the red-crowned crane carcasses varied according to body size and ranged from 10.62 g to 26.32 g. Grit particles prevailed in the stomach of the birds and accounted for approximately 87% of the mass of the stomach contents by weight (mainly gravel with particle sizes of 2-10 cm). Gizzard contents included plant and aquatic animals, which made up 63% and 37%, respectively, of the weight. Maize, seed, and fish were the most common residues in the gastric content; and zoobenthic debris, seeds, and reed organs were markedly present in the crane feces. The combined use of stomach content and fecal analyses is recommended for future studies on the food habits of this rare bird species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Luo J.,Qiqihar University | Ye Y.,Qiqihar University | Gao Z.,Zhalong National Natural Reserve | Wang W.,Zhalong National Natural Reserve
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2014

The concentrations of four essential (Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu) and two nonessential elements (Pb and Cd) in feathers and kidneys, livers, gut walls, and muscles of eight carcasses of migratory red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) from Zhalong Wetland, northeastern China, were examined. The concentrations of Cd in the feathers were between 0.4 mg kg−1 dry weight (dw) and 3.1 mg kg−1 dw, in the livers between 0.4 and 4.4 mg kg−1 dw, the maximum of which exceeded a level considered to be environmental exposure risk (i.e., 3 mg kg−1 dw in the liver or kidney). High Pb levels (0.4–3.2 mg kg−1 dw, with an average of 1.8 mg kg−1) were also detected in livers, which exceeded a level considered toxicosis in birds (1.7 mg kg−1 dw). Pb and Cd had the highest scores in principal component analysis. Relatively high Pb and Cd concentrations in the migratory cranes were thought to be associated with their habitat and prey. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

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