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Molecular systematics and morphological study of the monophyletic weevil genus Acalles Schoenherr, 1825 are presented. Based on the mitochondrial CO1 barcoding gene and 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we discuss three difficult species complexes in the framework of a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of 37 of 47 Western Palaearctic Acalles species or subspecies: the A. echinatus, A. maraoensis and A. sierrae complexes. Two results are given: 1. An exclusive focus on morphological, exoskeletal methods reach their limits in the case of many cryptic Cryptorhynchinae. In these cases molecular analysis is indispensable to resolve species level questions. 2. By using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic characters it is not only possible to ascertain phylogenetic relationships, but also to uncover new morphological, non-intraspecifical characteristics. Digital photography with image stacking makes this possible: for the first time we present photo key for Acalles species, a reliable, less costly and quick method for identification alongside DNA barcoding. The following taxonomic changes are given: Coloracalles edoughensis Desbrochers, 1892 comb. nov. (formerly Acalles edoughensis) from North Africa and Spain change to Coloracalles Astrin & Stüben, 2008 and Pseudodichromacalles xerampelinus Wollaston, 1864 comb. nov. from the Canarian Island Tenerife, Acalles bazaensis Stüben, 2001 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Acalles sierrae H. Brisout, 1865. Two new species of Acalles s. str., A. iblanensis Stüben sp. nov. from Morocco and A. vorsti Stüben sp. nov. from Spain (Mallorca), and a new species of the subgenus Origoacalles Stüben & Astrin 2010, A. granulimaculosus Stüben sp. nov. from La Gomera, are described. Acalles temperei Péricart, 1987 stat. nov. is a subspecies of A. parvulus Boheman, 1837. A catalogue of all 43 (+4 incertae sedis) species of Acalles is presented. Finally and for the first time we compare 9 of 12 known North American so-called "Acalles" species with the Western Palaearctic species of Acalles surrounding the type species Curculio camelus Fabricius, 1792. The morphological and molecular analysis for the New World Acalles show that none of the species from the United States actually belong to the genus Acalles or one of the other genera of Western Palaearctic Cryptorhynchinae. There is one exception: Acalles costifer Le Conte, 1884, is transferred to the phylogenetically basal genus Acallocrates Reitter, 1913 as Acallocrates costifer (Le-Conte, 1884) comb. nov. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Stuben P.E.,Curculio Institute | Astrin J.J.,ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

A molecular phylogeny of the western Palearctic weevil genus Kyklioacalles Stüben, 1999 is presented, combining two mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 16S) in a Bayesian analysis. Based on molecular data, the validity of the subspecies Kyklioacalles punctaticollis punctaticollis (Lucas, 1849) and Kyklioacalles punctaticollis meteoricus (Meyer, 1909) is discussed and the morphological differentiation of the endophalli and known distributions of both subspecies are verified. Glaberacalles subg. n. (formerly Kyklioacalles punctaticollis-group) and two new species are described,Kyklioacalles atlasicus sp.n. from Morocco and Kyklioacalles plantapilosus sp.n. from Spain. Kyklioacalles berberi(Stüben, 2005), comb. n. and Kyklioacalles olcesei (Tournier, 1873) comb. n. are transferred from Acalles Schoenherr. The molecular results further advocate a transfer of Onyxacalles pyrenaeus (Boheman, 1844) to Kyklioacalles; however this is not supported by morphological evidence. Kyklioacalles almadensis Stüben, 2004 syn. n. (Spain) is synonymized with Kyklioacalles bupleuri Stüben, 2004 (Tunisia). A catalogue of all 40 (sub-)species of Kyklioacalles is given and a key of the species of the subgenus Glaberacalles is presented. Copyright © 2010.

Astrin J.J.,ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | Stuben P.E.,Curculio Institute | Misof B.,ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | Wagele J.W.,ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Species boundaries are studied in a group of beetles, the western Palaearctic Cryptorhynchinae. We test for congruence of 'traditionally' identified morphospecies with species inferred through parsimony networks, distance-based clustering and the ultrametric tree-based generalized mixed yule-coalescent (GMYC) approach. For that purpose, we sequenced two variable fragments of mitochondrial DNA (CO1 and 16S) for a total of 791 specimens in 217 species of Cryptorhynchinae. Parsimony networks, morphology-calibrated distance clusters and the different tree-based species inferences all achieved low congruence with morphospecies, at best 60%. Although the degree of match with morphospecies was often similar for the different approaches, the composition of clusters partially varied. A barcoding gap was absent in morphospecies-oriented distances as well as for GMYC species clusters. This demonstrates that not only erroneous taxonomic assignments, incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization, or insufficient sampling can compromise distance-based identification, but also differences in speciation rates and uneven tree structure. The initially low match between morphospecies and the different molecular species delineation methods in this case study shows the necessity of combining the output of various methods in an integrative approach. Thereby we obtain an idea about the reliability of the different results and signals, which enables us to fine-tune sampling, delineation technique and data collection, and to identify species that require taxonomic revision. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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